Nationalism in Our World

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

After WW2, colonial rule was still holding strong in many regions of the Arab world. However, increasingly there were widespread civilian sentiments of anger and humiliation at the continued western interferences and occupations in the Middle East; this sense of resistance was accompanied by the increasing popularity of Arab Nationalist ideals, which saw the Rise of Pan- Arabism. Support for the project, was especially prevalent in Egypt which was a monarchy under colonial British rule. Arab Nationalism or Pan-Arabism is an interesting ideology, because on the one hand, it seems to be anti-nationalistic as it attempts to transcend the Westphalian order of sovereign nation states with bound territories, but on the other hand, it can actually be understood as a nationalistic movement in that it stipulates that all Arab countries from North Africa, West Asia and the Middle East constitute a single nation.

The Pan-Arabism project reached its apogee in the 1950’s – 60’s, however the precedence for the movement stems right back to the universalist system of the Ottoman Empire, which the Arab states had been part of for about four centuries; this legacy meant that the Arab Nations shared one language and cultural heritage. An important historical event in understanding the Pan-Arabism movement was the establishment of the Ba’ath Party in 1947, which had branches in several Arab countries and became the ruling party in both Syria and Iraq. The Ba’ath Party spread propaganda that attempted to cultivate a sense of nostalgia for what they referred to as the “Golden Age of Arabism”. They spun a rhetoric that welded together the Westphalian sovereign state model with Western imperialism. Proponents of the Pan-Arabism project argued that any Arab leader who was opposed to unification of the Arab world was a puppet of the West.

Pan-Arabism advocates often had a socialist agenda; they believed that uniting the Arab world would lead to greater prosperity and economic co-operation for all the Arab countries. Fouad Ajami writes in ‘The End of Pan Arabism’: “From this perspective, the individual Arab states are deviant and transient entities; their frontiers illusory; their rulers’ interim caretakers or obstacles to be removed” (Ajami 1978:258). In 1952, a successful bloodless coup took place. A group of Egyptian army officers, calling themselves the Free Officers Movement were able to overthrow the corrupt regime of King Farouk. At the forefront of this revolution was a young army officer called Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Revolutionary Command Council was established by the Free Officers and General Muhammad Naguib became Egypt’s first president. However, Nasser’s growing popularity leads to Naguib removal, and in October 1954, Nasser was appointed as the second president of Egypt. Nasser transformed Egypt into a republic, introduced centralised parliamentary rule and instituted a wide array of socialist domestic reforms that aimed to improve the living conditions of the peasant majority.

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My Life in Kuwait

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Thesis Statement:

The story of a girl who was brought up in an unorthodox way, in one of the most orthodox countries in the world. She is ready to take on the world, unfailingly embracing her ethnicity and culture. Introduction:

I was born to a middle-class Hindu family, on a rainy day, in the deserted and usually scorching land of Kuwait. My father’s entire family was settled in Kuwait from the 1960s. They had seen it all, from the British protectorate liberation to the horrific invasion of the Iraqis. They were so closely knit with this country. In spite of being expatriates of Kuwait for so long, our family always made sure that everybody strictly adhered to our culture and way of living. Islam was predominantly practiced in Kuwait. Therefore, as Hindus, we did get subjected to a few negligible restrictions. We shouldn’t be seen wearing a teeka on the forehead, we weren’t allowed to conduct public summits on religion, temples or other public places of worship weren’t allowed to be built and so on. However, I would be lying if I said that we weren’t able to survive through these religious constraints.


Body 1:

Kuwait has a very bountiful and rich culture. Although the country as it is, isn’t very aesthetic, the handmade jewelry, cutlery and craftworks manufactured by the Kuwaitis were striking and elegant. The citizens of Kuwait are very generous and they are always mesmerized by the Indian traditional art forms. Especially the women. They are in awe of the facial make-up, jewelry and the grace of the dancers and make consistent efforts to imitate them by joining dance classes or worse, by surfing through Youtube and other websites. My parents took me and my brother to bhajan satsangs conducted in a rented private hall, by a social group. We were also taught many shlokas and were made to read about our scriptures and the Upanisads. My brother and I would sulk about going to these classes because they brought our play-time to an end. Only later we realized how useful and informative it is to us. The hall was a perfect go-to place if we ever wanted to just meditate, have our own space, or read. The only thing unbearable about this country was the climate. We were almost always exposed to very dry and dusty climates, which gave rise to cases of mild occupational disorders in our family. Just like us, there were many Indian expatriates in our area. All of us would gather to celebrate every national holiday, religious festivals and other occasions. Diwali is one of the most vigorously celebrated Indian festivals back there. Around hundreds of people gather in a deserted ground right opposite to the apartment that I had stayed in, to burst varieties of crackers and meet and greet their loved ones warmly. Every Diwali, not only I look forward to join the fun with my friends and relatives, but I also look forward to sitting comfortably in my balcony, munching on sweets and snacks and admiring the beautiful sparks of light that spew all over the sky.

Body 2:

The school I used to attend, was very conservative, had a good learning environment and had very mediocre facilities. I loved to go to school. Yes, I was one of those few students who wouldn’t complain about going there. For an introvert, I had made quite a lot of friends and acquaintances in school. Even though school ended just five to six months ago, I feel nostalgic about how my friends and I would simply hang around in food joints and malls after school. We were even chased out of these places quite a number of times because of the shenanigans we would create. My school teachers were extremely obliging, considerate and filled with affection. They helped us to cope with all kinds of problems; be it emotional, mental or study-related. They also constantly motivated us to achieve high ranks in school as well as to participate in extra-curricular activities. Thinking back, I think school days were legitimately the best days of my life and if I was ever granted to make one wish, it would be to relive those amazing memories I made in school.

Body 3:

After eighteen long years of being in Kuwait, I finally moved to India for my undergraduate studies. At this point, I was not exactly sure about what I wanted to pursue. All I did know was that I could adapt to my own way of life as liberally and peacefully as I wanted to. I was in a state of conflict when it had come down to what I wanted to do. It seemed essential to me that I need to enjoy whatever course I am going to opt for, since I would be dealing with it for the most part of my life. I knew for a fact that I was interested in Psychology, because I had always been curious about the various enigmas of human emotions and behavioural changes. I possess the will to understand multidimensional human life. The one element that attracted me to this course is the long-term knowledge and answers to interdisciplinary human problems. I am mainly interested in the clinical or biological aspect of psychology as biology is one of my all-time favourite subjects. Moving to India was one of the biggest eye-openers for me. The students here are way more competitive and determined. They are also friendly, witty and of course, highly intelligent. I now realize that I will have to put considerable amount effort to pace up with them and reach their wavelength. I also realized that I couldn’t rely on my parents to keep me going anymore. I had to learn how to be independent and more purposeful.


Even though Kuwait is a very Islam-biased, orthodox country, the lifestyle there didn’t feel very different from how it is in India because of the environment and manner in which my parents had raised me. They had taught me the ideal values of the Indian culture and would constantly remind me of my ethnic and family origins. Thus, I personally did not find it strenuous to adapt with the cultural and environmental changes I was subjected to after my formative years. I strongly feel that my parents’ way of upbringing has also had a positive impact on the way I view myself and others around me. I gained the quality of being able to adjust to whichever niche I dwell in as well as with the people in it.

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Nature Of Changes in Our Life in Novel Araby

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

It is undeniable that every person goes through several severe changes in their lifetime. These changes are chemical; they cannot be controlled. What can be controlled, however, is accepting these changes. If people understand this, why are so many blind to reality and still stuck in their childhood illusions? One must understand that going through these changes is a painful process. Some don’t know how to accept that life isn’t a fairytale; they’re incapable of handling the world for all it truly is. Some experience too much pain to think about it. Some choose to reject the reality of life, being that life will very rarely hand them everything they want. The uncertainty of change makes everyone uncomfortable. This causes crime, hate, and injustice to be quite difficult to accept for the average person. Yet, everyone goes through a time of growth in order to experience these moments of realization. As painful as these realization points can be, they’re necessary for lone survival and independence and they even leave a person in a state of disillusionment. Self-realization is “the act of achieving the full development of your abilities and talents” according to The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Self-realization is only possible when people break out of the common world of innocence and become more experienced in the world. All of the aspects of gaining a mature identity and losing innocence are so complex and in depth that many fight about it and spend years of their lives trying to simply understand it themselves. Although many have strongly conflicting views about the unknown, everyone can agree that the contemplation of reality and fantasy, the re-evaluation of one’s true self, and the process of loss of innocence are extremely complex and personalized human processes.

Some people come to terms with who they are as an ugly truth or they don’t even come to terms with themselves at all, as they are afraid to face the reality of their identity, choices, or experiences. This is apparent in the short story Araby by James Joyce. The story starkly details the emotional and mental coming of age for a young German boy who remains unnamed throughout the story. The story revolves around the boy’s childhood illusions of being ‘in love’ with a girl only known as Mangan’s sister. He only sees Mangan’s sister as parts; flowing hair or the curve of a dress, not as a whole being in which he loves every part of. He is simply lusting over her, a fact to which he doesn’t realize until the end of the story when he comes to the realization that he cannot love yet. When “She held one of the spikes” (124) and tilted her head towards him while they were speaking about the Bazaar was a quite obvious phallic symbol, proving that she is using him for the one thing he wants, love. He goes through this childish illusion until he realizes that she’s been playing him for a fool, in which he partially goes through a change of maturity. This partial transformation is perfectly exemplified at the end of the story with the narrator “Gazing up into the darkness” as his “eyes burned with anguish and anger” (126) It is at this moment that the protagonist is thrown out of the fantasy that he was living in throughout the whole story and realizes that life isn’t what he wanted it to be, that not everyone will be nice to him, that love isn’t around every corner, and that people will try to cheat him. The reason that this is only a partial maturity is because he did indeed question his belief, one of the large hallmarks for a successful coming of age, but he also missed two of them. Seeing as how it’s quite apparent towards the end of the story that the boy is the narrator, more becomes clear about him. He failed to laugh at himself and, more importantly, forgive himself. Even as an adult looking back on his life, he’s still bitter and cynical about the situation. The boy’s action and experience show that some never go through the hallmarks of coming of age because of the fear of seeing that they failed or the fear of seeing who they truly are.

Others take a look at who they are, and are unsatisfied which leads to efforts of reinvention to better themselves, or be happier with who they are. In the story A & P by John Updike, Sammy is cashier in a grocery store when three girls dressed in only bathing suits walk into his store. At the end of the story, his manager comes in and demands that they leave the store, as he considers their dress indecent and against store policy, which Sammy claims “is what the kingpins want” and that anything else “is juvenile delinquency” (93). This act of bitterness from his boss is what prompts Sammy to quit his job at A & P. He felt unsatisfied working for someone that embarrassed young people the way his boss did. So he took the initiative in changing his life by quitting. He does not want to lead a life of blind conformity, which is what he sees around him as he “could see Lengel in” his “place in the slot, checking the sheep through.” (94) He believes there are two types of adults, pigs and sheep, which is where a shred of ignorance shows itself. Despite this ignorance, he matures by questioning authority, but fails to question his beliefs.

However, some people have true success in their coming of age, leaving themselves and everyone around them happier. In The Storm by Kate Chopin, the two main characters were successful in their coming of age in an unexpected way. The story opens with the main female character, Calixta, unaware of the impending storm. Her husband and son are out, and she is seen first “sewing furiously” (835), illuminating her dissatisfaction of her current situation. She doesn’t want to be in her home; she is frustrated and filled with unfulfilled desires. Alcee, an ex-lover of hers, rides up to the house and asks if he may “wait on [her] gallery till the storm is over” (836) and enters the residence. Alcee pulled Calixta’s husband’s trousers and son’s clothes off of the clothing line, symbolizing his movement into the home and place of the father and husband. After a burst of sexual tension, they proceed to go into the bedroom that contains the white marriage bed. This illustration of the white sheets shows the innocence and purity of the marriage bed. The shutters in the bedroom were closed, closing the rest of the world out. It was just the two of them, and as symbolized by the brewing storm, they made love. Under the idea of the church and the general consensus of the public at this time, this was bad. They both broke their vows to their partners, and in the wedding bed none the less. But during and after making love, Calixta was described as a “creamy lily”, implying she was still pure and happy. This whole situation was Calixta’s and Alcee’s sexual coming of age, acquired without vile terms or trickery, they learned for the first time their birth right to be happy, filled with pleasure, and sexually independent. The way this stands out as a true transformation is be their lack of apologies or guilt and the happiness and love they brought back to their own families. Everyone in the story benefited by these maturities; these was no hurt or deceit, just pleasure and love. Retrospectively, there are many ways one can handle the four major hallmarks for a successful coming of age. These hallmarks being the ability to question one’s own beliefs, to challenge authority, to laugh at oneself, and to forgive oneself. They can simply reject these steps, and not like what they see or remain in a childish haze, they can see these childish problems and attempt to better themselves, or they can go through a smooth transition and truly be happy with their matured selves. Although many have strongly conflicting views about the unknown, everyone can agree that the contemplation of fact and fantasy, the realization of one’s own reality, and the process of loss of innocence are extremely complex and personalized human processes. As Roman Payne once wrote, “Never did the world make a queen of a girl who hides in houses and dreams without traveling” meaning that without experience, one cannot hope to mature.

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Main Themes in Araby By James Joyce

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

James Joyce’s Irish tale, “Araby” describes the recollection of a hopeless infatuation and the desperation behind it. Set in the perspective of a young boy, Joyce portrays a simple town life, while highlighting the complex subtleties of adolescence. Utilizing a lighthearted tone, reverential characterization, a bleak setting, and sympathetic imagery Joyce suggests that even the simplest of obsessions can become detrimental to everyday life.

The main character’s recollection of his past follies is a playful reminiscence of his first look into love. Through the perspective of a young boy, the narrator describes his naivete through many childish observations, for comedic effect. At the start, he is among children “playing till their bodies glowed” (Joyce 1). It is here that the reader is given the idea that the main character is, in fact, a child. In his analysis, “’A&P’: A Return Visit to Araby,” Walter Wells suggests the journey through adolescence is a learning experience. A major component to this idea would be the new feelings associated with this progression through life. Wells highlights this, stating that the protagonist’s attraction to Mangan’s sister “excites him into confusing his sexual impulses for those of honor and chivalry” (Wells 1). This disparity between “honor” and “sexual impulses” is a clear indicator of the narrator’s subconscious need to cater to Mangan’s sister’s wishes, for he is channeling this physical attraction into something that is out of his character: being honorable and chivalrous. For example, with the introduction of Mangan’s sister, the boy suddenly no longer wants to be the same mischievous child, but rather, wants to adopt his own perception of what adulthood really is. The girl is most likely much older than the narrator, given that she is not among the children very often. This inclines the narrator to “rise” to her level, but at the same time changing everything about himself. For example, when he describes the “serious work of life” as “child’s play” (4), he clearly doesn’t know what he is talking about. He feels too grown up for school because Mangan’s sister feels too grown up for school. This difference in age is a motivation for his immediate need to accelerate time; he wants to join Mangan’ sister in any way he can. Another situation where he tries to act older is during the final scene, when he is at the bazaar, trying to make his “interest in her wares seem more real” (5). He made it clear that staying at the bazaar was a pointless endeavor, yet he wanted to look like he was interested just to preserve his personal belief that he was being an adult. Through his delusional chase for Mangan’s sister, he tried to change himself completely. He tried to lose himself through an obsession and that ultimately forced him to become desperate. This desperation has left the narrator overly dependent on her existence.

The most commonly recurring motif throughout the story is the divine characterization of Mangan’s sister. In Margot Norris’s analysis, “Blind Streets and Seeing Houses: Araby’s Dim Glass Revisited,” she emphasizes the voyeuristic nature of adolescence. Being a period of exploration, more sexual feelings become prevalent, and stalking Mangan’s sister is the narrator’s first foray. Norris highlights this by describing that the narrator felt “safe in its blind” (Norris 3); the “blind” being his image of Mangan’s sister. The reverence the narrator holds for this girl shields the reality of his situation, for he probably cannot seduce her, but takes solace in stalking her movements. The main character idolizes her and, as a result, he imagines her as “touched by the lamplight at the curved neck” (Joyce 2). The exact same description of Mangan’s sister appears twice: once in the main character’s observation, and once in the main character’s imagination. The first time he observes Mangan’s sister, it is clear that he is completely dazzled by her appearance. He emphasizes the effect of the lamplight on her skin as merely “touching her curved neck” (2), implying the gentle effect she has on her surroundings. This gives the reader a sense that she is almost an otherworldly presence; a completely pure being. The second time this characterization resurfaces is in the boy’s imagination as he patiently waits to attend the bazaar. The fact that he remembers her in this specific way demonstrates that Mangan’s sister is a divine entity to him. She is no ordinary infatuation, but a manifestation of everything the boy wants. Her existence is fueling the boy’s to watch her and it, in turn, causes him to neglect his own duties. For example, he begins to lose his “patience with the serious work of life” as he continues to fantasize his idol. Here, it clear that he is unable to see anything but Mangan’s sister. His zealous faith in Mangan’ sister is also utter blindness to everything else, as a result.

As alluring as Mangan’s sister is, she is merely a stark contrast to the reality of the narrator’s dismal status. Despite the lighthearted tone, many descriptions of the town punctuate the story, almost as a way to remind the reader that the young boy is simply trying to escape the bleak situation of his life. For example, the narrator’s description of the local market was a place “most hostile to romance” (2) with an inundation of “drunken men,” “[cursing] laborers,” and “ballads about the troubles in [his] native land” (2). This hustle-bustle is the first true revelation of the type of place the narrator resides. “Drunken men” and “cursing laborers” often classify a lower class area, because laborers tend not to earn well and many impoverished people turn to a bottle due to deplorable circumstances. The boy’s disgust towards them only gives another reason to use Mangan’s sister as someone to temporarily avoid the seemingly antagonistic nature of his everyday life. The “ballads” are also another subtle clue to the stability of his village. There could be a shortage of crops; after all, the story appears to be set in winter due to the “cold air” (1). Yet, despite this desperate situation, the narrator escapes it all by focusing on his love interest for most of the story. Only once he journeys to bazaar his lifestyle becomes evident as he uses a “third class carriage” that “[creeps] onward among ruinous houses” (4). Here, the reader is given an idea of what the narrator can afford: the lowest quality. In his analysis “’Araby:’ Singing in the Rain,” Gerald Doherty suggests a more hypnotic point of view toward the narrator and his hunger for Mangan’s sister. He suggests that all of the narrator’s surroundings only serve as a distractions to his ultimate motives. His justification revolves around the train ride to the bazaar, describing the “ruinous houses” along the way as “a scrupulous roll call of all those intermediary sightings that come between the boy and his goal” (Doherty 2). To an extent, the narrator’s obsession with Mangan’s sister is given a layer of sympathy with this aspect of the story because it makes the reader pity him. This pity enables a sense of justification for his actions, no matter how questionable.

Even though Mangan’s sister acts as an idol to the clearly enchanted narrator, she, as a character, is an embodiment of vanity. On the surface, she is comforting, warming, and gentle, but looking deeper reveals not a single shred of humanity. In the eyes of the narrator she is free of flaws and abundant in beauty, but those characteristics only make her less real. For example their first and only conversation was about how Mangan’s sister had to “retreat…in her convent” (3), rendering her unable to attend the bazaar. Here, nothing is revealed about her true self and she is still only a pretty face, only this time making small talk. Once again, the adolescent innocence of the narrator surfaces, only in a different angle. To the reader, it harkens back to a childhood attraction, but this time, as opposed to appealing to the utter bafflement to beauty, it refers to the superficiality of such a situation. In Kathryn Conrad and Mark Osteen’s analysis “Light Squares: Framing ‘Araby,’” they suggest that achieving maturity comes at the cost of innocence. When describing the relation between Mangan’s sister and the narrator, they state that the narrator is merely “superimposing his fantasy image upon the actual girl” (Conrad-Osteen 2). On a certain level, the reader can sympathize with the narrator’s clouded judgment because as a child, only the most apparent qualities stand out. The deeper, more human characteristics, such as personality, are an afterthought simply due to the naivete that is prevalent during this time. Even though he mutters “O love! O love!” (3) during his first encounter with Mangan’s sister, he isn’t actually in love, but rather is unknowingly creating his own perception of what “love” is. He doesn’t know enough about this person to “love” them, revealing, once again, that he only knows what he sees. At the very end of the story, the narrator experiences an epiphany when the bazaar closed, seeing himself as a “creature driven and derided by vanity” (5). At this moment, seeing the bazaar close and finding nothing unveils the shroud that has blinded the boy for so long. In seconds he recognizes the lengths went over something so vain: the appearance of Mangan’s sister. This fascination with her was the catalyst to this pointless excursion as well as other pointless distractions to his duties. Yet, this brings a new level of depth to the narrator and grants the reader with another aspect to adolescence: learning from mistakes. The reader can sympathize with this sudden insight because it is representative of the many follies that potentially obscured his or her own path. This transition is what gives the narrator the depth that Mangan’s sister lacked.

Joyce’s seemingly shallow chase for love, manages to unfold into an introspective interpretation of adolescence, revealing hidden truths about the nature of growing up. The lighthearted tone and reverential characterization capitalize on the comedic, yet relatable nature of the narrator’s blindness, whereas, in contrast, the bleak setting and sympathetic characterization loom over the more serious and reflective aspect of his actions. The narrator is clearly overly obsessed with his infatuation, yet he is still significantly changed as a result, despite how trivial it is. His chase of Mangan’s sister led to a darker realization of the effects of obsession, resulting in his maturation and, albeit, sudden glimpse of adulthood.

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Main Factors Of The Arab Spring And General Instability

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Arab Spring was a democratic uprising that started in Tunisia and spread among a group of Middle Eastern countries. The Arab Spring was a result of frustration and failure throughout the Middle East. The Arab Spring was born out of a “broad set of ideas and grievances that are motivating” change (Jones). As Jones states, “the Arab world underperforms all other regions of the world on virtually all social, political, and economic indices, and has done for many years” (Jones). Jones then identified three important factors that would increase the likelihood of the Arab Spring spreading to specific countries and destabilizing them. Jones identifies these three factors as poverty, lack of economic opportunity, and a repressive and disliked regime. Chillingly, these three things throughout this paper have all been proven to be present in Syria. In addition, the technological and social innovations fo modern times has given the “underemployed, educated, and frustrated urban youth the ability to communicate in real time and to organize themselves via social media, revolutionizing the collective imagination of what is possible” (Jones). Ultimately, one of the main factors of the Arab Spring and general instability in the Middle East as a whole, and Syria specifically, comes from the inability for leaders and regimes to establish legitimacy.

Author McHugo states that “what they wanted was human rights, democracy and jobs: three demands which they summed up with the one word ‘dignity’” (McHugo). The Arab Spring first spread to places like Egypt, Libya, Bahrain, and Yemen before finally reaching Syria. This outbreak of democratic cries was the event that finally broke Syria into a civil war, something it had been on the verge of for nearly its whole history. Perhaps it can be argued that it was avoidable had violence not been seen as the solution by the regime. Unfortunately, this is not the case, and it was rather inevitable. It all started in Syria in a southern town called Der’a where a group of young school children had begun writing “freedom” and a slogan calling for the fall of the regime, as graffiti on their school walls. This most likely came from influence both within their own households of hearing their parent’s voiced opinions as well as in society and the media learning about the other Arab countries who had carried out similar events. The children, ranging in age from 9-15, were arrested and taken to Damascus for interrogation and torture (McHugo).

After pleas for release by the families were ignored, demonstration broke out calling for the children’s release in Der’a. The security forces showed their insensitivity to brutality when they shot four people dead at these demonstrations. This only fueled the demonstrators and the people of Syria, increasing the protestor turnout. Dar’a’s involvement quickly became “a rallying cry across the country for what began as a rural and provincial driven uprising” (CNN). The protestors began attacking government offices and buildings and the security forces began attacking hospitals and innocents’ as well as local Ba’th party headquarters. On 23 March, the security forces raided a mosque which had become a temporary hospital to treat those now being injured in the ongoing disturbances and on this day, 15 people were reported killed and hundreds injured (McHugo). In an attempt to preserve his authority and power, Bashar blamed it all on a foreign conspiracy (McHugo). He further claimed that “stability in Syria depended on its [his regime] staying in power” (Olmert).

Yet, the government brutality against protestors did not let up and the battle between Syrian citizens and the Syrian government had escalated into all out chaos and civil war. It quickly spiraled into a more sectarian battle as it became evident that Bashar al-Asad’s regime, Alawite, had committed the atrocious massacres.

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Through Your Own Experience: a Psychoanalytical Analysis of the “Araby”

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Probably no other twentieth century short story has called forth more attention than Joyce’s “Araby.” Some universality of experience makes the story interesting to readers of all ages, for they respond instinctively to an experience that could have been their own. The story suggests the stormy period of adolescence that we have all lived through and the reader sympathizes with the protagonist as he experiences his first crush. In his brief but complex story, James Joyce employs imagery and symbolism to reveal the blind obsession and compulsive behavior characteristic of a boy in the throes of his first crush.

The nameless protagonist of “Araby” is a pre-teen boy living in Dublin, Ireland. His life is a simple one of school and play until the sister of one of his playmates enthralls him. He lovingly studies her and notes how “her dress [swings] as she moves her body” and longs to touch “the soft rope of her hair” (753). These sensual images hint at the obsessive feelings to come. Soon, she is all he is capable of thinking about. The image of her accompanies him “even in places the most hostile to romance”: the market and the streets, among the “drunken men and bargaining women,” amid “the curses of labourers, the shrill litanies of shop-boys” (754). His fixation on her is absolute. He imagines that his feelings for her are a “chalice” and that he “bore it safely through a throng of foes” (754). His feelings are so immediate and profound that he states that his “eyes were often full of tears” and he could not tell why. As his obsessionprogresses, he finds that he is unable to speak to her and that even her name provokes an adrenaline rush: “her name was like a summons to all my foolish blood” (754). He loses interest in school, as he cannot cease his obsessive thoughts of her: “her image came between me and the page I strove to read.” By night, he shuts himself in a room and gives himself over to the vision of her so completely that he feels he is about to pass out. To keep from losing consciousness, it is the thought of her he calls upon as he murmurs “O love! O love!” over and over (754). These images as well as the sensuous descriptions of the girl show that he is clearly obsessed with her.

This obsession fosters behavior from the boy that can only be called compulsive. The boy admits to lying on the floor in the front parlor every morning “watching her door” (753). When she appears on the doorstep, his compulsive behavior is validated at the sight of her, which makes his “heart leap” (753). He follows her to school each morning and he feels at ease only because he has “kept her brown figure always in [his] eye” (753). In one instance, his compulsion to watch and follow her every morning is thwarted by his uncle. Because his uncle happens to be in the hall where he normally waits for the girl to appear, he is unable to carry out his compulsion. This throws off the habitual order of his day and he leaves “the house in bad humour” with a doubtful heart. That evening, instead of playing with his friends, he stands at the window and stares at her house. In the fashion characteristic of one who is obsessed, he loses track of time in his compulsive thoughts of her. He says, “I may have stood there for an hour, seeing nothing but the brown-clad figure cast by my imagination” (755). Though he is obsessed with the girl and is compelled to watch her and think of her at all times, what he feels for her is beyond his understanding. His love for the girl is part sexual desire, part sacred adoration. He is, he says, “confused” (754).

The protagonist is blind to the fact that his strong feelings are nothing more than theobsessive thoughts that accompany a crush. Throughout the story, the author makes use of blind imagery that is symbolic of the boy’s self-deception. From the very first paragraph, the author hints at the boy’s blindness. The road he lives on is blind, with a “blind end” and the street where he plays is a “dark muddy lane” by “dark dripping gardens” and “dark odorous stables” (753). The time of year also adds to the sense of the darkness of closed eyes since during winter “dusk fell before we had eaten our dinners” (753).Archetypically, in order for the boy to prove his love for the girl, he must go on a quest. The boy, in his only conversation with the object of his affection, impulsively offers to go to Araby, the bazaar that she wishes she could visit. He promises to bring her something and is convinced that this token will validate his feelings for her and that she will be impressed by the gesture. Upon arrival at Araby he finds the bazaar nearly empty. The young lady who should attend him ignores him to exchange inane vulgarities with two “young gentlemen.” Suddenly from the trivialities here the boy experiences an “epiphany,” a “sudden showing forth” in which his mind is flooded with light, with truth. He can see the parallel that exists between the girl here and “his” girl; he can see that all of his obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions have brought him to this empty bazaar, at ten o’clock at night and he realizes his feeling for her for what it is: physical attraction.The boy is struck by the triviality of his feelings. He realizes that he was blinded to this insignificance by his obsessive-compulsive behavior. Through his epiphany, he is able to mature and move past his first crush with the knowledge that it was only through journeying into the dark that he was finally able to see the light.

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Love Vs Religion in ‘The Conference of the Birds’

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Conference of the Birds is a love story about a man who chooses to change his lifestyle and religion in order to obtain the love of a woman. Sam’an, a Muslim sheikh, is in love with a Christian woman. During this time period, it was very uncommon for a man and a woman to come from such different cultures and be together. Sam’an and the Christian woman chose to be together, even though their religion and their cultures are pressuring them to stay apart. He and the Christian woman’s choice to stay together causes many conflicts and puts a strain on their forbidden love. Sa’man, a religious scholar, falls in love with a woman who requires him to forsake his religion in order for his love to be reciprocated. The story focuses on his inner struggle to do what he knows and believes to be true and right, versus his longing and passion for this woman. Although Sam’an wanted to stay true to his religion, his love for the Christian woman consumed him.

Sheikh Sam’an’s faith played a very important role throughout the story, and is the root of almost all conflicts throughout the story. Sheikh Sam’an felt compelled to follow his dream, which he interpreted as a vision. He is a man of strong faith, even though he goes through a time of weakness and abandons it. He was revered in his community because he had traveled to the Muslim religious capital, Mecca, over 50 times. After Sheikh Sam’an had the dream about the Christian woman he decided to go to Rome, the Christians religious capital, to find out what his dream really meant. On Sheikh Sam’an’s journey to Rome he was accompanied by his friend and followers. After he met the woman who was in his dream he was infatuated with her beauty and instantly in love. The Christian woman symbolizes all things that are forbidden to Sam’an, thus making her even more desirable. Even though their lifestyles and beliefs are very different, things work out in the end. Their love was able to survive on and exist though the hardships that were presented to them. Another author, Rachel Adelman, says “life finds a way’ despite the seeming strictures of law. “ This quote supports the idea that even though Sam’an and the Christian woman’s love is forbidden, if their love is meant to be it will survive.

Yet another thing that goes against Sam’ans religious faith is his infatuation with the woman’s beauty. He longs for her beautiful soft hair, and her full lips. Both are physical attributes that should not be advertised or shown in the Islamic faith. Those features, along with many other characteristics that the Christian woman possesses, contradict his cultures moral beliefs on how a woman should look and behave. In the Muslim culture women are supposed to be covered and show modesty. It is out of the cultural norm and would be very uncommon for a Muslim man to fall in love with another woman outside his faith and cultural beliefs. Young men’s opinions of how a woman should look and act are shaped at a very young age. (Morgan Lee p. 2) Even after he abandoned the traditions of his religion, Sam’ans followers do not abandon him. At first Sheikh Sam’an’s followers were furious that he had abandoned both them and his religion to be with this woman, and they wanted to leave. Sam’an’s friend, however, stayed loyal to Sheikh Sam’an and was able to convince the other followers to remain loyal and persuaded them to stay by Sam’ans side in his time of need. Without his friend and his followers, Sheikh Sam’an may not have returned back to Mecca, and with their guidance, Sam’an returned to his faith as well.

Another strain that takes a toll on Sam’an and the Christian woman’s relationship is her demands for Sam’an to do things that go against his moral beliefs. She has presented Sam’an with temptations that go against his religious and cultural values. She requested that he drink wine, eat pork, and that he engage in sexual relations. The Christian woman says to Sam’an “to prove your love declare [it] to me.”( Farid Un-Din-Attar, 380). The woman wants to see how much Sam’an truly loves her and she wants him to prove it by abandoning some of the core principles of his religion. She gives him these requests because she knows they will all be very difficult for him to fulfill. She also feels that she is in control of him, and the relationship they share. She feels this way because when she asks him to do things that he would not normally do, he fulfills her requests to make her happy. In the Bible, the Christian woman’s book of faith, it states “A man may know a woman (physically)–as Adam knew his wife, Eve” (Gen. 4:1) The woman does not see anything wrong with the things she has asked Sam’an to do because they do not go against her religion, so she has no moral conflict. In the Bible, it is not a sin to drink wine, eat pork, or engage in sex. However because Sam’an and his lover belong to different faiths, all of the things she has asked of him, he sees as morally wrong. Sam’an obeys her commands and choses to do these things so he can prove his love to her. However the Christian woman does not feel the same way about Sam’an as he does about her. She is testing him to see the depth of his love, even though she does not reciprocate the feelings. After she commands Sam’an to do these things to ensure his love, she feels guilty for using him and making him do these things when she did not feel the same way. Sam’an felt an instant connection to the woman when he first laid eyes on her.

As the story develops, the reader can see the problems Sam’an and the Christian woman have in their relationship begin to reveal themselves. V. Jaisre explains on his interpretation of, Love- a domination of a relationship, that “It is a known fact that there is no true love without quarrel. However, there should be some limit whether there is love or quarrel because too much of anything is good for nothing.” In Sam’an and the Christian woman’s relationship, the problem is that they don’t have enough conflict, he is too compliant. In the early stages of the relationship Sam’an only gives, and the woman receives. If Sam’an had stood up to his lover and refused to obey her commands then she would not have manipulated him into giving into the temptations she had presented to him. The Christian woman’s temptations to Sam’an have been successful, and he has sacrificed a great deal for this woman. His morals, friends, followers and his way of life have all been abandoned for the love of a woman. Sam’an showed weakness when he gave into the temptations that the Christian woman had presented him with.

The Sheikh Sam’an gave into the temptations presented by his love, the Christian woman. He values the love of the woman that he had dreamed about, and put her love and her requests above all else. Sheikh Sam’an sacrifices his religion and his morals to make the woman happy. His friends and followers are also very angry with him, and surprised that a man of such high rank and strong religious value, could fall for the love of a woman, and give into the temptations of sin so easily. If Sam’an had known that the Christian woman did not reciprocate the feelings that he had felt, the story may have ended very differently. K. Jones says “To fail to perceive this is quite to misconceive it” ( 1963, p. 7). Sam’an did not realize how easily he was giving into the woman he loved. If he had understood from the beginning that her love was not always true he would not have given up his lifestyle, friends, and religion, to convince her of his love.

At the end of the story the Christian woman dies from either an internal conflict as a result from the guilt that she has placed on herself from making Sheikh Sam’an change himself to prove his love, even though she did not reciprocate the feelings. Her death may be from the heartbreak she experienced, after she realized what drastic changes she had made to herself, in order to make herself feel less guilty for making Sam’an do such difficult tasks. The Christian woman also changed herself at the end of the story and took his religion. Because she knew that she had influenced him to change so much she may have felt stress and her heart was broken because she knew what a bad manipulative person she had been to him.

Sheikh Sam’an, a religious leader, at first abandons his faith and culture for the woman he loves. His story comes full circle when the Christian woman, who has been testing his love for her, changes her own faith and returns to Sheikh Sam’ans home country asking for forgiveness. The story shows how the characters evolve as they develop different feelings than those of the cultural “norm”. This ultimately effects their moral decisions. There were many different factors that played a role in the development of Sam’an and the Christian woman’s relationship. The major cause of stain that they experienced was the issues they faced involving faith. If Sam’an and his lover had shared the same beliefs, there would not have been an issue with him fulfilling her request. Another factor is Sam’ans friend and followers. Without their guidance he may never have returned to his home country, or returned to his faith. Both of which had been a huge part of his life before he met the woman of his dreams. Sam’an also did not know that the woman he loved did reciprocate the feeling he had. If he had known, he most likely would not have chosen to give into the temptations that she presented him with, because he would have known she was just manipulating him to see how far he would go to prove his love to her. Throughout the story of Sheikh Sam’an, in the Confession of the Birds Attar addresses, in many different scenarios, the struggle that man forgoes to find God and be at peace with one’s self. Sheikh Sam’an has come full circle and regained his relationship with his god, with the help of his friends, followers, and even the love of a woman.

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Why Arab Scholar Ibn Battuta Is The Greatest Explorer Of All Time

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Times magazine used to publish on August 1 this year, bypassed many political and economic topics of great concern and left the cover story to the ancient Ibn Battuta, like an opportunity to explore the development of the Islamic world in this era. He was born in Morocco, the Arab world. As Marco Polo, Battuta was growth Western Europe, he was not only a traveler but a symbol of the nation. You can see many universities, parks, shops, and streets named after Ibn Battuta. The Muslim’s reverence for him originated from his travels. Battuta’s journey to the world originated from a Mecca pilgrimage when he was 22 years old. The travel of Battuta’s accidental and inevitable, journey of the cruel and unknown is far more than we can imagine. Some people say that it is a coincidence that he became a great traveler. He thought that if he did not go to Mecca for the pilgrimage, he would stay in his hometown. In fact, Battuta’s travels have revolutionized his worldview and his life.

The first shaped in his mind has changed by an ancient map. The director of the Tangier Museum, Adris, pointed out that his travel is not for play, but for the work of his predecessors. Before Tangier, Bai Tutai, there was also a famous geographer named Idris, who once traveled around and painted the first ancient world map in the world in 1142. This ancient map stimulated his motivation. For seeking knowledge, his infinite desire prompted him to become a traveler. A replica of this ancient map, collected in the Tangier Museum, like the map at that time, it will turn the south, and the north upside down, and it is full of loopholes. As you can see on the world map, Mecca happens to be in the middle of the hometown of Battuta, between Tangier in Morocco and Beijing in China. Ibn Battuta paid a great deal of attention to the peculiarities of the region, which added a handsome sum to the Book of travel, and provided valuable first-hand information for the later examination. Battuta’s travel was more than 40 years after the end of the lasted Crusade. Although Battuta did not travel to Western Europe ruled by the Roman Catholic Church, he still met many Greek Orthodox Christians in Eastern Europe and Asia Minor. There are even emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire. After Western Rome fell into the hands of the “barbarians,” the eastern part of the empire retained the traditional political system, cultural aesthetics, religious beliefs, and the name of the Roman emperor. A pagan foreign traveler looks at the emperor of a great empire as if it were fantasy. For this reason, many people doubt that Battuta’s colleague Marco Polo has seen the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. In fact, judging from the description in his travel notes, he saw the record logic of the Eastern Roman Emperor Andronicus III and the details were clear and should be conclusive.

The second shaped in his mind by a factor that changed his mind during the trip – across the continent, narrated his travel experience and what he saw and heard. The travel had recorded by the secretary of the Moroccan Sultan and named it “Ibn Battuta Travel Notes”. He is a replica of the great traveler Marco Polo so that their travels are similar. Both of them spent their youth time in a wealthy city, and they were well-educated and well-educated. It seems that neither of them is a person who is comfortable with the status quo of life, which prompted them to abandon their peaceful life and move toward the East, which was still mysterious at the time. The main purpose of Battuta’s travel felt another place to vacation the holy place of Mecca on the other side, then step by step to the farther east. But the driving force for the two to embark on the vast unknown world seems to be their infinite love for travel, whether it is rich or wealthy or family and friends cannot let their hurried figure stay for a long time. The third shaped, both of them had a close relationship with the Mongol Empire, which ruled most of the world at the time. Outside the gates of Saint Sophia, Battuta met the retired Emperor Andronicus II, who was taken away by his grandson. His experience was similar to the experience of many Dali emperors in the Song Dynasty. The emperor monks and our travelers had an important meeting in the history of Christian Muslim exchanges. After chatting with Battuta, the emperor heard that he went to Jerusalem. He leaned over and turned to the translator: You must tell the Muslims to shake hands with those who worship the Holy Spirit. Battuta is terrified, he described his God experiences in Jerusalem in detail. two talents reluctantly separated. This short and great dialogue took place in a generation of Christians and Muslims. In addition, Battuta recorded the entire incident in Arabic, recording the emperor in the travel record recorded in the Christian monastery and being known to the entire Arab world. Although historians expressed deep doubts about it, and some even suspect that he has not arrived at all. Europe was in the dark Middle Ages, the Islamic world was alive, and all kinds of travel activities were traced from the 7th century AD to the next thousand years. The traveler stories described in this article are from the Islamic world, so for the time being these people are called “Islamic travelers”, although other religious and cultural backgrounds have been active in the travel team.

Battuta is eager to travel to the world and has his psychological foundation. At that time, it can be roughly divided into three major cultural circles – the Christian cultural circle in Europe, the Arab cultural circle in North Africa and the Middle East, and the Mongolian-Chinese cultural circle in the East. These three cultural circles are not three iron plates. Synchronous, they were echoing with each other; from the microscopic point of view, because of war, immigration, and other reasons, the formation of you and me, I have you. At that time, the Muslim gathering area had spread all over Europe and Asia. Battuta had admired the “Allah to the Great”, and with the help of many Muslims on the way. In the end, he completed his feat of walking 120,000 kilometers. During an inspect, he started from a friendly and tolerant perspective since becoming friends with other peoples and people of faith. Whether in a pagan country or a Muslim country, he can do these things with a calm and calm attitude. The tradition of Islam is respecting to explore knowledge. There are more than 6,500 verses in the Qur’an book, it possesses aa one-eighth of all the context are devoted to natural phenomena, encouraging people to study history and study the world. He said that there has never been an incident of persecuting scientists in the history of Islam. The Islamic believes that as a true Muslim, we should regard seeking knowledge as the highest ideal pursued in our life, and regard seeking knowledge as an important way to approach God. Some Muslims regard modern cultural knowledge and science and technology as enemies of Islam, and these people are completely misled. All knowledge comes from God, whether it is humanities or scientific, and the two aspects related. Some people say that it’s a coincidence that Battuta became a great traveler. He thought that if he did not go to Mecca for the pilgrimage, he would stay in his hometown. In fact, this is completely misunderstanding. Battuta’s travel tempted by an ancient map.

In conclusion, the director of the Tangier Museum, Adris, pointed out that Battuta’s travel isn’t for play, but for the work of his predecessors. Thus, Moroccan identity has realized his accounts of other parts of another world. The map he uses to realize was created by a famous geographer named Idris. He used to travel around and painted the first ancient world map in the world in 1142 AD. This ancient map stimulated the desire of Battuta to seek knowledge, which prompted him to become a traveler. A replica of this ancient map, collected in the Tangier Museum, like the map at that time, it turned the south and north upside down, and itself is full of loopholes. The trip is not only changed Battuta’s mind but also changed Islamic area and world’s mind unprecedented.

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Solutions To Help Arab Countries Reduce The Carbon Footprint

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

There have been multiple attempts by Arab countries to help reduce the carbon footprint of the region that is well-known for being a hub for polluting resources like oil, coal and gas. While it may be harder for the region to implement these goals to tackle due to the industry taking a huge part of many of the Middle Eastern countries’ economies, several attempts have been made to perhaps decrease oil dependency and start an energy transition in the region, which would not only increase safety of their economies, but reduce horrific consequences like, temperature rises, air intoxication, multiple other health concerns due to intense heat, and limited water supplies and food supplies.

Some previous attempts to solve the issue include: the “Saudi Vision 2030” which was released by the Deputy Crown Prince which included planting more trees and investing over 30 billion dollars for renewables. Additionally, Majesty of Bahrain has released a plan called “Economic Vision 2030” which focuses on shifting away from oil dependency and move more towards renewable energy sources which is the main way to reduce the carbon footprint of the nation. Also, Bahrain started to implement stricter license controls to reduce pollution levels and increased concentration on protecting the environment from increased carbon emissions. Another country who has attempted to take initiative on the issue would be Oman with its “Vision 2020” which puts economic diversification as its main goal, by increasing renewables in their economy hence reducing the carbon footprint and to reduce production and overdependency on oil, which in turn helps reduce carbon emissions. Qatar has been heavily investing in new projects by planning on investing 500 million dollars in joint venture projects to increase solar power up to 16% of energy used in 2020. More goals the Qatari government has set are: reducing carbon emissions by 6mn tons, reduce water and electricity consumption by 35% and 25% to reduce burning of fossil fuels, and to have 10 GW of solar power by 2030. No other Middle Easter country has taken such initiative to this concerning problem more than the United Arab Emirates. The UAE is expected to build over 800,000 solar power run houses, build a whole city run solely on greener sources like solar and wind power (Masdar City), invest in over 134 billion pounds to have the most ambitious target of having renewable energy as 50% of the energy source in the country by 2050.

Possible Solutions

Carbon tax

The Carbon tax is a fee implemented on the usage and making of pollutant resources like oil, coal and gas depending on how much carbon it emits from combustion. The carbon tax is used in certain fuel industries in countries like Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Italy, Netherlands and the Republic of Ireland. These countries have seen a significant drop in carbon emissions since the introduction of the carbon tax. According to the ICIS, Denmark has reduced its carbon emissions by 14% since the early 2000s. The carbon tax in the Middle East might cause some controversies but would overall benefit the region massively and it would prevent multiple problems.

The carbon tax would reduce the budget deficit of a government as it would increase revenue of the government and reduce the need for increased income taxes on the population which would turn into a positive decision for both perspectives. Additionally, if this, new legislation is introduced in the Middle East, this would reduce oil imports and exports from businesses, and reduce carbon emissions from households as people would pay more attention to the amount of carbon they are emitting. Furthermore, the carbon tax would promote the usage of clean energy in the Middle East and reduce the reliance on non-renewable resources. Finally, a reduction in carbon emissions from the carbon tax would reduce the severe consequences of climate change.

This new legislation might have its negatives at first as it would reduce investments from businesses, with the Middle East being so heavily reliant on trade and business with oil and gas. Additionally, the carbon tax might cause an increase in tax evasion as some firms might not account the exact figures of its carbon emissions in order to pay less.

Renewable energy shift

An increase in renewable energy usage is the best way to reduce carbon emissions of a country. This would result in a reduction of carbon emissions from industries, households and transportation. There are plenty of ways for the Middle East to increase renewable energy sources like increased governmental spending on renewable sources. Renewable resources are unlimited; however some regions have a very little potential for renewable energy, but that is not the case for the Middle East. The Middle East enjoys clear skies and sunny, hot weather most of the year and would be the perfect hub for solar power. Solar power could reduce electricity bills, has low maintenance costs and most importantly is a clean, renewable source. Solar energy is so powerful that in one hour, there is more solar energy radiated on the earth in an hour then the energy the world consumes in a year.

With the unstable oil prices, depletion of the non-renewable resources, and the severe consequences of increased carbon footprint from increased activity with pollutant resources, this has led some Middle Eastern countries to start taking action to reduce the carbon footprint of the region. An increase in renewable energy would decrease dependence on oil which is the major reason carbon emissions are so high.

Some countries in the UAE have started taking action towards this problem by building 800,000 solar power run houses, investing over 150 billion USD, and reduce the dependency on oil just like the UAE by making it only 1% of its GDP.

Implementation of subsidies

In economic terms, subsidies are when governments pay a percentage of the cost of production of a company and it is seen as a form of financial aid. Subsidies are an economic way for governments to encourage production of goods and services from companies by reducing the cost of production and help lower the costs for the renewable sources as companies would not need to increase the prices for the public due to cheaper cost of production of this technology. Using the law of demand in Economics; when price is decreased, demand is increased. This would increase both supply and demand and raise capital and popularity for the renewable energy industry which would be one of the ways to reduce the usage of hydrocarbons due to the products having higher prices then the renewables. An increase in demand for renewables and a decrease in demand for oil, gas and coal, would overall reduce the carbon footprint by a mile.

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Protective effect of long term administration of Gum Arabic

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

The action of key cell reinforcement catalysts assumes a basic part in the acceptance of hyperglycemia-related tissue harm [1]. Oxidative pressure initiated by the lopsidedness of oxidants/cancer prevention agents harm of organic macromolecules, including starches, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, cause aggravations in cell homeostasis and generation of other receptive atoms that reason more damage[2]. The significance of oxidative pressure and its association with the pathology of diabetes mellitus(DM) alongside related intricacies have been broadly investigated[1,3]. Past examinations announced that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes start the improvement of perpetual diabetic sores on blood vessels [4], retina[5], kidneys[6], and neurodegenerative diseases[7].

DM is a constant and most regular metabolic issue that has turned out to be pandemic in the twenty-first century [8]. Around 347 million individuals were influenced with DM in 2011 overall [9]. The World Wellbeing Association predicts that diabetes will be the seventh driving reason for death in2030. The oxidative worry in DM causes a few unfavorable consequences for the cell physiology [10]. It diminished glutathione (GSH) level in diabetes [11], diminished catalase activity[12], down managed renal SOD[13] and expanded heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level in patients with type2 DM [14]. Oxidative pressure has been accounted for as a key factor at the beginning of pathogenesis and diabetic complexities [15]. Clinical and test ponders suggested that the liver might be affected by DM in the long haul [16– 18]. Histological highlights of fatty liver disease initiated by DM and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can’t be recognized from ethanol-instigated hepatic steatosis [18].

Gum Arabic (GA) is a consumable, dried sticky exudate from Acaciaseyal and Acacia Senegal is rich with non-thick solvent fiber. It is usually utilized as a part of nourishment industry and pharmaceutical field as an emulsifier and additive [19]. In North Africa and the Middle East, it’s utilized as an oral cleanliness specialist by different groups for a few centuries [20]. GA is utilized as a part of Arabic society pharmaceutical to diminish both recurrence and need of hemodialysis in incessant renal failure patients [21]. It has solid cancer prevention agent properties and used to decrease the test nephrotoxicity against gentamicin [21], cisplatin [22] and to improve cardiotoxicity [23]. Be that as it may, the impacts of GA on oxidative worry in the liver of type I diabetic rats have not been accounted for. Regardless of whether GA can change oxidative related qualities articulation in the liver of type I diabetic rodent stays less clear.

Consequently, in the present examination, we utilized type I diabetic rodent model to explore our speculation that supplementation of GA in drinking water may secure liver by lessening oxidative harm, and the decrease of oxidative harm might be related with the balance of liver oxidative related qualities articulation.

The rationale of the study:

In the present study, we aim to use a diabetic rat model, to test whether adding GA to insulin therapy would ameliorate the diabetic-induced changes in liver function and whether the action is mediated by an effect on oxidative stress markers.

2. Material and Methods:

2.1 Animals. A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats (age 5-6 weeks) weighing 200 ± 10 g were included in this study. Animals were housed in the animal house a controlled environment with a 12:12-hrs light/dark cycle. Animals were acclimatized for one week before the study and had free access to water and standard rat chow throughout the experimental period.

2.2.Animal groups: This study followed a randomized controlled animal experimental design. The 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats included in this study were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 each) as follows:

[A] Control groups:

1. Non- treated control (C): rats were injected intraperitoneally once with citrate buffer only.

2. Gum Arabic treated control (GAC): rats were injected intraperitoneally with buffer as “C” group and received 10% w/v of Gum Arabic in drinking water.

[B] Experimental groups:

1. None treated diabetic group (D): diabetic group neither treated with insulin nor GA.

2. Diabetic + insulin (DI): Rats received insulin only.

3. Diabetic + GA (DGA): rats received GA only after induction of diabetes.

4. Diabetic + insulin + GA (DIGA): rats received insulin and GA after induction of diabetes.

2.3 Induction of Diabetes Mellitus (DM):

Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced as described by [24]. Briefly, a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin STZ (65 mg/kg) in freshly prepared citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.5) (Sigma Chemical Company, USA) was given after an overnight fasting. DM was verified by measuring blood glucose in surviving rats after 3 days, through tail/neck blood sampling. Rats with non-fasting blood glucose level of =20 mmol/L after 48 h of STZ injection were considered to be diabetic [25]. The experimental period was 12 weeks, a period which has been proven to induce detectable diabetic complications in the kidney [26].

2.4 Tissue preparation

The rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (60 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). The liver was removed, cleaned of gross adventitial tissue, blotted dry and processed for biochemical measurements. Tissue was homogenized in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using a Polytron homogenizer. The resultant supernatant was used for measurement of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes. The TBARS levels were measured as an index of malondialdehyde production and then lipid peroxidation was assessed in the tissues by the method of Yagi [27] as previously described [28].

2.5 Evaluation of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity

The Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) commercial reagents were purchased from Sigma Chemical Company, USA. Liver tissues (1 g) were cut into small pieces and homogenized in ice-cold saline buffer (0.85%, pH 7.4) (1:9, wt/v) with an Ultra-Turrax (T8, IKA-labortechnik Staufen, Germany). Liver homogenates were centrifuged at 1000 g for 15 min at 4C, and the supernatants were collected. The supernatants were used for the assays of SOD, GPx, CAT, and GSH. The antioxidative status of the liver was estimated by measuring the level of different antioxidants in the liver. The activity of SOD was measured according to the method of [29]. The activities of GPx and CAT were measured by the methods described by [30], and [31] respectively. All assays were measured with the clinical chemistry assay kits according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedure. The antioxidant activity as a function of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue was determined according to the manufacturers information; catalase (abcam- ab83464 catalase assay kit- Colorimetric/Fluorometric), Superoxide dismutase (Cayman chemical- Superoxide Dismutase assay kit- item number. 706002), malondialdehyde (abcam- ab118970- Lipid Peroxidation (MDA) Assay kit – Colorimetric/ Fluorometric) and glutathione (SIGMA- ALDRICH- glutathione assay kit- catalog number. CS0260). The obtained results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. The mean values of the parameters of the two groups were analyzed using t-test.

2.6. RNA extraction and real-time PCR

About 100 mg of liver was ground in liquid N2, and a portion of about 50 mg was used for RNA extraction using TRIzol total RNA kit (Invitrogen, Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Two approaches were taken to ensure that all the total RNA preparations are free of genomic DNA contamination. First, total RNAs were treated with 10 U DNase I (RNase Free, D2215, Takara, Japan) for 30 min at 37C, and purified according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Second, the primers for the reference gene (-actin) were designed to span an intron, so any genomic DNA contamination could be reported easily with an extra product in the melting curves for real-time PCR. Real-time PCR was performed in Mx3000P (Stratagene, USA) according to the previous publications [32,33]. Primers specific for SOD, and gGCL (Table 1) was synthesized by Geneary (Shanghai, China), and rat -actin was used as a reference gene for normalization purpose. The method of 2-Ct was used to analyze the real-time PCR data [34].The mRNA abundances were presented as the fold change relative to the average level of the control group.

2.7. Ethical clearance:

This study was conducted after academic and ethical approval from the faculty of medicine at the University of Al Neelain- Khartoum, Sudan.

2.8. Statistic analysis

Descriptive statistics were performed to check the normality and homogeneity of variances before using parametric analyses. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical program. Values are expressed as frequency, percentage and mean ± SD. Testing significance was performed using 2 test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). P-values = 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

3. Results

3.1. Effect of GA on hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities

Key antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, and GPx of rat liver were measured. The antioxidant activity as a function of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue in the six groups is presented in Figure 1 to 4. Values (mean±SD) obtained for the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the livers of gum arabic treated group of rats were significantly different when compared to control group. Furthermore, there were also significantly different in rats with DM treated with Insulin and gum Arabic (Figure – 1). Diabetic rat group showed significant decreases in all antioxidant enzymes activities when compared to the control. Levels of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the livers of experimental groups of rats showed a diverse tendency wherein rats with diabetes mellitus did not show any significant increase in SOD upon treatment with gum arabic however the addition of insulin with gum Arabic to diabetic rats increased SOD very significantly (Figure – 3). Finally, the levels of catalase (CAT) showed a very significant increase in diabetic rats treated either with insulin and gum Arabic alone or in combination (Figure – 4). However, the treatment of GA significantly (P < 0.05) increased the antioxidant enzymes activities including SOD, CAT and GPx compared to that of control and diabetic groups.

3.2. Effect of GA on hepatic lipid peroxidation

Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of oxidative stress is routinely used to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we observed significant increases in hepatic MDA concentrations in diabetic group compared to the control. However, the treatment of GA significantly (P < 0.05) decreased MDA concentrations compared to that of diabetic rat group (Figure 2). In addition, the treatment of GA significantly increased liver GSH concentration compared to the control and diabetic rat groups. The levels of thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (GSH) in the livers of all experimental groups of rats showed a similar trend, however, their levels were significantly higher in diabetic rats treated with gum Arabic and insulin (Figure – 2).

3.3. Effect of GA on hepatic antioxidant genes expression

Q.PCR was used to measure antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression in the liver. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes caused a significant decrease in liver SOD mRNA expression. However, the treatment of GA significantly increased mRNA expression of hepatic SOD (Figure 4) compared to a diabetic group or those treated with insulin. Furthermore, mRNA significantly increased and reached on par with control in diabetic rats treated with insulin and GA. A similar trend was seen with gGLC mRNA expression in relation to -actin mRNA, wherein treatment of GA to diabetes-induced rats significantly increased its expression and it was much more significantly increased when GA treated in combination with insulin

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