Another Country

149

The Role of Country in the Impact of Culture Shock

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Culture shock is a well known phenomenon due to the integration that’s always happening with people all over the world due to their work, tourism and migrations. It’s a nerve stretching occurrence one experience when exposed to a whole new society or country, also the unfamiliarity of local customs, norms, beliefs and even food which change drastically from one country to another. Some people don’t recognize it due to their unawareness of the fact that their surroundings is affecting them; some tend to consider the weather and changing climate from their home country is the reason or their immune system is trying to cope with new bacteria and germs. These assumptions are right but it’s not the real thing especially once a person starts to feel the “Rollercoaster” emotion it means culture shock is striking.

Many stories came up while researching for this topic which intrigued me to study more this interesting fact. This sentiment doesn’t happen to everyone that travel to a foreign land, there’s no confirmation on why it hits some people but experts claim that it depends on the type of the personality an individual possess and how fast a person can adapt to the change proceeding around him even in their own safe and personal regular surroundings. Numerous business cases report failures from their assigned employees when they travel to another country, due to their ignorance on this matter, plus not knowing exactly how to react in the moments when they feel strange.

I have decided to research this topic since I knew about it a long time ago but never had the chance to go deeper regarding the feelings, symptoms and studies about it. Plus, I traveled to many countries but never experienced it, but some of my family members and close friends did and had different types of mixed feelings when they were away from home. And I decided to understand what they felt and how they adjust by time with culture shock. I would like to investigate on the types and symptoms that one experience when he’s traveling and the adjustment to life abroad since I would love to live outside my home country and experience a new life which would be more decent. For instance, after the wars that happened throughout the past 10 years many migrations happened throughout many countries around the world, and the new comers to foreign lands had difficult times to adjust. Here in Lebanon we had many sightings regarding the migrants doing strange things around Lebanese citizens and they got criticized or asked not to do it which ads up to their disorientation. In one case an NGO asked the refugees in camps in South of Lebanon about their feelings regarding their current situation and the results where mostly negative where they felt unsettled and missing their motherland. They expressed similar approaches for the one that a normal person would have once placed in a different society.

Moreover, students who now travel abroad are more likely to experience it, they experience negative symptoms for example like sadness, melancholy, loneliness, a very high consciousness about their health, lack of confidence, longing to their own families. That’s why many of these students also face difficult times in adjusting their place in a new surrounding and some results for them going back home.

Culture shock comes in 4 stages, tourists might not get the sensation of it since they spend a short period of time from 3 days till a week or two, but individuals who spend time more than a month will definitely experience it. They are the honeymoon stage, the frustration stage, the adjustment stage and the acceptance stage. Starting with the honeymoon stage is the positive feel a person get while traveling to a new country, which is very usual since the individual is keen-sighted on new structures, language, climate and lifestyle. Besides communicating with natives and getting to know their customs is a whole new experience which we all face once we are in a new country. Now as mentioned before as a tourist a person won’t experience negative effects, one would which it would never end but for a person to live in a new country it might become infuriating.

Which would bring us to the frustration stage, its considered to be the most difficult stage in this topic since anyone who lives newly abroad might become frustrated from the people around him due to the lack of the miscommunication due to the foreign language, accepting new signs from hand gestures to even stopping signs which means something entirely new to the newcomer since he never had it in his or her home country.

On another note other simple things can have a big impact for example, not knowing where to purchase a ticket for the train or even knowing the types of cards that can be bought which allows a person to use the train frequently with paying less money, and that would be frustrating to someone his country don’t even have trains and railroads. Keeping in mind many of the advanced countries have technological advancements which are new to many individuals and this might also be a barrier for them, which would make them want to ask for help and another barrier can be found and that is the language gap, since not all people know the English language many just speak their own native language. Frustration stage is very critical, since it could be a turning point to many travelers who are on business, studying and migrating. The third stage is the adjustment stage where many voyagers start to feel calmer and adjusting to the new culture, language, citizens and even lifestyle. After some time spent on asking for directions and getting to know the acquiring of the basic needs, life becomes easier on a person. People living in Europe or America mainly tend to be in this stage particularly if an individual is coming from a third world country, their home nation lack many industrial or technological intelligence. Therefore, after a while they’ll become accustomed to the new ways of transportations, norms and culture.

The final stage is the acceptance stage, in this part many by now have become well adjusted to the life their in. However, it doesn’t mean their living peacefully and in full harmony, but they’re trying to be at ease and realizing they are understanding how to function in their new surroundings. In this phase they would be able to know where to gather their means to be comfortable and composed. These four stages highlight the reality we are set on once we are transferred to a different location that we are used to. It’s true not all people might feel those effects but there’s a country that might make every person in the world fell them. Saudi Arabia can be overwhelming to many individuals even for Muslims, since this country is built upon many restrictions and limitations in life. Most people have a lot of advantages in their republics but once they’re placed in the Arabic countries those privileges are removed from their rights. This place is a deeply conservative Islamic State and Islam governs all characteristics of life. While religion is the dominating aspect there non Muslims are allowed to practice their religion but in secrecy and without showing it to others, plus a person must avoid talking about religion openly due to the severe punishment the state has set. And one must not show any religious symbols or jewelry.

Generally, people living there are forbidden from many things including, drinking alcohol or eating pork food, there’s no cinemas or theatres which would allow their people to have some fun. While also on television many scenes of movies are cut off and many movies are prohibited due to immoral or sexual content. Luckily there are compounds where Westerners reside in them, which allows them to keep in touch with their routines that they are used to back home, they have malls, food franchises and even the satellite television channels which would allow the individuals there to feel at home and reduce the side effects of culture shock.

After knowing what culture shock with all its elements, there are many ways which allows us to fight it and making us feel it less. Starting with a reminder to ourselves that what we are feeling is perfectly normal, while keeping in touch with our loved ones, family and friends and getting their support is a moral boost. Many have tried to eat familiar food which reminded them of home plus maintaining habbits they used to do before like reading a book, watching movies and series, also getting along with citizens in doing activities which both parties like. And finally getting out trying new things, clubbing and meeting new people helps a person to enjoy life there more. In my personal experience I only experienced 3 stages out of 4 and for some this might be applicable. I had the chance to live abroad in Cyprus, this country is a European one where they have many MANY things different than Lebanon and when I first went there I felt the honeymoon stage and it was amazing. I also felt like I didn’t want it to end plus wished to live there forever. At first there was many services I was ignorant about from buying a cell number, to subscribing on the internet service of my house and I felt confused since their system was very different than the one I was used to. But after asking fellow Cypriots regarding how things are obtained it felt so easy, which led me to the third and fourth stage easily. After 3 weeks I felt like a Cypriot who lived there for years, and enjoyed my stay since I was very happy with the privileges the country offers from fun, sports, clubbing and many other activities.

Another person that experienced this case is my sister; after graduating my sister started traveling the world on business since she was a prodigy in her field. She went to many Arabic and European countries. Her toughest experiences were in the Islamic countries, she was prohibited from many privileges that she normally had in Lebanon and European ones. Turkey was the country she felt the four stages in, since she had to live in it for a while in a town where Islam is very strict and had to go away from the town in order to have some fun with her coworkers and unwind. She couldn’t eat their food since they add to many spices which made her stomach hurt, plus she was surrounded by a closed minded society. She went into depression for a short period of time but luckily the company’s psychologist helped her snap out of it, while guiding her throughout the rest of the stages. Now till this day she still travels to Turkey for work but try as much as possible to do her assignments fast so she could go back to her home in Netherlands.

In my opinion after studying this case plus experiencing it from a different angle I think the country has a big role on the impact of culture shock. Depending on the country and how people perceive the reality their facing, it will work in a way to have an influence on the individuals but knowing the ways to evade all the negative effect is a boost for a person to have a better understanding on what he’s going to face in a new environment.

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153

Culture Shock on Arriving to the United States from United Arab Emirates

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

A time I had faced “culture shock” was when I was seven years old and had arrived to the United States from a country known as United Arab Emirates, or U.A.E. Prior to arriving in the U.S., I grew up in the predominantly Muslim emirate of Sharjah, next to the world-famous emirate and city Dubai. In my neighborhood, many people were either of a south Asian background or were Emirati. This means that growing up, everything that I saw and heard was from either a middle eastern person or south asian person. At seven years old, I was well aware that different types of languages and religions existed because many of my neighbors were Muslim, and my family’s background is Hindu. My family spoke Bengali, while my neighbors spoke either Arabic, Hindi, Urdu, Malayalam, Tamil. However, that was the extent of my knowledge about the world in person.

As a child, I was really into cartoons so I watched the TV. And so I watched many cartoon shows such as Dora the Explorer and The Magic School Bus. I followed along very intently and would frequently disrupt my father watching cricket in order to follow Dora about “hola”, “uno, dos, thres” and “rojo” or “azul”. Yet, I had never heard those phrases being spoken out loud by anyone else. In fact, I had never even seen a Hispanic person before in my life. And so I honestly believed that the language Dora was speaking, Spanish, was a made-up language! With The Magic School Bus, I enjoyed a lot of the lessons from the teacher Ms. Frizzle. But the reason why I just could not stop looking at the characters was because they looked so different from the people I had seen before in real life! I understood that there was a variation in skin colour since my father is on the darker side and my mother is very pale, but I had not come across people with very different facial features. I had never seen an African person before in my life, or a Caucasian person with red hair, or an East Asian person.

When I first arrived at the John F. Kennedy airport, I was immediately overwhelmed just by observing the environment around me. I noticed that there were hundreds of people frantically scurrying away to various locations. In addition, I noted that this was the most diverse crowd I had ever witnessed in my seven-year old life. I saw white people, Hispanic people, black people, East Asian people. There were people from all over the world, which was not a common sight to see in Sharjah back in 2008 and still extremely foreign in my parents’ native country Bangladesh today. During the three hours my family and I were stuck at the airport, I could not stop asking my mother questions about the people passing by: “Why does this person have big hair?”, “Why does this lady have such blue eyes?”, “How is that family so dark?” are just a few of the questions I asked. I was in awe and scared at the same time of my new surroundings.

That year, I was admitted into first grade. I refused to talk to anybody due to the fact that everyone looked extremely divergent. Even though I knew fluent English, I was so frightened to open up. I didn’t look like the other kids, I did not exactly speak like them, dress similarly to them, so I assumed I didn’t think exactly like them either. I perceived many differences from the moment I arrived in this country. For instance, I noted that one could not just go around and address ‘good morning’ to everyone. Another example is that in Sharjah, I attended a private school so I had to depend on my family providing my lunch for me but in my Brooklyn elementary school, lunch was free. I felt as if I were taking advantage so I tried to take less. I was surprised to hear Spanish from some classmates too!

Due to my inexperience with the American culture I faced a cultural shock. Coming from an almost homogeneous neighborhood, I came into the U.S. without knowing much about the culture, and so I was confused about why the people were so diverse. However, now I am aware that everyone living in America is viewed as American, despite where they ethnically might be from.

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183

Culture Shock Experienced by International Students

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Culture and its behavior are a sturdy part of everyone’s life. It has a major impact on our perspectives, our values, humor, hopes, believes, and worries. According to me, learning other cultures motivate us to visit and experience unique heritage and practices around the world. It may also simulate our mind and even teach us different ways of doing a task. International students travel from different areas of the world to study in different schools or institutions.

Being an international student, I understand that most of us leave their families behind in their respective countries and for this reason they face amazing personal challenges. Maximum global students struggle in the method of adapting to a new culture, studying a brand-new language and information plus getting involved in a new manner of life so it will not be a wonder that most of them stumble upon infinite difficulties. It takes difficult paintings to triumph over the challenges of dwelling in one of the kindest nations. Because every human being identifies his or herself with a selected institution, it’s far important to understand the values and norms of different cultures so as for ours to be understood as properly. What I believe is that if one wants to embrace different culture, then they must be open-minded. This is essential if people ants to know each other and set up common ground.

Language barrier, cultural shock in addition to the pressure due to homesickness impacts the manner a person perceives things. For example, the way human beings speak with each other here isn’t always the equal as the manner they did in students’ national locations. One incident happened to me when I went to Montreal for a stay and few of restaurants were served in a French manner. Even the menu’s and servers used to talk in French, and it was mandatory for them to know the language. When students like us are not able to share their experiences and express their needs, sometimes one may feel trapped in their minds due to lack of expression of the thoughts.

Secondly, Christmas trees may be taken into consideration as ceremonial or cultural materials as well. When I used to work at a restaurant, during Christmas and new year, there was a culture to decorate the trees and play games so that we can gift each other. Coming to a new country may be disorienting and overwhelming. Whether you are analyzing in a country with the identical first language as your very own or not, assimilating to a new lifestyle comes with a few issues. One of the dangers of being a global student is experiencing cultural shocks.

What is suitable in our way of life is probably unusual and strange in the host tradition. This creates anxiety inside the hearts of various international students which i know since they may be constantly aware of a new or second environment. Throughout this time, miscommunication could be very possibly to take place. According to many it far looks like a burden for some international students as they are trying to be the respectful and tolerant. For others, they could not prefer to be recognized and called a visitor as they’re trying very hard to understand the new tradition. As we know it is hard to eliminate cultural shock between natives and international students or employees, but it could be reduced in certain conditions.

Social behaviors might also confuse, marvel or offend international students. For instance, one could locate humans seem cold, distant or usually in a rush. Or a person may be surprised to see couples holding fingers or kissing in public. We can find the relationships among ladies and men more formal or much less formal than what a person is used to, as well as variations in identical gender relationships.

Moreover, discrimination is a commonplace problem in many institutions. Due to several misconceptions and misjudgments instructors often unintentionally discriminate in opposition to student’s background or cultures. In different countries, student’s intelligence and look may be judged and their skills are ignored. It’s surprising how maximum people automatically make assumptions about college students, considering them to be irresponsible, drug addicts, or violent.

Major step to stay safe and reduce the cultural shock is to open our thoughts to new environments. Surviving such lifestyle shock has lots to do with the way we select to approach the given or new environment. We should take some positive actions like to be interested in meeting new people, learning their cultures and believes, attending multicultural events and sharing different thoughts and experiences so that people are able understand each other.

Practical solutions can be to take advices from loved ones, spending time with ones we care, focusing on goals and having a positive mindset is the key. Finding a hobby, making new friends, attending events and even volunteer in community activities is helpful. On a positive note, we should try and droop judgment till we apprehend how elements of different cultures fit together. All should try to observe what other people say or do inside the context in their own subculture’s norms. This may assist us to recognize how other human beings see a particular behavior or conduct, in addition to how to recognize theirs. When we apprehend each culture, we will likely discover some aspects that we truly appreciate and others which we don’t.

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169

Rwanda’s Oil Industry Might Provide the Country with a Big Boost

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

The article, written by Stephanie Aglietti, describes a small African country, Rwanda’s extraordinary efforts in growing its essential oil industry. It is divided into three parts, starting with general information of the country’s industry, followed by a more detailed look on a specific company, then by a brief explanation on how the industry stands compared to the region and globally.

First, the writer numerically describes this small nation’s situation regarding the agricultural sector and how it has changed over the years. It states that Agriculture makes up a significant share of their GDP, and also has 80% of the population working in the sector. For each acre of land, the resulting income from producing essential oil can even be four times as much as from harvesting beans. A local agronomist, Nicholas Hitimana, introduced the country to the plant and has aimed to increase the export of this good since 2004 in order to diversify Rwanda’s agriculture.

In the next paragraph, Hitimana argues that his country has a meteorological advantage over South Africa, since they have no winter, thus allowing the country to harvest four times a year compared to South Africa’s two. Next, Aglietti claims that the extracted essential oil from twenty-five hectares of plantation is exported, among many, to the United States, Canada, and South Africa. The agronomist then claims that although first, it was hard to train the employees to take good care of the plants, it later paid off even for them, as they earn significantly more. According to the last part, Rwanda’s oil export almost reached $500, 000 in 2016. In the last paragraph, the writer mentions that the demand for these types of oils is building up year-by-year for its wide variety of usage. Also, the readers get an insight into Rwanda’s developments in meeting these increasing demands by building a new laboratory. Lastly, an authority official sums up the topic by stating that Rwanda can only compete if they are going for better quality and not quantity.

This article’s contents can obviously be explained by the Heckscher-Ohlin theory, although there are some assumptions that are not entirely met. The Heckscher-Ohlin theory assumes that there are identical customer preferences in the country and in the rest of the world, but I think the article implies that Rwanda only produces oil to export, not for local usages. However, this country has an abundance of land, workers in agriculture and doesn’t have winter, thus initially giving it a comparative advantage over many other countries. To grow this advantage, they started to specialize in the essential oil industry by opening a laboratory for quality control.

The effect of this change, which started in 2004, is only at the end of its short-run stage, since they have just realized, that this area makes them earn much more and as a few years before the article, it was still hard to make the workers realize how important it is to do every step of the harvesting process on-time, although this is vital if they don’t want to lose a lot of its yield.

I think Rwanda should specialize in developing its technology and start more professional education programs, as according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, one of the main challenges in Rwanda is the lack of the needed expertise, technology and infrastructure. Due to this, the country has an immense amount of wasted resources and potential. If these were to be developed, the country could become one of the main exporters of the essential oil, an ingredient used in many luxury items. If Rwandan citizens start to see the potential in this commodity, the progress could get into the long-run stage, as workers will most likely abandon beans and other plants and move to the essential oil field.

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58

My Understanding Of in Another Country Novel

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

How have these young men’s lives been changed by the war?

Before the times war, many cannot imagine what might be inflicted upon themselves. In the case of the young men in Ernest Hemingway’s In Another Country, they have cope with the loss of body parts or with the infliction of devastating wounds. In the narrator’s case, he has to deal with the loss of his leg and has to deal with therapeutic machinery. For instance, the narrator writes, “My knee did not bend and the leg dropped straight…the machine was to bend the knee and make it move as in riding a tricycle.” Our narrator was able to play football before the war, and now he simply cannot. The narrator points to other people who have been changed by the war. He points out a former fencer, Italy’s greatest fencer, who had injured his dominant hand. He also points to who he considers “hunting-hawks”, people whose pride depends on the very medals they earn. In addition, these young men’s lives have been changed by the war because the townspeople now hate them. It is ironic because the soldiers have fought for their own country, but are instead receiving hate and ill will from their own neighbors.

Why do you suppose the narrator describes the men as “detached?”

Out of the many encounters with life and death, the narrator describes himself and his fellow soldiers as detached. By saying detached, the narrator could mean that they have lost touch with society for having been out in the front for a long time. Being detached could also reflect on the numerous accounts of close death the soldiers have had. The many encounters may have started to inflict some sort of mental affect upon all the soldiers. The narrator could also physically imply the word detached. He mentions how the townspeople hates them because they were officers. Due to this hostility, they feel detached from the norms of society.

What do the medals mean to the narrator? Why did the narrator consider himself different from the “hunting hawks” even though he also had medals?

Medals are an indication that one has served time in a war. Medals are often displayed as items to be proud of. The narrator does not seem to fervidly display his medals. He is aware that he has them, but he does not display them for everyone to see. That may be because he simply got a medal for being “American.” The narrator considers himself to be different from those he calls “hunting hawks” although he also had medals. He considers them to be soldiers who brag about the medals, while he himself does not think very much of them. This is why he explains his behavior as he drifts apart from them. Our narrator seems to follow behind the Italian major, who was Italy’s greatest fencer. The narrator is drawn towards the major who does not believe in bravery.

In this story’s catalogue of death and loss, explain which kind of loss seems most serious and hardest to overcome.

Several types of loss are depicted within the story, In Another Country. The story catalogues a loss of body parts, of the past, of respect, and of loved ones. In the narrator’s, the black silk bandaged boy, and the major’s case, they have all experienced a loss of body parts. They have lost, respectively, a leg, a face, and a hand, each being important to himself. In addition, the soldiers have lost what respect they had from the people. The narrator states “The people hated us because we were officers.” This goes to how isolated and despised the officers were by the people. The soldiers can never go back to the past because many of them have been deeply tainted by the war at present. Near the end of the story, the major’s loss is striking. The major had apparently waited until the war was over to marry his beloved, only to find out she had died days ago from pneumonia. The loss of a loved one seems to be the most serious and hardest to overcome. This is depicted through the change in the major’s emotional behavior. The major first appeared as stiff and cynical, as he thought the he was receiving treatment as incompetent. However, after he had learned of his wife’s death, he was hysterical and depressed. He did not look forward to the therapeutic treatments as he only “looked out of the window”, which depicts his aloofness and depression.

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152

Pecularities Of Choosing Work Abroad

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

As an expat, when you are assigned a job assignment to work overseas to travel to a new country, you may not know what to expect. Most may think that it is an extended holiday that will be enjoyable and may be blinded by the trills of being paid to go abroad. For example there is a popular expat forum where young workers abroad meet each other and discuss that they clearly aren’t enjoying themselves abroad as much as they thought they would. “Culture shock, a term first popularized by anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, refers to the psychological disorientation experienced by people who suddenly find themselves living and working in radically different cultural environments” (Ferraro, pg. 198). Many graduates are increasingly opting to go study, live, and work abroad in the pursuit of a professional career and success and adventure while there.

Meeting people in a foreign setting and in a foreign language is such a challenge because many of these young expats may make acquaintances, but not friends and end up living a lonely life by themselves living out of suitcases and five star hotels. Also, many of them are not prepared and don’t have a good expat package or support package. This is why it turns into misery and longing to go back to their home country and constantly missing their friends, family, and how their lives used to be before they traveled abroad. For example, an expat named Jon Perry had went overseas to Singapore and he feels as if he is no longer on an extended holiday and has been there for three years and feels like that is enough to start missing home. Also, for him the security of having a ‘gang’ wasn’t there for him so he was worried for the first few months and that it might have been lonely. Being single can make the experience more daunting rather than moving out with a partner. Overseas postings can be very lonely for anyone especially for young professionals. The only thing that is set up for these expats is their work when they go abroad. So, meeting people in a foreign setting and in a foreign language is a challenge for everyone and even for the most outgoing types often suffer from chronic shyness and inhibition. “Adjustment to different cultures involves the willingness to get out and explore the cultural landscape” (Ferraro, pg. 210). When you don’t know anyone the only three choices that you have is to either go out to a restaurant or bar by yourself, stay in your flat watching a television show channel in a foreign language, or working overtime to avoid going to an empty and lonely home, which can trap you into a vicious cycle.

Expats who work for Shell in the Netherlands are deemed luckier than most because the article mentions that in addition to its briefings prior to departure and again in the host country, the company sponsors the ‘Outpost’ network which assists expats with day to day living. Also, it mentions in the article that Margaret Malewski believes that even this strategy doesn’t go far enough. She believes that in an ideal world, employers should make an effort to recognize the challenges of expat life and continue to adapt their packages to reflect the changing profile of their expat populations. She stresses that the onus is also on employees to find out about the destination before they get there, making the employer aware that they’d be happy to have a cheap studio flat in the city centre and use public transportation, but in return they want a monthly flight home.

The key to weathering the rollercoaster of emotions you will experience while abroad is by accepting the fact that culture shock is unavoidable and it is important to stay open minded and find support groups of people who have experienced what you are experiencing. Also, be patient with yourself and congratulate yourself often such as buying the right kind of milk. Just keep in mind that the trick is to work out what you want from being abroad and to realize that you don’t have to adopt the country’s whole culture and you shouldn’t hang on to your old culture. “One way of minimizing the negative effects of culture shock is to take care of yourself physically” (Ferraro, pg. 212). By picking and choosing what you like you can create a whole new culture and what is right for you.

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197

What You Need to Know About the Netherlands

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

The Netherlands is also known as another name Holland which comes under the European Union. It is a nice place to travel comprising a lot of heritage in itself. Earlier ruled by its emperors is now a Unitary Parliament Constitutional Monarchy. The most spoken language of the country is Dutch but English is something you can use to communicate as a large part of population do understand and speak English Also. Netherlands is a country which has its most of the land below the sea level and the people of Holland have managed to keep the land dry with the help of their Canal system. Dutch people are also famous as Magicians of Water.

Things to see and do – There is a lot you can do in the Netherlands that you can’t experience in any other country.

Amsterdam is the capital city of Holland with a lot of old buildings and monuments which attracts tourists from all over the world. Some of which are:

  • Centraal Station. Old City Centre/Old Side.
  • Museum Willet-Holthuysen. Eastern Canal Ring.
  • Museum van Loon. Eastern Canal Ring.
  • Dam Square. Old Center / Red Light District
  • Museum Het Rembrandthuis
  • Beurs van Berlage (Old Stock Exchange)
  • Oost-Indisch Huis.
  • De Waag

The Coffee shops: It is well known saying that Netherlands is the only country where people don’t go to drink coffee, you get a lot more than that! People can enjoy Marijuana and weed etc. All the soft drugs are legal in this country.

The Red Light Districts: Holland is country where there is a legal Red Light District in each town and city. Amsterdam’s Red light district is the second largest in the world where people come to enjoy a lot of things like Live sex shows and Strip clubs.

The water transport: There is a parallel transport system to the roads of Holland. All the roads are accompanied by canals which are used for the purpose of transportation of goods and local people enjoy boating and fishing in these canals.

Bicycles: Holland is also known for the millions of bicycles used by the people of Holland as their main conveyance for local travel. You will be amazed to see so many people traveling on bicycles instead or any other means.

Top 5 Places to visit in Country

Amsterdam:  The capital city has everything in it to fulfill needs of any kind of vacation you want. Just get out of the Schiphol Airport and you are on. Take a canal tour, visit a museum out of many, Stroll through the Red Light District, enjoy the nightlife in a good club and then relax at a coffee shop with a joint in your hand.

Leiden:  A beautiful city with a historic city center and some good museums. Take a walk in the city center and explore the city trough the canals by boat. Leiden is a student town with 20000 students out of its 120000 total population. You can get there by a direct train from Schiphol Airport; you don’t need to go to Amsterdam city for conveyance.

Delft:  Delft is a small traditional city with mind blowing architecture and heritage. It’s City Hall and Churches are famous for their ancient architecture. Delft’s blue earthenware are famous all over the world. You can take a train from Amsterdam Centraal and change at Leiden central for Delft.

The Hague: The Hague is known as the International City of peace and justice as it is the political center of The Netherlands as well as the world. This city has 45 museums, 30 theaters and about 4000 shops. Local people of the country like to shop in the city as they have many choices and a lot for a one day trip. To travel across the city, you can buy an HTM day ticket which coasts 7.70 euro. With this ticket you can travel an all trams and busses for the whole day without spending a single penny.

Gouda:  When we hear the name Gouda our mouth just fills with the taste of creamy cheese as Gouda is famous for its cheese market. It’s a small town with 70000 people living here and most of them are indulge in cheese business. This is a perfect destination for a day trip. You can get train from Amsterdam, Rotterdam or Den Haag to reach Gouda.

Country’s Attractions

Keukenhof – Known as the garden of Europe, Keukenhof is a tulip garden which is one of the most visited places in The Netherlands. Keuken means kitchen, the name is derived from the word kitchen as it was a kitchen garden of a large country estate in the past. There are more than 700 varieties of tulip flowers in the garden which is spread over 70 acres of land. The best time to visit is April and may. The garden is situated in the South Holland between Haarlem and Amsterdam. The best way to reach is Train from Schiphol airport.

Rijksmuseum – The Dutch National museum is one of the major attractions of Holland which is situated in Amsterdam. Started in 1809, today holds about 7 million works of art including 5000 paintings which are placed in 250 rooms and a vast library with around 35000 books to read. Apart from this, it also showcases traditional Dutch handicrafts and modern art.

The windmills of Kinderdijk – Kinderdijk , the word means children’s dam. There is story behind the name which narrates that there was a flood in 1421 during which the cradle of a child stuck in the dam. This is a small ancient village having 19 windmills named the Kinderdijk windmills which were build in the 17th century. These wooden windmills with 92 feet sails are well preserved till now and are in working condition till date. These majestic buildings are open for visitors from April to October. There are some mill days on which the sails are set in motion.

Hoge Veluwe National Park – Despite of being a small country The Netherlands have a good variety of fauna as well, that is spread all over the country. But Hoge Veluwe National Park is the largest in area covering nearly 13800 acres of land. This is one of the most popular day trip destinations for the locals and foreigners as well. It has Europe’s largest sculpture garden which shows the works of Hepworth, Dubuffet, Rodin and other artists.

Zeeland’s Spectacular Dikes – Zeeland is situated in the southwestern part of the Netherlands comprising many islands and peninsulas incorporating the deltas of the Mass, the Rhine and the Schelde Rivers. This area is dependent on the impressive dikes and modern techniques of flood prevention as most part of the land is below the sea level. The project has been included in the Seven Wonders of the World just because of the techniques used to prevent the land from being merged in to the sea.

Accommodation: Accommodation in The Netherlands has a vast variety. You can get Hotels, Hostels, Home stays, Resorts, apartments, boat houses, villas etc.

Hotels:  In Holland have a wide range the country offers you from small budget hotels to big brand Luxury hotels and business hotels ranging from 30euro.

Hostels:  Hostels are most famous amongst young travelers as they are cheap in costing and you get to know a lot of new people from different places and cultures. Hostels range from 10euro.

Home Stays:  Home stay is another option that tourists can opt for. This is one of the best options you can take if you want to observe the Dutch culture closely as you get an opportunity to live with the local people. Home stays are not too expensive as the range goes from 30euro.

Resorts:  There are a lot of resorts available in Holland for you to have a pleasant and comfortable stay in the arms of nature. You can book a resort starting from 80euros for one night.

Apartments:  You can also book an apartment if you are going to stay for a longer period of time. The apartments can be rented on daily, weekly or monthly basis. It can cost you from 350euros for a month.

Boat House:  Boat houses are a completely different experience to stay in for a night or more. Where you can just relax in your holidays and there is no one to disrupt your privacy. The cost of boat houses in the Netherlands starts from 50euros.

Food : The Netherlands has a rich heritage of food, from sea food to small cookies and traditional food. Some of which are mentioned here

Kroket : Kroket is a deep snack which is actually a deep fried roll with meat inside covered in breadcrumbs. The basic Dutch kroket was made of beer or veal. Now a days there are a lot of different flavors like chicken, shrimps, satay and vegetarian.

Patat : Patat means Potato in Dutch. Patat is what we call fries. Dutch patat are a little bit thicker than the French fries and are originally from Belgium but Dutch people like it like hell. They have patat with mayonnaise sauce, peanut sauce or tomato ketchup.

Poffertjes : Poffertjes look like small pancakes but much fluffier than pancakes. Butter and powdered sugar are the most common topping for Poffertjes.

Drop : Drop is also known as licorice. It comes in 2 basic flavors one is sweet and the other is salty. Dutch people consume licorice more than any other country in the world as the average consumption of licorice in Holland is 2 kg per person per year.

Bitterballen :Bitterballen are small balls with breadcrumb coating and are soft from inside. Bitterballen are served in almost every café or bar because of its amazing combination with beer.

Budget

Transportation :Public transport in Holland is really good as there are not only roads and railways to travel but you can also travel by water through the country.

Trains : Holland’s rail network is worth appreciation as the network is spread all over the country so you can just take a train to any part or province of Holland. There are two different classes to travel by train the first class and the second class. If you are using a normal OV-chipkaart that means you are travelling in the second class but if you want more comfort during your journey you can switch the class by using your OV-chipkaart at NS ticketing machine.

Bus, Tram or metro : These are some modes of transport you can use to travel within the city and for short distances. Tram and metro are available only in the big cities like Amsterdam, Den hag, Rotterdam etc. But you can get a bus even in small towns. For trams and busses you can also buy a day ticket by the help of which you can travel for the whole day without paying anymore.

Travel trough waterways : You can also travel through the waterways in Holland but not everywhere. There are a lot of different services you can use to travel through water like The Amsterdam Ferry, Waterbus from Rotterdam to Dordrecht, Water Taxis, Driehoeksveer to Kinderdijk and wooden islands.

Money Saving Tips

Transport :When the word Travel comes to mind the first thing is transport which comes to our minds. Bud don’t worry of heavy transportation coasts if you are in Holland as you can get public transport very easily for all kind of transport needs. Use the public transport as much as possible to save money. And you can also rent a Bicycle if you want to wander in a city.

Stay :The second thing is say. There is a suitable and less costly way to comfortably accommodate you. You can go for the youth hostels instead of costly hotels for stay.

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184

Another country: Finding happiness in Homosexuality, overcoming rejection, Identity, and desire

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

In James Baldwin’s novel Another Country nearly all of the central characters experience anxiety, confusion, or conflict when it comes to the interweaving of their bodies, identities, and desires. The character of Eric however, a homosexual expatriate who returns to New York in the middle of the novel to pursue a career in acting, could be argued to not experience such crises, even when he engages in an affair with the heterosexual and married Cass. In fact, Eric’s affair with Cass in no way confuses his homosexuality.

When we are first introduced to Eric he is living in France with his lover of just over two years Yves. Baldwin presents Eric and Yves as having a healthy, loving, and mutually respectful relationship free of the racial, gendered, and classed subtext that is present in the relationships of all of the books other characters. During the first chapter in which Eric is introduced, the couple are presented by Baldwin as content with each other:

“[Eric] and Yves had been together for more than two years and, from the time of their meeting, his home had been with Yves. More precisely and literally, it was Yves who had come to live with him, but each was, for the other, the dwelling place that each had despaired of finding.”[1]

This passage shows the level of happiness and completeness that stems from Eric and Yves’s relationship through an achieved sense of “home”, while the final sentence suggests that this relationship, and the genuine happiness that comes from it and its sense of “home”, is the end result of a long process of searching for a person each were capable of loving. This therefore suggests that Eric, before leaving New York and moving to France where he met Yves, faced internalised crises concerning his identity and desires that were resolved through the consummation of a relationship with another man. It is the fact that, after deciding to move back to New York, “[he] did not want to be separated from Yves” [Baldwin, pp. 158] that shows that Eric, through his relationship with Yves, has come to accept and be happy with his homosexuality.

Eric’s acceptance and comfortableness in his homosexuality is seen throughout the rest of the novel, as is his sense of loyalty to Yves and their relationship. However, his identity as a homosexual is made queer when he begins the affair with Cass, a friend from before he left New York. Baldwin presents this affair as coming from a mutual agreement between Eric and Cass:

“‘You make me feel very strange,’ [Eric] said.

‘You make me feel things I didn’t think I’d ever feel again.’

‘What do I make you feel?’ [Cass] asked.

‘You do the same for me.’ She sensed he was taking the initiative for her sake.” [Baldwin, pp. 242]

By being a homosexual who is willing to engage in a sexual relationship with a woman, Eric presents a complex interweaving between the concepts of bodies, identity, and desire, or rather lack thereof. The affair between Eric and Cass suggests that bodies, identity and desire are not intrinsically linked or interwoven.

Baldwin suggests that just because Eric identifies as homosexual, and is part of a loving homosexual relationship, he is not prohibited from desiring women. In a similar example in her book, Queer Theory: An Introduction, Annamarie Jagose presents the argument that men who are married to women and identify as heterosexual yet still desire having sex with other men are not necessarily homosexual or closeted homosexuals.[2] The presentation of Eric’s affair is also reminiscent of Carl Wittman’s assertion in “A Gay Manifesto” that a homosexual identity is not solely based on sexual desire, who one has sex with, but rather a social identification, a willingness to label oneself as homosexual, a “capacity to love someone of the same sex” regardless of who else one may desire.[3] The gender of one’s sexual partner, Baldwin, like Jagose and Wittman, suggests, does not define one’s own sexuality; sex and sexuality are two non-corresponding concepts. Desire, in the case of Eric, is presented as indiscriminate and ambivalent towards identities and bodies, allowing one individual who identifies as a homosexual man to desire another individual with the body of a woman in an act of sexual fluidity.

While Eric is seen to be able to embrace a sexual fluidity separate from his identity as a homosexual, Cass, on the other hand, experiences certain problems through her interweaving of bodies, identity, and desire. Vivaldo, a mutual friend of Eric and Cass, notes that concerning the affair “it was not Eric that surprised him, but Cass.” [Baldwin, pp. 271] This suggests that Cass is assumed to be more traditional, more demure or prudent than Eric. Perhaps, unlike for Eric, the issue is not the body that is desired and the impact that this desire has upon one’s identity, but rather the existence of the desire itself. As Vivaldo’s girlfriend notes, “Cass is a grown woman with two kids. What about those kids? … Those kids are going to hate her”. [Baldwin, pp. 272] The assumption is that there is a double standard when it comes to promiscuity. There is no issue when Eric, a homosexual male, engages in a sexually fluid affair despite being in a committed relationship, but Cass is condemned by her friends as she is a married mother who cheats on her husband, in spite of engaging in an affair that abides by her sexual identity.

Perhaps this is connected to what Wittman states in “A Gay Manifesto”, that “sex for [women] has meant oppression, while for [homosexuals] it has been a symbol of our freedom.” [Wittman, pp.5] Sex, the act of combining bodies and desire, is inherently gendered, and is thus vastly different for men and women, even if one were to disregard sexuality. The affair for Eric does not challenge his homosexuality, but rather consolidates it, if we are to follow Wittman’s argument, by being a symbol of his sexual freedom due to his ability to disregard naturalized gender roles. For Cass, however, it symbolizes an unacceptable differing from fixed gender roles and a continuation of sexual oppression, for, as Wittman goes on to say, “One major problem [for homosexuals] is our own male chauvinism”; Eric continues a sexual exploitation of Cass due to their differences in gender. [Wittman, pp.5] For Cass, who seeks to escape her stifling, mundane marriage, the affair with Eric is condemned due to the fact that women, through the fixed nature of gender roles, are not allowed to act upon their desires.

When it comes to how bodies, identities, and desires are interwoven in Another Country, the results of this interweaving is determined heavily be gender. For Eric, there is no discernible interweaving of these three categories due to his acceptance of sexual fluidity; he is able to see the distinction between all three and how all three can remain separate. However, it is only due to Eric’s status as a male homosexual, his living outside of gender roles, that he is able to engage in sexual fluidity with no consequences to his identity, to the bodies he desires; it is because he is homosexual that the affair with Cass does not confuse his homosexuality. For Cass, however, for whom sexual fluidity is not an option due to her living with the constraints of naturalized gender roles, the interweaving of these three categories is unacceptable and signifies a conflict with the gender roles that she is defined by and lives within. However, Cass, unlike Eric, is not capable of breaking away from gender roles completely and she thus faces significant consequences, for, as Eric says once Cass’s husband, Richard, becomes aware of the affair, “Richard’s talking about suing for divorce and getting custody of the children.” [Baldwin, pp.329]

The novel presents the interweaving of bodies, identities, and desires as complicated and that the interweaving of these three categories is the reaffirming of the gender roles fixed within society. Baldwin, through the character of Eric, suggests that it is through recognizing the lack of connection between these three categories that the individual can truly be happy with themselves, and free themselves of confusion that these categories, and the fixed gender roles that they promote, create.

Works Cited

[1] James Baldwin, Another Country, (New York; Dell Publishing Company, 1963), p.158

[2] Annamarie Jagose, Queer Theory, (New York; New York University Press, 2001), p. 7

[3] Carl Wittman, “A Gay Manifesto”, Course Reader, Queer Theory, Instructor: Cheryl Kader, UWM Spring 2016, p. 4

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342

The Benefits of Homosexuality; Rejecting Bodies, Identity and Desire in ‘Another Country’

May 27, 2019 by Essay Writer

In James Baldwin’s novel Another Country nearly all of the central characters experience anxiety, confusion, or conflict when it comes to the interweaving of their bodies, identities, and desires. The character of Eric however, a homosexual expatriate who returns to New York in the middle of the novel to pursue a career in acting, could be argued to not experience such crises, even when he engages in an affair with the heterosexual and married Cass. In fact, Eric’s affair with Cass in no way confuses his homosexuality.

When we are first introduced to Eric he is living in France with his lover of just over two years Yves. Baldwin presents Eric and Yves as having a healthy, loving, and mutually respectful relationship free of the racial, gendered, and classed subtext that is present in the relationships of all of the books other characters. During the first chapter in which Eric is introduced, the couple are presented by Baldwin as content with each other:

“[Eric] and Yves had been together for more than two years and, from the time of their meeting, his home had been with Yves. More precisely and literally, it was Yves who had come to live with him, but each was, for the other, the dwelling place that each had despaired of finding.”[1]

This passage shows the level of happiness and completeness that stems from Eric and Yves’s relationship through an achieved sense of “home”, while the final sentence suggests that this relationship, and the genuine happiness that comes from it and its sense of “home”, is the end result of a long process of searching for a person each were capable of loving. This therefore suggests that Eric, before leaving New York and moving to France where he met Yves, faced internalised crises concerning his identity and desires that were resolved through the consummation of a relationship with another man. It is the fact that, after deciding to move back to New York, “[he] did not want to be separated from Yves” [Baldwin, pp. 158] that shows that Eric, through his relationship with Yves, has come to accept and be happy with his homosexuality.

Eric’s acceptance and comfortableness in his homosexuality is seen throughout the rest of the novel, as is his sense of loyalty to Yves and their relationship. However, his identity as a homosexual is made queer when he begins the affair with Cass, a friend from before he left New York. Baldwin presents this affair as coming from a mutual agreement between Eric and Cass:

“‘You make me feel very strange,’ [Eric] said.

‘You make me feel things I didn’t think I’d ever feel again.’

‘What do I make you feel?’ [Cass] asked.

‘You do the same for me.’ She sensed he was taking the initiative for her sake.” [Baldwin, pp. 242]

By being a homosexual who is willing to engage in a sexual relationship with a woman, Eric presents a complex interweaving between the concepts of bodies, identity, and desire, or rather lack thereof. The affair between Eric and Cass suggests that bodies, identity and desire are not intrinsically linked or interwoven.

Baldwin suggests that just because Eric identifies as homosexual, and is part of a loving homosexual relationship, he is not prohibited from desiring women. In a similar example in her book, Queer Theory: An Introduction, Annamarie Jagose presents the argument that men who are married to women and identify as heterosexual yet still desire having sex with other men are not necessarily homosexual or closeted homosexuals.[2] The presentation of Eric’s affair is also reminiscent of Carl Wittman’s assertion in “A Gay Manifesto” that a homosexual identity is not solely based on sexual desire, who one has sex with, but rather a social identification, a willingness to label oneself as homosexual, a “capacity to love someone of the same sex” regardless of who else one may desire.[3] The gender of one’s sexual partner, Baldwin, like Jagose and Wittman, suggests, does not define one’s own sexuality; sex and sexuality are two non-corresponding concepts. Desire, in the case of Eric, is presented as indiscriminate and ambivalent towards identities and bodies, allowing one individual who identifies as a homosexual man to desire another individual with the body of a woman in an act of sexual fluidity.

While Eric is seen to be able to embrace a sexual fluidity separate from his identity as a homosexual, Cass, on the other hand, experiences certain problems through her interweaving of bodies, identity, and desire. Vivaldo, a mutual friend of Eric and Cass, notes that concerning the affair “it was not Eric that surprised him, but Cass.” [Baldwin, pp. 271] This suggests that Cass is assumed to be more traditional, more demure or prudent than Eric. Perhaps, unlike for Eric, the issue is not the body that is desired and the impact that this desire has upon one’s identity, but rather the existence of the desire itself. As Vivaldo’s girlfriend notes, “Cass is a grown woman with two kids. What about those kids? … Those kids are going to hate her”. [Baldwin, pp. 272] The assumption is that there is a double standard when it comes to promiscuity. There is no issue when Eric, a homosexual male, engages in a sexually fluid affair despite being in a committed relationship, but Cass is condemned by her friends as she is a married mother who cheats on her husband, in spite of engaging in an affair that abides by her sexual identity.

Perhaps this is connected to what Wittman states in “A Gay Manifesto”, that “sex for [women] has meant oppression, while for [homosexuals] it has been a symbol of our freedom.” [Wittman, pp.5] Sex, the act of combining bodies and desire, is inherently gendered, and is thus vastly different for men and women, even if one were to disregard sexuality. The affair for Eric does not challenge his homosexuality, but rather consolidates it, if we are to follow Wittman’s argument, by being a symbol of his sexual freedom due to his ability to disregard naturalized gender roles. For Cass, however, it symbolizes an unacceptable differing from fixed gender roles and a continuation of sexual oppression, for, as Wittman goes on to say, “One major problem [for homosexuals] is our own male chauvinism”; Eric continues a sexual exploitation of Cass due to their differences in gender. [Wittman, pp.5] For Cass, who seeks to escape her stifling, mundane marriage, the affair with Eric is condemned due to the fact that women, through the fixed nature of gender roles, are not allowed to act upon their desires.

When it comes to how bodies, identities, and desires are interwoven in Another Country, the results of this interweaving is determined heavily be gender. For Eric, there is no discernible interweaving of these three categories due to his acceptance of sexual fluidity; he is able to see the distinction between all three and how all three can remain separate. However, it is only due to Eric’s status as a male homosexual, his living outside of gender roles, that he is able to engage in sexual fluidity with no consequences to his identity, to the bodies he desires; it is because he is homosexual that the affair with Cass does not confuse his homosexuality. For Cass, however, for whom sexual fluidity is not an option due to her living with the constraints of naturalized gender roles, the interweaving of these three categories is unacceptable and signifies a conflict with the gender roles that she is defined by and lives within. However, Cass, unlike Eric, is not capable of breaking away from gender roles completely and she thus faces significant consequences, for, as Eric says once Cass’s husband, Richard, becomes aware of the affair, “Richard’s talking about suing for divorce and getting custody of the children.” [Baldwin, pp.329]

The novel presents the interweaving of bodies, identities, and desires as complicated and that the interweaving of these three categories is the reaffirming of the gender roles fixed within society. Baldwin, through the character of Eric, suggests that it is through recognizing the lack of connection between these three categories that the individual can truly be happy with themselves, and free themselves of confusion that these categories, and the fixed gender roles that they promote, create.

Works Cited

[1] James Baldwin, Another Country, (New York; Dell Publishing Company, 1963), p.158

[2] Annamarie Jagose, Queer Theory, (New York; New York University Press, 2001), p. 7

[3] Carl Wittman, “A Gay Manifesto”, Course Reader, Queer Theory, Instructor: Cheryl Kader, UWM Spring 2016, p. 4

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454

Gender, Sexuality, and Race

February 20, 2019 by Essay Writer

Dwight McBride’s critical essay, Straight Black Studies: On African American Studies, James Baldwin, and Black Queer Studies, is a key contribution to the study of gender and sexuality in literature. In his essay, McBride identifies the absence of the component of sexuality within the scope of African American studies that predated the work of James Baldwin. He similarly criticizes the predisposition of scholarship to portray the African American experience with simplicity. McBride theorizes that that complexity of sexuality represented in James Baldwin’s texts – paired with Baldwin being an openly homosexual, black writer – challenged the ‘dominant, respectable, sanitized narratives of the African American literary tradition and what it can include’[1], and thus paved way to new discourse regarding the complexity of the African American experience, with the inclusion of sexuality as a key element. McBride identifies James Baldwin’s novel Giovanni’s Room as the initial text to challenge African American discourse, but further examples relating to the key ideas found in McBride’s essay – specifically the difficulty in reconciling homosexuality and blackness – can also be found in Baldwin’s later novel, Another Country.

Another Country is rife with explicit depictions of the complexities of race and sexuality, and portrays how all the nuances of the two interlace with each other. This complexity is evocative of McBride’s explorations regarding the work of Baldwin and representations of the African American experience. In the novel, black musician Rufus commits suicide as a result of the internal conflict of both his African American and homosexual identities. Before Rufus jumps into the water he notes that ‘he was black and the water was black,’[2] indicating that his race was weighing heavily on his mind during the last moments of his life, having a direct impact on his decision to kill himself. This line mirrors the line before it, which reads ‘it was cold and the water would be cold’.[3] The similarity of these two lines highlights that the one thought led to another. And that the latter line is separate to the text before and after it, existing in its own paragraph, emphasizing this point, indicating the significance of the second line. This displays that Rufus identifies his race as the conclusion regarding his feelings of despair. The text also indicates that Rufus’s sexuality is another key component to his dissatisfaction, inciting his decision in taking his life. As Rufus proceeds to climb the bridge to jump, his inner monologue reads;

The wind tore at him, at his head and shoulders, while something in him screamed, why? why? He thought of Eric. His straining arms threatened to break. I can’t make it this way. He thought of Ida. He whispered, I’m sorry, Leona, and then the wind took him, he felt himself going over[4]

Here Rufus’s thought of Eric – an openly gay man, who is also a previous lover of his- causes his arms to ‘threaten to break’. This is a metaphor for the weight that the idea of Eric bears on him. The following line – ‘I can’t make it this way’ – implies that he cannot live the homosexual life that he associates with Eric. Rufus’s final words before he falls are an apology to Leona, suggesting that her abuse at the hands of him were a result of the same issues leading him to jump; internal conflict regarding his sexuality. That thoughts about his respective sexual and romantic relationships with both a man and a woman are the sum of his thoughts as he jumps to his death further suggests that his sexuality is a prime cause of his suicide. These depictions, paired with his rumination regarding his race in his final moments, suggest a complex melding of these two components. His relationship with his racial identity is influenced by his sexual preferences. The interlacing of these two components is reflective of McBride’s suggestion that Baldwin ‘reminds us that whenever we are speaking of race, we are always already speaking about gender, sexuality, and class’.[5]

Not only is Rufus’s discontentment, followed by his suicide, an example of the complex relationship between his two key identities when weaved together, but it also further reflects the notion that during this period these identities were viewed as distinct from each other. Rufus’s difficulty to reconcile the two is due to homosexuality not being outwardly recognized as existing within the black experience in a pre-Baldwin period, but instead existing as an unspoken, underlying component. After Rufus’s death, Rufus’s sister, Ida, says to Vivaldo ‘he [Eric] wanted a roll in the hay with my brother […] he wanted to make him as sick as he is’.[6] This exemplifies the discord regarding blackness and homosexuality. Ida takes issue with Eric’s homosexuality whereas the white characters around Eric do not. She cannot conceive of Rufus also being homosexual. As with this example, the result of Rufus’s suicide casts a shadow on the rest of the text, allowing further conversations and self-aware experiences regarding the complex relations of race and sexuality to saturate the novel.

[1] Dwight McBride, ‘Straight Black Studies: On African American Studies, James Baldwin, and Black Queer Studies’, in Black Queer Studies : A Critical Anthology, ed. by Mae Henderson, E. Patrick Johnson, and E. Patrick Patrick Johnson (North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2005), pp. 68-89 (p. 92).

[2] James Baldwin, Another Country (London: Penguin Books, 2001), p. 87.

[3] Baldwin, Another Country, p. 86.

[4] Baldwin, Another Country, p. 87.

[5] McBride, ‘Straight Black Studies’, p. 87.

[6] Baldwin, Another Country, p. 323.

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