Arab League Topic: Decreasing Global Dependence On Middle Eastern Oil

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Oil is versatile. For centuries, it has been a central commodity in the production of energy and its versatility puts it high on the list of fuels. In fact, 63.7% of all oil produced is used for transportation and 4% of global electricity is produced with oil.

However, global dependence on Oil has been on a downward graph for a long time due to points of contention such as globalised discussion of global warming and consequent proposals to move to alternative sources of energy in order to both lessen carbon footprints and limit the global usage of oil.

Global dependence on Middle Eastern oil has too been decreasing briskly, with multiple reasons in addition to those outlined above. The issue between Arabs and Jews in the region has been a cause of several embargoes, while increment in oil production by non – MENA region countries such as the United States and Canada, discord between member countries of this League (caused by several issues, such as unprecedented and unlawful invasions), limitations on fossil fuel reserves, and foul play by terrorist organisations, all have been cause of the above in some way. Due to this, prices of crude oil have fluctuated rapidly, and disconcerted the petroleum industry as a whole. Since around 82% of global oil production comes from countries of the OPEC, and the fact that oil is an economic opportunity these countries that have depended on and forwarded the most, it has disconcerted the them too. The average annual OPEC crude oil price hit an all time high of 109.45$/barrel in 2012 has dropped almost 38%, to 67.33$/barrel in 2018.

Country and the Topic Area “….Kuwait has oil”- The Dalai Lama.

Kuwait has the 4th largest oil reserves in the world and the Burgan Field is the 2nd largest oil field. Kuwait is also the world’s eighth largest exporter and the tenth largest producer of oil. It was one of the inaugural members of the Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting countries (OAPEC). The delegate believes that her country is a key participant in the topic area and has immense history related to the agenda.

With the problem of decreasing global dependence on oil, Kuwait’s finance minister, Anas Al Saleh, stated that the compulsion for Gulf States to reduce their own economy’s dependence on oil ‘inevitable.’ Comprehensive economic reforms, including the reform of imbalances in public finances, are also necessary. In accordance with this, the Kuwait Petroleum Company has outlined the 2040 strategy, something which is based on feasibility for business. KPC has set something called the ‘Upstream Strategic Directions’, which focuses on ‘Available Production and not productional capacities. Available Production refers to the amount of crude that can be produced any day of the year after applying facility shutdowns and maintenance considerations.

Along with this, the country has a national vision, the ‘New Kuwait’ or the Kuwait National Development Plan. While the country plans to do what it takes to sustain global dependence on OAPEC oil, it is not holding back on the options on the table. H.H. Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah refers to it a plan to increase competition and promote production efficiency, accentuate values, and achieve both human resource development as well as balanced development. It sees a sustainable and prosperous future for the country in the era of decreasing oil dependence.

Possible Solutions:

The fact that the Paris agreement focuses on sustainability should be explored. Since the agreement minimises on carbon footprints in the production of oil, and the Arab countries have always had better methods of refining, storing and transporting oil, it leads the delegate to believe that energy sustainability can be achieved while forwarding economic cause. The processes of oil export should be comprehensively assessed and developed to be better in order to achieve these ends, so that the Arab countries continue to reign supreme in the field.

In addition to this, the question of diversification of our political economies should be explored, similar to the way Kuwait has. The Arab economies hold large amounts of Natural Gas Reserves. These should be exploited judiciously as an alternate source of energy.

The increased production of oil by countries not in the MENA region should be explored. The issues that cause discord between the states of the Arab League should be thoroughly explored and vetted, in order to promote better relations between them, as is ingrained in the Charter of the League of Arab States. These issues include, most predominantly:

The Qatar – Gulf Crisis: the cutting of diplomatic ties to the State of Qatar was a move denounced by several member states. Kuwait has tried to mediate a resumption of these ties. The Israeli – Palestinian Conflict, which has its roots in the 1948 war, and the question of the leadership of the PLO.

The terrorist organisations causing disarray in the region and production of oil is another major cause of discord. There needs to be widespread clamping down on Terror Financiers in all the Arab States, as has been done by Kuwait.

Global dependence on oil cannot decrease very rapidly because of reasons such as technological momentum, and while this technological momentum prevails, Kuwait believes it is up to the members of this League to be able to forward collective economic interests and bring the shift back in focus. Many economists believe that the world is addicted to oil, and for the sake of the world, member states must learn to continue to exploit this addiction, but judiciously, since our motives widely include energy sustainability.

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Arab Life Before Islam

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Arab life prior to the creation of Islam housed many flaws. Some of these flaws including, disbelief in Allah, the committing of various sins, and shirk. Shirk, being a sin that cannot be forgiven by Allah, was extremely common prior to the introduction of Islam. In order to counteract this, Allah sent various prophets and messengers to abolish this problem, although some have deemed unsuccessful, they were the building blocks of Islam. Prophet Muhammad was the final messenger of Allah, and thus wanted to create a lasting effect on the world, Islam.

Prior to the creation of Islam, Arab life housed disbelief. Faith ws unheard of. The Pillars of Faith were looked down upon, these pillars being, Allah, Angels, Holy Books, Messengers, Judgment Day, and Fate. Evidence of Allah’s presence can be found in everything you see, the very eyes you look out of, the very ears you use to listen, the very mouth you use to speak. Yet, people chose to deny Allah’s presence, even though, deep down, they know he is watching. Arrogance took hold of rationality. An example of this can be Prophet Noah’s son, whose arrogance ultimately led to his demise. During a flood, Noah instructed his son to board the arch, he refused, saying that if he were to climb the tallest mountain, he would be safe. He was questioning Allah’s intelligence. He didn’t take advice from his own father, blinded by personal faults, unable to show compassion, shuts his ears to all that reveal reality, and many more. These are all traits an arrogant person would have, and Prophet Noah’s son meets all this criteria because he couldn’t handle the fact that a superior life form, Allah, was watching over him.

Another example of people questioning Allah’s authority is a mother who was under the rule of Umar Bin Khattab. The woman and her daughter made milk for the town, and one day the cow didn’t produce enough milk. How does the woman solve this problem? She suggests mixing the milk with water to gain money for personal gain. The daughter said that Omar Bin Khattab would be disappointed. The mother’s response was that Omar Bin Khattab wasn’t listening, the daughter exclaimed that Allah was always listening. This shows people’s inability to accept and understand Allah’s presence, all the actions we commit have consequences, whether good or bad.

Initially, the Arab region was polytheistic, meaning belief in many gods, such as statues, the sun, the sky, and various other inanimate objects. When a human being is fortunate, they tend to forget where this originated from, Allah is the provider for everything. Prophet Saleh tried teaching this to the people of Thamud, resulting in no change of mindset. Through constant persuasion and grit, Prophet Saleh managed to recruit a few people to the ways of Allah. The leaders of Thamud were unhappy, trying to prove Saleh wrong and prove their superiority, they told him to summon a special camel, through constant and rigorous praying, his wish was answered by Allah. Allah blessed this camel with the power of giving, it gave the poor and the needy milk for nourishment, resulting in people being convinced of Allah’s presence. This only furthered the leaders’ anger, they came up with a plot to kill the camel, showing that God’s creation can be destroyed. Prophet Saleh knew that this plot would result in Allah’s wrath. Knowing this information, he made sure all the good people of Thamud were safe while Allah struck down a mighty earthquake, destroying the city. This, not only shows God’s power, it is the very definition of arrogance.

Arrogance played a vital role in Arabian culture prior to Islam. It was the basis of human nature. Allah sent down various messengers to relay his undoubtful presence, yet, due to arrogance, the message didn’t entirely sink in until Prophet Muhammad’s era. Islam produced and set the foundation for modern Arab culture. Without Islam, we would still be living in a society based on arrogance. Through Allah’s Prophets and Messengers we have managed to learn from others’ mistakes, ultimately leading su to be the best human beings we can be. Allah has given us all the tools necessary to do so, it just depends on the person’s’ outlook on life. Islam is the holy religion that unifies Allah’s creations and incorporates Allah’s teachings into daily life.

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Socio-Economic Condition Of Uae

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer



UAE is a small country of 7 emirates who chose to unite in 1971.Since then their economy has developed by almost 231 times to AED1.45 trillion out of 2013.Internationally, UAE is positioned among the best 20 for worldwide administration business, as indicated by AT Kearney, the best 30 on the WEF “most-organized nations” and in the best quarter as a minimum degenerate nation for each the TI’s defilement list. Dubai has changed significantly in the course of the most recent three decades, turning into a noteworthy business focus with being effective in expanding its economy.In spite of the fact that the UAE has the most expanded economy in the GCC, its economy remains to a great degree dependent on oil(petroleum).

Except for Dubai, the vast majority of the UAE is subject to oil incomes. Oil and flammable gas keep on assuming a focal job in the economy, particularly in Abu Dhabi.Tourism is one of the greater non-oil wellsprings of income in the UAE, with a portion of the world’s most rich lodgings being situated in the UAE. A huge development blast, a growing assembling base, and a flourishing administrations division are helping the UAE broaden its economy. Across the nation, there is as of now $350 billion worth of dynamic development ventures. The reasons adding to this includes saving money, tourism, trade and land. Increment of Emirati buying power and legislative consumptions in framework ventures have significantly expanded.

The UAE has risen as one of the best nations as far as financial improvement and related pointers on account of its sound government arrangements and monetary order It has also beaten nations, for example, Britain, France, Japan and China in monetary productivity, as per a report. It can be said that a portion of the significant ramifications of the prominent rank accomplished by the UAE in monetary arrangement effectiveness can be condensed in the accompanying ways: First, the adequacy of the administration approach when all is said in done and monetary arrangement specifically demonstrates that a parity has been struck between the necessities of improvement and raising the ways of life of the two natives and occupants. Second, it focuses to the productivity of the social security net and benefits and the non-burden of duties Third, the viability of monetary approach demonstrates the productivity of government spending plan and compelling allotment of assets.Fourth, monetary control has prompted productive administration of money related surpluses and their utilization in the administration of advancement.


Michael Armstrong, ICAEW territorial executive for the Middle East, Africa and South Asia (MEASA), stated: “The UAE is progressing nicely to financial expansion and is actualizing the essential monetary changes to help these endeavors. The presentation of VAT is an imperative advance toward expanding government income and building charge limit. In later years, UAE has turned into a noteworthy entrance for various developing, beneficial ventures and exercises: Meetings, gatherings, presentations Tourism Corporate provincial central command Regional transport, conveyance and coordinations focus Banking, back and protection Business and modern counseling Information and Communications Technology Light and medium assemblingThis all wound up conceivable because of Dubai’s warm, inviting individuals, world class offices and framework and farsighted, open and liberal financial arrangements. {The above images show the trends in GDP of the UAE and how the growth is expected in various sectors of UAE}Furthermore, the UAE is beginning to see the rise of nearby assembling as new wellspring of monetary advancement, models of huge government-drove speculations, for example, Strata in airplane business, under Mubadala are effective, while there are additionally little scale innovative endeavors grabbing, for example, Zarooq Motors in the car business.

The reports of the Federal Competitiveness and Statistics Authority, noticed that the United Arab Emirates net national item (GDP) at genuine (consistent) costs ascended by 3% toward the finish of 2016 contrasted with 2015, as per the starter appraisals of the financial insights, which affirmed that the State economy has kept up positive development rates at steady costs because of the achievement of the State in following the monetary expansion approaches, growing the financial generation base, and enacting activities and exercises that would build dependence on non oil segments, and improving their economy.Dubai, which customarily represents 25-30 percent of the UAE’s GDP, is likewise anticipated that would lift spending by 20 percent in anticipation of Expo 2020. commitment to the GDP of the State, in spite of the precarious states of the worldwide oil markets, and the decrease underway costs in different markets.


This segment estimates the cash estimation of buyer merchandise and ventures which are bought by families and non-benefit foundations for current use amid a time of record. I-Investment expense Venture implies increases to the physical supply of capital amid a timeframe. G-Government Purchases of Goods and Services This part abridges government spending on merchandise and ventures. It incorporates buy of halfway merchandise and wages and pay rates paid by the legislature. (X-M)-Net exportsIt demonstrates the contrast among imports and fares. GDP gauges at current costs of the non oil parts added up to around 1067.3 billion dirhams, up by 3.9% (at current costs) and at a rate of 2.7% at genuine (consistent) costs before the finish of 2016 contrasted with its incentive before the finish of 2015. The information demonstrated that the exercises identified with the extraction of raw petroleum and gaseous petrol contributed by around 16.7%, while every one of the discount and retail exchange exercises represented 12.8%, the development and building exercises contributed by 10.3%, the commitment of the money related administrations exercises added up to 10.1% and the transformative ventures exercises by 9.5%, roughly.

The most elevated rate of development in genuine costs was in transport and capacity segment 7.4%, expressions and amusement and different administrations exercises 6.5%, transformative enterprises 6%, convenience and sustenance administrations 5.7%, and human wellbeing and social administrations 5.2%. This affirms the positive way to accomplish the UAE 2021 vision and its procedure for the advancement of non oil areas and diminish reliance on oil. Exports are relied upon to ascend by 4.5% to reach $312 billion of every 2017, in accordance with the normal change on the planet oil costs. Imports additionally are required to ascend by 0.7% to reach about $232 billion. Mirroring these advancements in fares and imports, the exchange surplus is required to rise 17.1% to reach about $80 billion.


The exchanging relationship among UAE and India began with pearl trading. Amid the past days UAE’s wellspring of pay was pearl harbor and pearl was a generally utilized adornment in jewellery making in India,hence the relationship bloomed. The UAE’s economy is a standout amongst the most open around the world, and its history of monetary history likewise returns to the occasions when ships cruised to India, along the Swahili drift, as far south as Mozambique. Presently UAE and India have an altogether different exchanging relationship. They have progressed in the direction of solid monetary securities by making medium-long term strategy decision to increment respective exchange. The two nations need to utilize segment particular system to help two way exchange and speculations. They intend to give exceptional consideration in industries of civil aviation,trade, energy and climate. The current financial relationship is that UAE furnishes India with unrefined oil and India thusly sends out oil based commodities(petroleum products) to the UAE. Other significant imports from the UAE include:

  • Precious metals
  • Diamonds, gold and pearls
  • Mineral fuels and oil
  • Copper wire, base metals and polymers In 2016, exchange among UAE and India was more than 70bn Dirhams.In 2017,trade among UAE and India was more than 85.9bn Dirhams Imports from India to UAE represent 60% of the aggregate exchange esteem.


Customer Price Index CPI in the United Arab Emirates diminished to 111.40 Index Points in July from 111.50 Index Points in June of 2018. Purchaser Price Index CPI in the United Arab Emirates found the middle value of 99.69 Index Points from 2008 until 2018, achieving a record-breaking high of 112.29 Index Points in January of 2018 and a record low of 89.17 Index Points in January of 2008. Purchaser Price Index CPI in the United Arab Emirates is relied upon to be 111.47 Index Points before the finish of this quarter, as per Trading Economics worldwide full scale models and experts desires. Looking forward, we gauge Consumer Price Index CPI in the United Arab Emirates to remain at 115.18 of every a year time. In the long haul, the United Arab Emirates Consumer Price Index (CPI) is anticipated to drift around 120.20 Index Points in 2020, as indicated by our econometric models.

The expansion rate in purchaser costs for the a year of 7102 was 0.1% contrasted and a similar time of 7101, as appeared by the expansion in the CPI to 108.1% amid the a year of 7102, up from 106.4% amid a similar time of 7101Abu Dhabi region contributed 47.1% of the total increase of 0.1% during the twelve months of 2017 compared with the same period of 2016, while Al-Ain region contributed 0..1% and Al Dhafra region 2.0%.United Arab Emirates’s Consumer Price Index Growth is forecasted to be 4.17 % in Dec 2018 as reported by International Monetary Fund – World Economic Outlook. It records a decrease from the last reported number of 1.97 % in Dec 2017. Looking ahead, United Arab Emirates’s Consumer Price Index Growth is projected to stand at 2.01 % in Dec 2023As an economist, I expect inflation to average 3.7% in 2018 and 2.8% in 2019.


Economic growth in UAE grew in 2017, supported by the prospect of a rebound in oil prices again and the trend towards a strong boost in economic diversification policies through the adoption of:

  • Future national visions
  • Plans and strategies to increase the levels of diversification according to quantitative targets and operational programs to achieve tangible achievement in terms of diversification
  • To proceed forward with the implementation of investment projects in infrastructure sectors and the projects listed in the development plans for the expansion of airports and railways, means of land and sea transport, tourism facilities real estate, and those related to the preparation of the exhibition “Expo 2020″.

In contrast, it is expected that the quantities of oil production shall be affectedWhile the high levels of inflation will reduce with the expectation of stability in the world commodity prices, the decline in houses’ prices and rents with the increased supply levels by introducing new houses’ units and the slower demand levels due to the postponement of implementation of some investment projects.As an economist I expect GDP to increase 2.5% in 2018, which is down 0.1 percentage from last month’s forecast, and 3.1% in 2019.


UAE is one of the 32 of the largest economies in the world.It accounts for around 85 per cent of global GDP. I am assuming that this could be more than double in size by 2050 due to:productivity improvements supported by technological innovation.Six of the seven largest economies in the world are projected to be emerging economies in 2050 led by China, India and Indonesia . New markets such as Mexico, Turkey and Vietnam could overtake leading economiesThe UAE is the leading country in the Middle East when it comes to developing the clean and renewable energy sector. It is a possibility that 50 per cent of its energy sources are clean by 2050.AI will be a game changer in the global business by 2030 and UAE is expected tocontribute around $9.6 billion which will account for 13.6% of its GDP.


Flurry of reforms implemented in recent months to stimulate investment and business activity. These measures include:

  • A joint investment plan with Saudi Arabia
  • A large fiscal stimulus program in Abu Dhabi•Visa and business licensing reform which aims to reduce the cost of doing business and attract foreign companies and skilled workers.

Going forward, the country should also benefit from strong external demand, notably from GCC countries and Europe; as well from a likely improvement in employment growth, which was anemic in the first half of the year.Its low logistical and operational costs and excellent infrastructure, international outlook and liberal government policies are attracting investors in a big way. Activities such as trade, transport, tourism, industry and finance have shown steady growth and helped the economy to achieve a high degree of expansion and diversification.The UAE government has worked towards reducing the economy’s dependence on oil exports by 2030. Various projects are underway to help achieve this. The UAE has also won the right to host the World Expo 2020, which is believed to have a positive effect on future growthThe UAE economy is set to accelerate growth this year and in 2019 after a difficult 2017 when growth slowed to a seven-year low of 1.5 percent.But the accountancy and finance body warned that general prices are expected to increase as inflation will rise to 4 percent this year.UAE’s growth will be primarily driven by recovering oil prices, an expansionary fiscal stance at the federal and emirate levels, a buoyant trade and tourism environment and a pick-up in investment ahead of Expo 2020 in Dubai.


  1. https://www.emirates247.combusiness/economy-finance

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The Unconscious Conflicts in The James Joyce’s Short Story “Araby”

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Conflicts Within

In 1914, Irish author James Joyce published the short story “Araby,” in which an unwitting boy falls prey to his instinctual desires. Instead of carefully considering the full implications of his actions, he allows his premature sexual drive to take over, ultimately leading himself down a path of self-destruction. Even the strict Catholic environment that surrounds him proves insufficient to stop him from acting upon the base desires that are inherent in everyone. Though he realizes afterwards what he has done, it is too late; the shame he feels cannot be taken away. This story illustrates the unconscious conflicts that take place inside all of us between the id, the ego, and the superego.

In “Araby,” the boy’s id manifests itself in his attraction to his friend’s older sister, while the ego strives to devise a realistic method of fulfilling his desire to possess her. Whenever he sees the girl, his “confused adoration” for her takes control of his mind and supplants all other thoughts and feelings. This reaction is purely instinctual, arising from within him without any conscious action on his part. He lacks an understanding of his unconscious sexual drive, but he feels the physical and emotional consequences of it nonetheless. His desire for the girl underlies his actions throughout the story, as the ego seeks to find a way to actually satisfy this desire by winning her affection.

The first opportunity presents itself when she reveals to him that though “she would love to go” to a bazaar being held in town, she is unable to do so. In response, the boy promises to bring her a gift from the bazaar if he goes. The boy believes that by doing so, he may finally win her over, thereby fulfilling the wishes of his unconscious libido (though of course he does not know that this is the ultimate goal). He does not consider the possibility that the girl is simply using him to get things she wants and is not actually interested in him; he does not consider the adverse consequences that his excessive devotion to her will have on other aspects of his life. He is completely driven by the id’s animalistic desires and controlled by the ego’s plans to achieve pleasure. However, there is another unconscious force inside him; one that is continually struggling against the id and the ego for control of his actions.

The superego is the boy’s moralistic defense against his id’s base desire for the girl and the amoral strategizing of his ego. Though it is unconsciously working inside the boy throughout the story, it does not manifest itself in his conscious thoughts until after he arrives at the bazaar, when he says that he saw himself as “a creature driven and derided by vanity”. The Catholic environment that surrounds the boy instilled moral principles within him, and when his id and ego cause him to undertake actions that contradict with these values, the superego fights back. It is not strong enough to repel the drive of the id at first, but when reality finally sets in, the ego has to accept the superego’s insistence that the boy’s actions are damaging in the long-term and must cease.

This realization is what allows the boy to, in hindsight, criticize himself as he narrates the story, such as by labelling himself “foolish” and saying that “innumerable follies laid waste his waking and sleeping thoughts” after his conversation with the girl. These reflections reveal the superego’s power of self-judgement, which strengthens the boy’s defenses against his id’s instinctual desires in the future. The next time a girl attracts his interest, for instance, his superego may overpower the id in the beginning, saving him from having to experience all the grief he did. By acting as a counterbalance to the id and influencing the behavior of the ego, the superego performs a valuable service to the boy as the third force in his unconscious.

The id, ego and superego wage a constant battle in the unconscious mind of the boy in “Araby,” struggling for control over his actions. The id and ego, while necessary for the survival and prosperity of the human race, can also cause one to run into trouble, just as the boy does while trying to capture the object of his affection. Without the superego, the boy would be enslaved to his desires, causing his life to become a never-ending search for pleasure that would most likely culminate in violence, as the ego would feel no constraint against using and abusing others for his own satisfaction. The three forces each have their purpose; when acting properly, they are able to maintain balance in one’s mental state by keeping each other in check. “Araby” provides a great example of this process, and it is worth analyzing the text further to see what other unconscious conflicts might exist in the story.

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Nationalism in Our World

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

After WW2, colonial rule was still holding strong in many regions of the Arab world. However, increasingly there were widespread civilian sentiments of anger and humiliation at the continued western interferences and occupations in the Middle East; this sense of resistance was accompanied by the increasing popularity of Arab Nationalist ideals, which saw the Rise of Pan- Arabism. Support for the project, was especially prevalent in Egypt which was a monarchy under colonial British rule. Arab Nationalism or Pan-Arabism is an interesting ideology, because on the one hand, it seems to be anti-nationalistic as it attempts to transcend the Westphalian order of sovereign nation states with bound territories, but on the other hand, it can actually be understood as a nationalistic movement in that it stipulates that all Arab countries from North Africa, West Asia and the Middle East constitute a single nation.

The Pan-Arabism project reached its apogee in the 1950’s – 60’s, however the precedence for the movement stems right back to the universalist system of the Ottoman Empire, which the Arab states had been part of for about four centuries; this legacy meant that the Arab Nations shared one language and cultural heritage. An important historical event in understanding the Pan-Arabism movement was the establishment of the Ba’ath Party in 1947, which had branches in several Arab countries and became the ruling party in both Syria and Iraq. The Ba’ath Party spread propaganda that attempted to cultivate a sense of nostalgia for what they referred to as the “Golden Age of Arabism”. They spun a rhetoric that welded together the Westphalian sovereign state model with Western imperialism. Proponents of the Pan-Arabism project argued that any Arab leader who was opposed to unification of the Arab world was a puppet of the West.

Pan-Arabism advocates often had a socialist agenda; they believed that uniting the Arab world would lead to greater prosperity and economic co-operation for all the Arab countries. Fouad Ajami writes in ‘The End of Pan Arabism’: “From this perspective, the individual Arab states are deviant and transient entities; their frontiers illusory; their rulers’ interim caretakers or obstacles to be removed” (Ajami 1978:258). In 1952, a successful bloodless coup took place. A group of Egyptian army officers, calling themselves the Free Officers Movement were able to overthrow the corrupt regime of King Farouk. At the forefront of this revolution was a young army officer called Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Revolutionary Command Council was established by the Free Officers and General Muhammad Naguib became Egypt’s first president. However, Nasser’s growing popularity leads to Naguib removal, and in October 1954, Nasser was appointed as the second president of Egypt. Nasser transformed Egypt into a republic, introduced centralised parliamentary rule and instituted a wide array of socialist domestic reforms that aimed to improve the living conditions of the peasant majority.

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Realizing Grammatical Relations And Word Order Of Jordanian Arabic

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Jordanian Arabic (JA) is a vernacular spoken variety of Arabic. More than nine million people all over Jordan are speaking it. Colloquial Jordanian Arabic is classified according to phonological differences into three main dialects: Bedouin dialect in the east, Rural dialect in the north, and Urban dialect in the central and big cities (Al-Khatib, 1988).

These three dialects are used in everyday communication, while Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) , a variety based on Classical Arabic (CA) , used in education and formal communication . Both dialects have many differences on phonology, syntax and lexicon levels. The sociolinguistic setting of Arabic indicates a prime case of the linguistic phenomenon of Diaglossia (Ferguson, 1959).

Realizing Grammatical Relations

Arguments are phrases function to provide full meaning to the predicate. Predicates (Verbs) might take up to three arguments, and they form together one structure. Core arguments can have different syntactic role, such as: subject, direct object, indirect object. Arguments are different from adjuncts. Although arguments are mandatory in the sentence and necessary to give its meaning, the adjuncts are optional; they are not important to complete the sentence. They can simply be deleted from the sentence without producing sentences that are ill formed syntactically or semantically. This proposal will concentrate on the core arguments while it can also be developed to include adjuncts.

Each language must have some way or another of indicating the Grammatical Roles between core NPs and the verbal predicate. For recognizing these core relations (Subjects, Objects), three essential devices are accessible: word order, case Marking, and agreement (Tellerman, 2011). Any language will use of at least one of these choices. The aim of this proposal is to investigate what of these devices, do (JA) use to recognize core relations.

Word Order

Each core NP (subject / Object) should have a particular position within the clause i.e. constituents order indicates the relationship between NPs and verb. In English, both subjects and objects have a fixed position, which is how we determine who kicked the ball and what was kicked the following sentences.

This is the normal word order, and all variants of it are impossible

(1) a. Jack kicked the ball.

b. * Jack the ball kicked.

c. *kicked Jack the ball.

d. *kicked the ball Jack.

e. *The ball kicked Jack.

While only the first pattern (1a) is available in English, the other patterns are common in other languages. However, some patterns are more frequent than others. The three most acceptable word orders in most languages are those of (a), (b) and (c). However, some language tends to be more flexible in the constituent’s order than others. Jordanian Arabic is an example of this type of languages.

Word Order in JA

Jordanian Arabic is reported to have flexible word order (El- Yasin 1985; Al- Sarayreh 2012) as can be seen in (2a), (2b) and (2c)

(2) a. John akal tofaha

John ate an apple

‘ John ate an apple’

b. akal John tofahah

ate John an apple

‘John ate an apple’

c. akl tofahah John

ate an apple John

‘John ate an apple’

This variation in constituent make it impossible to figure out core NPs according to word order. Another example on flexible constituent order languages is Latin, core NPs can occur in different positions; both of these sentences in (3) have the exaxt meaning, although the order of the NPs is different in (3a) and (3b): (Tallerman, 2011, p. 14)

(3) a. Puer-um puella audi-t.

Boy-ACC girl.NOM hear.PRES.3sg

‘The girl hears the boy.’

b. Puella Puer-um audi-t.

girl.NOM Boy-ACC hear.PRES.3sg

‘The girl hears the boy.’

This variation in constituent order is possible because in Latin, the form of the NPs themselves indicates what relationship they have with the verb: this is case marking.

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My Life in Kuwait

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Thesis Statement:

The story of a girl who was brought up in an unorthodox way, in one of the most orthodox countries in the world. She is ready to take on the world, unfailingly embracing her ethnicity and culture. Introduction:

I was born to a middle-class Hindu family, on a rainy day, in the deserted and usually scorching land of Kuwait. My father’s entire family was settled in Kuwait from the 1960s. They had seen it all, from the British protectorate liberation to the horrific invasion of the Iraqis. They were so closely knit with this country. In spite of being expatriates of Kuwait for so long, our family always made sure that everybody strictly adhered to our culture and way of living. Islam was predominantly practiced in Kuwait. Therefore, as Hindus, we did get subjected to a few negligible restrictions. We shouldn’t be seen wearing a teeka on the forehead, we weren’t allowed to conduct public summits on religion, temples or other public places of worship weren’t allowed to be built and so on. However, I would be lying if I said that we weren’t able to survive through these religious constraints.


Body 1:

Kuwait has a very bountiful and rich culture. Although the country as it is, isn’t very aesthetic, the handmade jewelry, cutlery and craftworks manufactured by the Kuwaitis were striking and elegant. The citizens of Kuwait are very generous and they are always mesmerized by the Indian traditional art forms. Especially the women. They are in awe of the facial make-up, jewelry and the grace of the dancers and make consistent efforts to imitate them by joining dance classes or worse, by surfing through Youtube and other websites. My parents took me and my brother to bhajan satsangs conducted in a rented private hall, by a social group. We were also taught many shlokas and were made to read about our scriptures and the Upanisads. My brother and I would sulk about going to these classes because they brought our play-time to an end. Only later we realized how useful and informative it is to us. The hall was a perfect go-to place if we ever wanted to just meditate, have our own space, or read. The only thing unbearable about this country was the climate. We were almost always exposed to very dry and dusty climates, which gave rise to cases of mild occupational disorders in our family. Just like us, there were many Indian expatriates in our area. All of us would gather to celebrate every national holiday, religious festivals and other occasions. Diwali is one of the most vigorously celebrated Indian festivals back there. Around hundreds of people gather in a deserted ground right opposite to the apartment that I had stayed in, to burst varieties of crackers and meet and greet their loved ones warmly. Every Diwali, not only I look forward to join the fun with my friends and relatives, but I also look forward to sitting comfortably in my balcony, munching on sweets and snacks and admiring the beautiful sparks of light that spew all over the sky.

Body 2:

The school I used to attend, was very conservative, had a good learning environment and had very mediocre facilities. I loved to go to school. Yes, I was one of those few students who wouldn’t complain about going there. For an introvert, I had made quite a lot of friends and acquaintances in school. Even though school ended just five to six months ago, I feel nostalgic about how my friends and I would simply hang around in food joints and malls after school. We were even chased out of these places quite a number of times because of the shenanigans we would create. My school teachers were extremely obliging, considerate and filled with affection. They helped us to cope with all kinds of problems; be it emotional, mental or study-related. They also constantly motivated us to achieve high ranks in school as well as to participate in extra-curricular activities. Thinking back, I think school days were legitimately the best days of my life and if I was ever granted to make one wish, it would be to relive those amazing memories I made in school.

Body 3:

After eighteen long years of being in Kuwait, I finally moved to India for my undergraduate studies. At this point, I was not exactly sure about what I wanted to pursue. All I did know was that I could adapt to my own way of life as liberally and peacefully as I wanted to. I was in a state of conflict when it had come down to what I wanted to do. It seemed essential to me that I need to enjoy whatever course I am going to opt for, since I would be dealing with it for the most part of my life. I knew for a fact that I was interested in Psychology, because I had always been curious about the various enigmas of human emotions and behavioural changes. I possess the will to understand multidimensional human life. The one element that attracted me to this course is the long-term knowledge and answers to interdisciplinary human problems. I am mainly interested in the clinical or biological aspect of psychology as biology is one of my all-time favourite subjects. Moving to India was one of the biggest eye-openers for me. The students here are way more competitive and determined. They are also friendly, witty and of course, highly intelligent. I now realize that I will have to put considerable amount effort to pace up with them and reach their wavelength. I also realized that I couldn’t rely on my parents to keep me going anymore. I had to learn how to be independent and more purposeful.


Even though Kuwait is a very Islam-biased, orthodox country, the lifestyle there didn’t feel very different from how it is in India because of the environment and manner in which my parents had raised me. They had taught me the ideal values of the Indian culture and would constantly remind me of my ethnic and family origins. Thus, I personally did not find it strenuous to adapt with the cultural and environmental changes I was subjected to after my formative years. I strongly feel that my parents’ way of upbringing has also had a positive impact on the way I view myself and others around me. I gained the quality of being able to adjust to whichever niche I dwell in as well as with the people in it.

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Nature Of Changes in Our Life in Novel Araby

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

It is undeniable that every person goes through several severe changes in their lifetime. These changes are chemical; they cannot be controlled. What can be controlled, however, is accepting these changes. If people understand this, why are so many blind to reality and still stuck in their childhood illusions? One must understand that going through these changes is a painful process. Some don’t know how to accept that life isn’t a fairytale; they’re incapable of handling the world for all it truly is. Some experience too much pain to think about it. Some choose to reject the reality of life, being that life will very rarely hand them everything they want. The uncertainty of change makes everyone uncomfortable. This causes crime, hate, and injustice to be quite difficult to accept for the average person. Yet, everyone goes through a time of growth in order to experience these moments of realization. As painful as these realization points can be, they’re necessary for lone survival and independence and they even leave a person in a state of disillusionment. Self-realization is “the act of achieving the full development of your abilities and talents” according to The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Self-realization is only possible when people break out of the common world of innocence and become more experienced in the world. All of the aspects of gaining a mature identity and losing innocence are so complex and in depth that many fight about it and spend years of their lives trying to simply understand it themselves. Although many have strongly conflicting views about the unknown, everyone can agree that the contemplation of reality and fantasy, the re-evaluation of one’s true self, and the process of loss of innocence are extremely complex and personalized human processes.

Some people come to terms with who they are as an ugly truth or they don’t even come to terms with themselves at all, as they are afraid to face the reality of their identity, choices, or experiences. This is apparent in the short story Araby by James Joyce. The story starkly details the emotional and mental coming of age for a young German boy who remains unnamed throughout the story. The story revolves around the boy’s childhood illusions of being ‘in love’ with a girl only known as Mangan’s sister. He only sees Mangan’s sister as parts; flowing hair or the curve of a dress, not as a whole being in which he loves every part of. He is simply lusting over her, a fact to which he doesn’t realize until the end of the story when he comes to the realization that he cannot love yet. When “She held one of the spikes” (124) and tilted her head towards him while they were speaking about the Bazaar was a quite obvious phallic symbol, proving that she is using him for the one thing he wants, love. He goes through this childish illusion until he realizes that she’s been playing him for a fool, in which he partially goes through a change of maturity. This partial transformation is perfectly exemplified at the end of the story with the narrator “Gazing up into the darkness” as his “eyes burned with anguish and anger” (126) It is at this moment that the protagonist is thrown out of the fantasy that he was living in throughout the whole story and realizes that life isn’t what he wanted it to be, that not everyone will be nice to him, that love isn’t around every corner, and that people will try to cheat him. The reason that this is only a partial maturity is because he did indeed question his belief, one of the large hallmarks for a successful coming of age, but he also missed two of them. Seeing as how it’s quite apparent towards the end of the story that the boy is the narrator, more becomes clear about him. He failed to laugh at himself and, more importantly, forgive himself. Even as an adult looking back on his life, he’s still bitter and cynical about the situation. The boy’s action and experience show that some never go through the hallmarks of coming of age because of the fear of seeing that they failed or the fear of seeing who they truly are.

Others take a look at who they are, and are unsatisfied which leads to efforts of reinvention to better themselves, or be happier with who they are. In the story A & P by John Updike, Sammy is cashier in a grocery store when three girls dressed in only bathing suits walk into his store. At the end of the story, his manager comes in and demands that they leave the store, as he considers their dress indecent and against store policy, which Sammy claims “is what the kingpins want” and that anything else “is juvenile delinquency” (93). This act of bitterness from his boss is what prompts Sammy to quit his job at A & P. He felt unsatisfied working for someone that embarrassed young people the way his boss did. So he took the initiative in changing his life by quitting. He does not want to lead a life of blind conformity, which is what he sees around him as he “could see Lengel in” his “place in the slot, checking the sheep through.” (94) He believes there are two types of adults, pigs and sheep, which is where a shred of ignorance shows itself. Despite this ignorance, he matures by questioning authority, but fails to question his beliefs.

However, some people have true success in their coming of age, leaving themselves and everyone around them happier. In The Storm by Kate Chopin, the two main characters were successful in their coming of age in an unexpected way. The story opens with the main female character, Calixta, unaware of the impending storm. Her husband and son are out, and she is seen first “sewing furiously” (835), illuminating her dissatisfaction of her current situation. She doesn’t want to be in her home; she is frustrated and filled with unfulfilled desires. Alcee, an ex-lover of hers, rides up to the house and asks if he may “wait on [her] gallery till the storm is over” (836) and enters the residence. Alcee pulled Calixta’s husband’s trousers and son’s clothes off of the clothing line, symbolizing his movement into the home and place of the father and husband. After a burst of sexual tension, they proceed to go into the bedroom that contains the white marriage bed. This illustration of the white sheets shows the innocence and purity of the marriage bed. The shutters in the bedroom were closed, closing the rest of the world out. It was just the two of them, and as symbolized by the brewing storm, they made love. Under the idea of the church and the general consensus of the public at this time, this was bad. They both broke their vows to their partners, and in the wedding bed none the less. But during and after making love, Calixta was described as a “creamy lily”, implying she was still pure and happy. This whole situation was Calixta’s and Alcee’s sexual coming of age, acquired without vile terms or trickery, they learned for the first time their birth right to be happy, filled with pleasure, and sexually independent. The way this stands out as a true transformation is be their lack of apologies or guilt and the happiness and love they brought back to their own families. Everyone in the story benefited by these maturities; these was no hurt or deceit, just pleasure and love. Retrospectively, there are many ways one can handle the four major hallmarks for a successful coming of age. These hallmarks being the ability to question one’s own beliefs, to challenge authority, to laugh at oneself, and to forgive oneself. They can simply reject these steps, and not like what they see or remain in a childish haze, they can see these childish problems and attempt to better themselves, or they can go through a smooth transition and truly be happy with their matured selves. Although many have strongly conflicting views about the unknown, everyone can agree that the contemplation of fact and fantasy, the realization of one’s own reality, and the process of loss of innocence are extremely complex and personalized human processes. As Roman Payne once wrote, “Never did the world make a queen of a girl who hides in houses and dreams without traveling” meaning that without experience, one cannot hope to mature.

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Main Themes in Araby By James Joyce

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

James Joyce’s Irish tale, “Araby” describes the recollection of a hopeless infatuation and the desperation behind it. Set in the perspective of a young boy, Joyce portrays a simple town life, while highlighting the complex subtleties of adolescence. Utilizing a lighthearted tone, reverential characterization, a bleak setting, and sympathetic imagery Joyce suggests that even the simplest of obsessions can become detrimental to everyday life.

The main character’s recollection of his past follies is a playful reminiscence of his first look into love. Through the perspective of a young boy, the narrator describes his naivete through many childish observations, for comedic effect. At the start, he is among children “playing till their bodies glowed” (Joyce 1). It is here that the reader is given the idea that the main character is, in fact, a child. In his analysis, “’A&P’: A Return Visit to Araby,” Walter Wells suggests the journey through adolescence is a learning experience. A major component to this idea would be the new feelings associated with this progression through life. Wells highlights this, stating that the protagonist’s attraction to Mangan’s sister “excites him into confusing his sexual impulses for those of honor and chivalry” (Wells 1). This disparity between “honor” and “sexual impulses” is a clear indicator of the narrator’s subconscious need to cater to Mangan’s sister’s wishes, for he is channeling this physical attraction into something that is out of his character: being honorable and chivalrous. For example, with the introduction of Mangan’s sister, the boy suddenly no longer wants to be the same mischievous child, but rather, wants to adopt his own perception of what adulthood really is. The girl is most likely much older than the narrator, given that she is not among the children very often. This inclines the narrator to “rise” to her level, but at the same time changing everything about himself. For example, when he describes the “serious work of life” as “child’s play” (4), he clearly doesn’t know what he is talking about. He feels too grown up for school because Mangan’s sister feels too grown up for school. This difference in age is a motivation for his immediate need to accelerate time; he wants to join Mangan’ sister in any way he can. Another situation where he tries to act older is during the final scene, when he is at the bazaar, trying to make his “interest in her wares seem more real” (5). He made it clear that staying at the bazaar was a pointless endeavor, yet he wanted to look like he was interested just to preserve his personal belief that he was being an adult. Through his delusional chase for Mangan’s sister, he tried to change himself completely. He tried to lose himself through an obsession and that ultimately forced him to become desperate. This desperation has left the narrator overly dependent on her existence.

The most commonly recurring motif throughout the story is the divine characterization of Mangan’s sister. In Margot Norris’s analysis, “Blind Streets and Seeing Houses: Araby’s Dim Glass Revisited,” she emphasizes the voyeuristic nature of adolescence. Being a period of exploration, more sexual feelings become prevalent, and stalking Mangan’s sister is the narrator’s first foray. Norris highlights this by describing that the narrator felt “safe in its blind” (Norris 3); the “blind” being his image of Mangan’s sister. The reverence the narrator holds for this girl shields the reality of his situation, for he probably cannot seduce her, but takes solace in stalking her movements. The main character idolizes her and, as a result, he imagines her as “touched by the lamplight at the curved neck” (Joyce 2). The exact same description of Mangan’s sister appears twice: once in the main character’s observation, and once in the main character’s imagination. The first time he observes Mangan’s sister, it is clear that he is completely dazzled by her appearance. He emphasizes the effect of the lamplight on her skin as merely “touching her curved neck” (2), implying the gentle effect she has on her surroundings. This gives the reader a sense that she is almost an otherworldly presence; a completely pure being. The second time this characterization resurfaces is in the boy’s imagination as he patiently waits to attend the bazaar. The fact that he remembers her in this specific way demonstrates that Mangan’s sister is a divine entity to him. She is no ordinary infatuation, but a manifestation of everything the boy wants. Her existence is fueling the boy’s to watch her and it, in turn, causes him to neglect his own duties. For example, he begins to lose his “patience with the serious work of life” as he continues to fantasize his idol. Here, it clear that he is unable to see anything but Mangan’s sister. His zealous faith in Mangan’ sister is also utter blindness to everything else, as a result.

As alluring as Mangan’s sister is, she is merely a stark contrast to the reality of the narrator’s dismal status. Despite the lighthearted tone, many descriptions of the town punctuate the story, almost as a way to remind the reader that the young boy is simply trying to escape the bleak situation of his life. For example, the narrator’s description of the local market was a place “most hostile to romance” (2) with an inundation of “drunken men,” “[cursing] laborers,” and “ballads about the troubles in [his] native land” (2). This hustle-bustle is the first true revelation of the type of place the narrator resides. “Drunken men” and “cursing laborers” often classify a lower class area, because laborers tend not to earn well and many impoverished people turn to a bottle due to deplorable circumstances. The boy’s disgust towards them only gives another reason to use Mangan’s sister as someone to temporarily avoid the seemingly antagonistic nature of his everyday life. The “ballads” are also another subtle clue to the stability of his village. There could be a shortage of crops; after all, the story appears to be set in winter due to the “cold air” (1). Yet, despite this desperate situation, the narrator escapes it all by focusing on his love interest for most of the story. Only once he journeys to bazaar his lifestyle becomes evident as he uses a “third class carriage” that “[creeps] onward among ruinous houses” (4). Here, the reader is given an idea of what the narrator can afford: the lowest quality. In his analysis “’Araby:’ Singing in the Rain,” Gerald Doherty suggests a more hypnotic point of view toward the narrator and his hunger for Mangan’s sister. He suggests that all of the narrator’s surroundings only serve as a distractions to his ultimate motives. His justification revolves around the train ride to the bazaar, describing the “ruinous houses” along the way as “a scrupulous roll call of all those intermediary sightings that come between the boy and his goal” (Doherty 2). To an extent, the narrator’s obsession with Mangan’s sister is given a layer of sympathy with this aspect of the story because it makes the reader pity him. This pity enables a sense of justification for his actions, no matter how questionable.

Even though Mangan’s sister acts as an idol to the clearly enchanted narrator, she, as a character, is an embodiment of vanity. On the surface, she is comforting, warming, and gentle, but looking deeper reveals not a single shred of humanity. In the eyes of the narrator she is free of flaws and abundant in beauty, but those characteristics only make her less real. For example their first and only conversation was about how Mangan’s sister had to “retreat…in her convent” (3), rendering her unable to attend the bazaar. Here, nothing is revealed about her true self and she is still only a pretty face, only this time making small talk. Once again, the adolescent innocence of the narrator surfaces, only in a different angle. To the reader, it harkens back to a childhood attraction, but this time, as opposed to appealing to the utter bafflement to beauty, it refers to the superficiality of such a situation. In Kathryn Conrad and Mark Osteen’s analysis “Light Squares: Framing ‘Araby,’” they suggest that achieving maturity comes at the cost of innocence. When describing the relation between Mangan’s sister and the narrator, they state that the narrator is merely “superimposing his fantasy image upon the actual girl” (Conrad-Osteen 2). On a certain level, the reader can sympathize with the narrator’s clouded judgment because as a child, only the most apparent qualities stand out. The deeper, more human characteristics, such as personality, are an afterthought simply due to the naivete that is prevalent during this time. Even though he mutters “O love! O love!” (3) during his first encounter with Mangan’s sister, he isn’t actually in love, but rather is unknowingly creating his own perception of what “love” is. He doesn’t know enough about this person to “love” them, revealing, once again, that he only knows what he sees. At the very end of the story, the narrator experiences an epiphany when the bazaar closed, seeing himself as a “creature driven and derided by vanity” (5). At this moment, seeing the bazaar close and finding nothing unveils the shroud that has blinded the boy for so long. In seconds he recognizes the lengths went over something so vain: the appearance of Mangan’s sister. This fascination with her was the catalyst to this pointless excursion as well as other pointless distractions to his duties. Yet, this brings a new level of depth to the narrator and grants the reader with another aspect to adolescence: learning from mistakes. The reader can sympathize with this sudden insight because it is representative of the many follies that potentially obscured his or her own path. This transition is what gives the narrator the depth that Mangan’s sister lacked.

Joyce’s seemingly shallow chase for love, manages to unfold into an introspective interpretation of adolescence, revealing hidden truths about the nature of growing up. The lighthearted tone and reverential characterization capitalize on the comedic, yet relatable nature of the narrator’s blindness, whereas, in contrast, the bleak setting and sympathetic characterization loom over the more serious and reflective aspect of his actions. The narrator is clearly overly obsessed with his infatuation, yet he is still significantly changed as a result, despite how trivial it is. His chase of Mangan’s sister led to a darker realization of the effects of obsession, resulting in his maturation and, albeit, sudden glimpse of adulthood.

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Escape From Reality in Araby By James Joyce

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Disillusionment and Escapism in Joyce’s Araby

James Joyce’s story “Araby” can easily be seen as a story about a young boy’s unrequited love. From gazing at his friend’s older sister from afar, to whispering her name in silent prayer, it is easy to see how the thought of her occupies the protagonist’s mind. However, the boy’s infatuation is only a small part in the deeper meaning of the story. The true meaning behind “Araby” is that growing up can be a painful experience. As one grows older, inevitable disillusionment will occur. Everything that brought joy in childhood will become dull, and the realities of life will become painfully clear. In “Araby”, the protagonist is unaware of the dreary reality around him. The reader can see how he turns a blind eye to his reality through the use of fantasies of quests and far-off lands. He also uses an infatuation for Mangan’s sister as a means of escape, using her as the reason for his journey. The reader can also see how those around the protagonist use a different means of escaping their reality, one that involves religion. As the story progresses the protagonist gives up his dreams and fantasies in exchange for a religious albeit dark way of viewing the world around him. The overall story is not one about first love, but the disillusionment and attempts of escape from a dark reality everyone encounters as they grow older, shown through a young boy’s attempts to cling to the dreams of romance and adventure.

The setting in which the protagonist lives is casually described throughout the story. Every detail of the neighborhood can be seen as a symbol of the hopelessness of life in Dublin. These somber details play a large part in the meaning of the story as a whole. The protagonist lives on North Richmond Street, a dead-end street which symbolizes the futility of attempts of advancement in the child’s life. Just like the street, the protagonist’s hopes and dreams will eventually reach a dead-end as he grows older and more aware of the world around him. The houses on this dead-end street are described as sporting “brown imperturbable faces,” (Joyce, 321) which helps add to the image of a very dull, unexciting neighborhood. With houses such as these, it can be difficult for a child to find interest in the world around him. The protagonist found this reality too boring, and sought a more interesting life through his imagination. He does not see these houses as part of his current reality or his future. Instead, he sees his future in more colorful and interesting neighborhoods far away from Dublin. The air in the protagonist’s house is described as being “musty from having been enclosed,” (Joyce, 321). The depressing setting is not limited to the outdoors, but is also in the protagonist’s own home. Growing up with such somber scenery, the protagonist is not initially affected by it. Instead, he is so uninterested in his mundane surroundings that he becomes oblivious to them. Occupation with play and imagination allows him to ignore the negative aspects in his life. All the protagonist and his friends need to worry about are which games they will play. In the line “the career of our play brought us through the dark muddy lanes behind the houses” (Joyce, 322) the act of the children playing is described as a career, indicating that having fun is the children’s main concern in life. The dark muddy lanes add more to the scenery. The word dark is repeated throughout the story, describing all the children come across as they play. “Dark dripping gardens where odours arose from the ashpits, to the dark odorous stables.” (Joyce, 322) Everything around them is described as being dark, but they do not let this darkness faze them. Concerned only with enjoyment they are able to ignore everything depressing around them. Even the gardens are described with bleak diction, suggesting that any attempts of merriment are futile in adulthood.

The scenery changes from describing the landscape to describing the characters that inhabit the protagonist’s country. While traveling to the market with his aunt, the protagonist is encircled by “drunken men” and “bargaining women,” and he hears “the nasal chanting of street-singers, who sang a come-all-you about O’Donovan Rossa, or a ballad about the troubles of our native land” (Joyce, 322-323). These images show how the despair that permeates the country affects its inhabitants. The drunken men use alcoholism as a means of escaping their reality. The bargaining women struggle to survive, unable to rise above poverty. The street-singers bring to light in a more direct way the struggles in the country. Karen Smith discusses the inconsistencies with the protagonist’s imagination and the actual world around him. “’Pig’s cheeks’ and ‘the curses of labourers’ comically undermine pretenses to a mystical experience of love, reminding us… of Dublin’s unromantic reality” (Smith, 71). Once again, all of this is lost on the protagonist. All of the sights and sounds mixed together and became for the boy a setting for an adventure. He states “I bore my chalice through a throng of foes” (Joyce, 323), comparing his journey to the marketplace to a quest. He trades in his poverty-stricken and dull reality for a more fantastical one, one where he can be a hero. According to Professor John Freimarck, this scene and the entire story itself “raises echoes of the Grail quest story-pattern” (Mandel, 48). The protagonist’s view on his life is very similar to the patterns found in medieval romances novels. It is almost complete with enfance which “defines the hero’s youth before his coming to… knighthood” followed by the “introduction of the lady who becomes central to the hero’s life” (Mandel, 48). The protagonist sees his journey through the marketplace as part of another step in this medieval romance. The fourth step being a perilous quest. It is not until he is told of Araby that the boy returns to the third step, a commitment to the quest. The boy’s dreams of quests are also hinted to in one of the books he finds in the back drawing-room of his house. One of the novels found was The Abbot by Sir Walter Scott. It is a romance that tells the story of a brave knight and the escape of the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots from her imprisonment. It has close similarities to the protagonist’s imagination. Him being the knight, but also the queen, escaping from imprisonment in a dreary neighborhood and sailing away to greater opportunities.

The boy’s delusions soon come to an end when visits the famed bazaar known as Araby. When he is told of the bazaar Araby, the protagonist is filled with excitement. He is not only excited to extract more attention from Mangan’s sister by buying her a gift, but to see all his fantasies come to life at the exotic bazaar. The protagonist over-romanticizes the bazaar in the line “the syllables of the word Araby were called to me through the silence in which my soul luxuriated and cast an Eastern enchantment over me” (Joyce, 324). Throughout childhood the protagonist had used imagination as a means to escape his reality. At Araby he will no longer need to rely on his imagination to create a fantastical situation. The bazaar offers to the protagonist and opportunity to bring his dreams to life, not only with a gift for his crush, but with the promise of far-off lands waiting to be explored that will promise a better life. However, when the protagonist arrives at Araby, he realizes that there is no promise of a better life full of adventure there. Just like the neighborhood where he has spent his entire life, Araby is engulfed in darkness. It is then the protagonist realizes that his fantasies have no base in reality, and could never come true. The dreariness of his country could no longer be ignored, he is left alone in the darkness forced to accept the futility of his endeavors. It becomes clear in the ending that it wasn’t Mangan’s sister’s love in particular that was truly important to the boy. The line the protagonist says as he enters the bazaar “remembering with difficulty why I had come” (Joyce, 326) shows that his infatuation with Mangan’s sister was fleeting, only a small portion in his bigger dream. His infatuation was only a catalyst that brought him closer to his epiphany. It’s important to note that this is a gross misinterpretation of the actual Araby bazaar that occurred in 1894. As Katherine Mullin had stated in her essay, “Something in the Name of Araby,” the bazaar was very crowded, as advertising had lured many to the event, possibly looking for the same means of escape from the reality of Dublin that the protagonist was. Mullin points out a detail described in The Freeman’s Journal concerning transportation to the bazaar. So many people were traveling to the bazaar that the express tram lines that went directly to Araby were so busy that “from seven o’clock to half past eleven tram after tram travelled in unbroken succession” (Mullin, 61). The transportation is also mentioned in the story, when porters prevent people from boarding “a special train for the bazaar” (Joyce, 325). It is also stated that the protagonist arrived at the bazaar at 9:50 pm, even though The Freeman’s Journal states transportation to the bazaar ran until 11:30 pm (Mullin, 61). It is also stated that “18,000 people [frequented] the various restaurants and stalls, [shopped] at the stalls, and [awaited] the midnight fireworks finale” (Mullin, 61). At the actual Araby, half of the bazaar was not shrouded in darkness at ten o’clock, and there was more than one stall open. Joyce added these details to further present the theme of disillusionment. The details, though incorrect, draw a connection between the bazaar and the protagonist’s everyday surroundings. This grounds the bazaar in reality for the protagonist, and shows him that he cannot find a means of escape through fantasies of brave knights, damsels in distress, and enchanting journeys. There is another means of escape for the protagonist, however. It is a method of escapism that, just like the scenery and the reality of life, had eluded the protagonist through the majority of the story.

Religion is a major theme in the story. It is an important aspect in every character’s life. The first religious reference in the story is the mention the protagonist’s school, the Christian Brother’s School. The protagonist describes the end of classes for the day as being set free from the school, indicating that he, like many of boys of his age, see school as confining and a waste of time. As previously mentioned, the boys who see playing as a career see school as an obstacle keeping them from their more important duties. The religious teachings that take place in the school are not taken to heart by the children. It is because of this neglect of the teachings that the protagonist does not find escapism in pious dedication to his religion, but through fantasies. It is not until he is older that his fantasies mature into religious devotion as a means to escape his discontentment with life. Another connection to religion is made through the mention of the priest who had died in the protagonist’s house and the belongings he left behind. Even the most trivial items hold religious meaning. “The apple tree in the garden behind the house, along with the nearby bicycle pump, suggest the Garden of Eden and the serpent,” (Trudeau, 1) which foreshadow the temptations romance and the exotic bazaar are to the young protagonist. Like Adam and Eve, the protagonist will give into these temptations, ignoring his religious studies in order to attempt to win the love of a girl. This idolization of Mangan’s sister is an act seen as sinful in his society. A.R Coulthard, in his literary criticism titled “Joyce’s Araby”, gives another meaning to the musty air that occupied every room in the house. He states that the air is “one more closely linked with religious devotion” (Coulthard, 98). He also mentions the books found in the waste room, one of which has a direct relationship to religion. He states that two of the books “suggest that the priest attempted to lighten the load of the Catholic discipline signified by the third, The Devout Communicant, a pamphlet by a Franciscan friar” (Coulthard, 98). Later on in the story the protagonist hears the “shrill litanies of shop-boys” (Joyce, 322) on the busy streets. Prayer is so common in the protagonist’s country that it is commonly sung on the streets. The protagonist doesn’t pay any mind to these prayers, however. But, the religious influence is not entirely lost on him.

His infatuation to Mangan’s sister is likened to a religious experience. “Her name sprang to my lips at moments in strange prayers and praises which I myself did not understand” (Joyce, 323), in this line the name of Mangan’s sister is compared to a prayer. In another line, “I pressed the palms of my hands together until they trembled, murmuring: O love! O Love! many times” (Joyce, 323), the act of the protagonist pressing his palms together closely resembles the act of praying, caused by the thought of Mangan’s sister. The protagonist seems to be aware of the adults around him using religious as a way to cope with their living situation. It’s unconscious knowledge that he is not fully aware he has. By living a pious life the people in his life do not have to worry about their situation currently, because the afterlife will be much better. The protagonist attempts to find this religious escape in Mangan’s sister. Like a child pretending a plastic toy phone is real, the protagonist pretends Mangan’s sister is like a religion. He finds that this infatuation is far more interesting than Christianity itself. There is more indication of this in the meaning behind Mangan’s name. The name Mangan references the Dublin-born poet James Clarence Mangan. Mangan’s sister is an allusion to James Clarence Mangan’s poem, Dark Rosaleen. In line 31 of the poem, “My life, my love, my saint of saints” the speaker indicates that he worships Dark Rosaleen like a saint. Line 51, “your holy delicate white hands” also refers to Dark Rosaleen as someone with saint-like qualities. Line 63, “Oh, I could kneel all night in prayer” is similar to the protagonist moment of prayer in the back drawing-room. Additionally, just like in line 19 in the poem, “for there was lightning in my blood,” the protagonist states that Mangan’s sister’s name “was like a summons to all my foolish blood” (Joyce, 322). This is described in Strohmer’s work as “the transformation of pious devotion to earthly desire” (Strohmer, 2). However, this transformation could be seen as a change from earthly desires to religious devotion. The protagonist’s thoughts soon turn solely to religion at the end of the story. At the end of the novel, the boy finds himself “a creature driven and derided by vanity” (Joyce, 326). Vanity, being one of the seven deadly sins, points directly to religion. The protagonist sees his dreams of adventure and love, his physical attraction to Mangan’s sister, and the attraction to allure of Araby as sins he had committed. A.R. Coulthard points out in his criticism, “anguish and anger are merely emotional reactions, but the admission of vanity, which reflects the oppressive Catholicism in the story, is a severe moral judgment” (Coulthard, 97). At the end of the story, the protagonist adopts the same beliefs as those around him about religion. He is consumed by “a repressive Dublin culture, which renders hopes and dreams not only foolish but sinful” (Coulthard, 97). He turns to religion and the promise of a peaceful afterlife, embittered by the realization that this peace and happiness cannot be achieved while he is alive.

James Joyce’s Araby calls to light the disillusionment that occurs when one grows older. It is easy for the protagonist and his friends to believe in the illusion of a life full of adventure and romance when the only thing they need to concern themselves with is play. Attempting to escape from reality does not disappear when one grows older, it only changes form. For the protagonist, his escape from his dreary reality was his dreams of adventure and his infatuation with Mangan’s sister. For the adults around him, their escape was through religion. Their dedication to asceticism allowed them to live their lives with hope, despite their inability to improve their lives.

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