And Then There Were None


Passion for Agatha Christie or And Then There Were None

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

My first impression from this book was a bit vague because I saw the movie a couple of years ago. I could not remember every person or character. I could remember the faun named Tumnus and I could remember Lucy! Reading the first chapters reminded me the way Tumnus and Lucy met.

Can you imagine walking through a closet and suddenly you are in a dream world called Narnia? For children from seven to twelve, this is important because according to Children who read this book will experience a dream. When finishing this book children go back to the real world but still, they must feel as if they are dreaming for a while.

It is impressive to see children entering a new scary cold world. Winter is ruling all the time because of the white witch. When children enter Narnia they think and act like children do. I can imagine this must be very hard for them without adults or parents who support them, especially when children face mythical personalities or animals that talk. Edmund is enchanted by the white witch and he must hand in the remaining children to her. This is well written because we all are familiar that we can buy the innocence of children with candies or promises. Think about malicious adults in our modern world. Edmund as a child is not feeling well when things are going wrong. I think Edmund has a strong character!

During the in-class discussion, we talked about patterns. This took a while because we could not find patterns instantly. The first pattern was entering the closet but also leaving the closet. The second pattern was, not believing characters, for example, the youngest character which is Lucy.

We also talked about conflicts. At first, we have Lucy who discovers the wardrobe and informs the others. None of the children believe her. We have Edmund dealing with himself and his loyalty. Then we have the other children who have to deal with Edmund. They think Edmund has turned evil but is he really evil? Finally, we have the conflict between the white witch and the children.

The age suitability are children from seven to eleven years old. In this story, a lot of children have to leave London because of the Second World War. Children move to the countryside without their parents and children have to make decisions on their own. According to The mentioned target group have to deal with new situations as children have to in real-life. In this book, we don’t have parents who support the children during their adventures in Narnia. explains that In youth literature, this is important because children have to explore the world themselves. There are no characters to identify with. The only person I have been thinking about is Edmund. I don’t know what I would have done if I were Edmund? This book was a real page-turner. I liked this book because it brings you to a phantasy world you don’t want to leave.

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And Then There Were None By Agatha Christie: a Character Of Philip Lombard

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Philip Lombard is the human embodiment of selfishness. Not an evil disdain for human life, but a simple yearning for self-preservation above all else. Lombard often seems disconnected from his surroundings, as if he’s observing the events around and occasionally participating. Lombard often treats life a rollercoaster, a fun experience that fools you into a sense of danger, but are always in control of, almost always..

On pg. 47 of ATTWN, each character is presented with crimes they have commited in the past. “Philip Lombard, that upon a date February, 1932, you were guilty of the death of twenty-one men, members of an East African tribe. ” After the storm, each guest outright deny their involvement in the crimes or, like Justice Wargrave and Miss Brent, try to justify their crimes. Lombard however, treats the slaughter as a triviality, it was the best opportunity to ensure survival, so he took it. This reaction gives us a peek into Lombard’s psyche and way he’s always acts so blase in many of the sequences of ATTWN, because to Lombard, there’s always a way out.

“For the first time his (Lombard’s) voice was uneven, almost shrill. It was as though his nerves, seasoned by a long career of hazards and dangerous undertakings, had given out at last. ”(pg. 203) This is the first throughout the entire novel that we see Lombard lose his composure. At last, the pure insanity of the whole situation has whittled down Lombard’s nerves into paste. Lombard’s reaction opens the reader to the 2nd half of the book, where a real sense of urgency is now placed upon the remaining cast of the book, now that the most level-headed character has now been driven mad by the situation. This opens the theory that Lombard is conduit for the reader. At the very beginning of the book, Lombard is shown to be a thrillseeker in search of another adventure, much like the reader. However, as the book progresses Lombard is legitimately taken aback by the events of the novel, this could possibly be done to indicate the emotional state of the reader. As to how well the ATTWN actually manages to surprise the reader is up for debate, but regardless, Lombard’s emotional state progresses with the reader up until the very end of the novel.

When Dr. Armstrong’s body is discovered, Lombard’s blase attitude once again kicks in, a fatal mistake. Lombard naturally assumes that he now has the situation under control, there’s only two people left on the island, and he knows that he’s not the killer. His attitude towards Vera shifts condescendingly, he knows that he can now escape the situation, it’ll be just like his other adventures, roller coasters. “Vera said: “How was it worked–that trick with the marble bear?” He shrugged his shoulders. “A conjuring trick my dear–a very good one…”(pg. 262). Lombard does nothing to assure Vera that he’s not the killer, leading Vera to snatch his gun. But at least he got one last thrill before something happened that even he couldn’t predict.

In conclusion, Lombard’s life and eventual death was merely a conduit for the readers of ATTWN to gauge the events of the novel, how ironic that a man apparently so interesting turned out to be a simple plot device, we’ve seen Lombard’s archetype before and will again and again, maybe this is one of the missteps of ATTWN or maybe one of it’s inventions.

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Characteristics Of Mr. Justice Wargrave in Agatha Christie’s Book

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

One might say the main character of And Then There Were None by Agatha Christie is Mr. Justice Wargrave, but it can also be said that Wargrave does not change throughout the book at all. Wargrave is the one behind the invitations the victims were receiving, each luring them to Soldier Island. Each victim had committed a crime that remained untouched by the law. Wargrave’s original intention is to punish him or her for his or her immoral actions, and he therefore devises a theatrical plan that gives him the opportunity to kill, as well as the opportunity to die “in a blaze of excitement” (240). Because Wargrave’s doctor tells him that he is dying, his motives from the very beginning are to “live before he [dies]” (240). Throughout the entire story, Wargrave acts according to these intentions, his goal never changing once. He follows out the plan until his death, which also is the end of the story. Though Wargrave does not change as a person, the nine victims on the island do. At first, each of them think that they will “be getting a free holiday at any rate,” and they are generally excited about his/her “vacation” on the mysterious Soldier Island (8). However, their excitement gradually turns into fear and paranoia. The victims’ openness to excitement and an interesting adventure turns into a fear and suspicion for the people around them.

The Novel’s Main Theme(s)/Messages

The main theme in And Then There Were None is the meaning of justice. Agatha Christie examines justice throughout Wargrave’s plan to punish the guilty. One can either argue that the killings of the victims are justified because they are guilty, or argue that they are not because they are acts of deliberate murder. Wargrave’s murders are intended to punish “cases of deliberate murder” that are untouched by the law (238). One can defend Wargrave’s actions by saying he is only giving murderers the punishment that they deserve. Whether or not one believes Wargrave’s murders are justified depends on if they feel that all murderers, no matter what the circumstances are, deserve to be punished. However, others can argue that Wargrave’s activities are still considered murders, and that if the law does not find it necessary to punish the victim’s crimes, it is not Wargrave’s duty to. Wargrave can also be named an unjustified man for punishing those whose murders were not completely intentional, for example, Emily Brent’s murder of Beatrice Taylor. Although it can be said that it was Emily’s harshness that drove Beatrice to kill herself, Miss Brent herself did not physically murder Beatrice. Miss Brent does not seem to feel guilt at all; in fact, she is “encased in her own armour of virtue” (91). Guilt is another theme in And Then There Were None. Some of the guests do not feel any guilt for their actions, such as Emily Brent and Phillip Lombard, who is instead amused by his conduct. However, some of the guests, such as Vera Claythorne, feel guilty about their crimes. Vera’s crime of intentionally letting a little boy drown haunts her throughout the entire story. Eventually, the guilt of her crimes kills her, as she hangs herself in perfect timing to the poem.

How the Setting Affects the Story (Why is setting important in this book?)

The mysterious surroundings of Soldier Island isolate the victims from society so that they cannot get help or escape from the island. If the story was set in a different place, for example a big city, there would most likely be people that could help them. The island is cut off from the rest of the world by the storm as well as Wargrave’s plans, so the victims cannot run away, making them feel like there is no hope. In addition, the way the island is laid out makes it impossible for the murderer to be hiding somewhere, therefore, it can be concluded that the murderer is among them, which adds to the rising tension and fear. The setting of the strange mansion affects the way the victims feel, the house’s “essence of modernity [being] the most frightening thing of all…” (65).

Other Comments / Reactions / Questions

– And Then There Were None’s eerie, haunting feeling gave me chills, as well as the incentive to keep reading until the finish. The mystery of whom the murderer was kept me reading for an entire day, and I could not put the book down until I finished. Agatha Christie wrote the mystery brilliantly, its ghostly feeling so realistic it made me jump at any slight sound I heard. Wargrave succeeded in creating an impossible mystery, for I was baffled throughout the entire story, with no clue at all about who the murderer was. A cleverly written book and idea, And Then There Were None is a novel that will be hard to forget.

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Main Theme in And Then There Were None Novel

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

And Then There Were None

Agatha Christie’s mystery novel And Then there Were None is not only a part of the mystery genre of literature but it is also within a specific subgenre called a “locked-room” mystery, where a crime, almost always a murder, is committed under circumstances where it would be seemingly impossible for someone to commit and/or evade detection in the course of getting in and out of the crime scene.

A recurring theme in the book is the idea that the people on the island are being served a kind of strange ritualistic justice, in the form of a children’s rhyme, however, it is revealed that everyone being “served justice” are not really being served justice, but a form of uncontrolled spree-vigilantism from one of their own, who hands out his form of vigilantism based on what he perceives as levels of moral severity, killing the most heinous in his eyes first and the most questionably immoral guest for last. Even though the all the guests share the same kind of crime, murder of one or a number of people, they all share different fates, which goes against a key tenant of what justice itself means, that justice is fair, and that fairness means we ought to treat similar cases in similar ways. For instance, it would be unfair if we were to respond to one murderer by burning them, and then respond to another, but equal criminal act by hanging them. Similar situations ought to be treated in similar ways.

Another tenant of what makes vigilantism so wrong in this case is that the perpetrator, Mr.Wargraves could have been wrong on many of his cases, for his only reassurance on whether a crime was actually committed by his victims was the word of one other person saying they committed a crime, with no further investigation as to whether one actually occurred or not. And that goes against another tenant of what justice means, that justice is equal and that our treatment of people ought to reflect the fact that we are all morally equal. There are no morally relevant differences between human beings which make it permissible to treat them differently. For instance, there is not one race or gender that is “better” than the others. To act otherwise is to engage in immoral discrimination, which in this example occurs when Wargraves takes the word of one seemingly righteous man over another.

In the epilogue there is a manuscript in a bottle, found by a fisherman and given to the police. It is written by Judge Wargrave, who writes that the manuscript offers the solution to an unsolved crime. He says he was a sadistic child with both a lust for killing and had a “strong sense of justice”. Reading about mysteries always satisfied him. He went into law, an appropriate career for him because it allowed him to indulge in his zeal for death within the confines of the law. Watching guilty people squirm became a new pleasure for him. And after many years as a judge, he developed the desire to play executioner, even though he was considered by many to be a “hanging judge” a type of judge who would grant the death penalty almost as if on a whim. Just being a hanging judge was not enough however, he wanted to kill in an extraordinary, theatrical way, while adhering to his own perverted sense of justice. One day, a doctor mentioned to Wargrave the number of murders that must go unpunished, citing a recently deceased woman he felt sure was killed by the married couple who worked as her servants. Because the couple withheld a needed drug in order to kill her, the murder could never be proven. This story inspired Wargrave to plan multiple murders of people who had killed but could not be prosecuted under the law. He thought of the “Ten Little Indian” rhyme that he loved as a child for its series of inevitable deaths.

Another tenant of what defines justice itself is that justice ought to bring about the conclusion of a criminal act for both the victims and community at large, and we do that by having a jury of the criminals fellow peers. Judges tend to be lawyers, highly educated, affluent, white, male, middle-aged to elderly in age, and members of mainstream religions and organizations. The general public doesn’t share most of those characteristics. So when a member of the general public is put on trial, they have the right to be tried by a jury of their peers, members of the same community they live in, who may understand their thoughts and motivations better than a judge would. The jury decides the facts of the case, but to the extent there are questions of law, the judge will decide those. So the jury is required only to exercise common sense, which ordinary people on juries prove over and over they have ample amounts of. Justice Wargraves totally forgoes this process to become the judge, jury, and executioner all-in-one. For example, he kills Marston and Mrs. Rogers first, he writes, because to him they bore the least responsibility for their crimes—Marston because he was born without a sense of moral responsibility, and Mrs. Rogers because she was under the sway of her husband when they murdered their elderly employer. Wargrave later watched with sadistic satisfaction as Vera disposed of Lombard. Wargrave writes that he would have killed Vera himself, but he wanted to make her death fit the rhyme, so he set up her room in a suggestive way, with a noose hanging down and the smell of the sea wafting in, letting Vera’s own guilt drive her to suicide.

The principles of justice could be described as the moral obligation to act on the basis of fair adjudication between competing claims. As such, it is linked to fairness, entitlement and equality. All of these tenets however, are totally thrown away by Judge Wargraves as he goes about his murderous spree-killing. And Wargraves knows this too, as in the epilogue Wargraves describes a murderer who he puts to death as “nodding to him”, in understanding that they are both the same kind of person. We can also see this example of Wargraves lack of equal punishment and fairness by seeing his murder of Emily Brent, as abhorrent as a person as she is, she never committed or premeditated in any kind real crime or murder, she merely fired her servant who then committed suicide. In what sane world is that punishable by death? Similarly, however appalling a human specimen Tony Marston may be, his running over of two children was, according to him, accidental. The same lack of malice characterizes Dr. Armstrong, who did not intend to kill the woman who died on his operating table. Armstrong and Marston’s actions may have been heinous, but one could argue that they did not deserve to die. Agatha Christie goes out of her way to make us sympathize with some of Wargrave’s victims, despicable though their actions may have been.

Wargrave himself, meanwhile, is a markedly unsympathetic character. He presents himself as an agent of justice, but he admits to experiencing a perverse, sadistic pleasure in the taking of life, beginning with the “various garden pests” that he killed as a boy and continuing through his days with criminals as a hanging judge, and later his trapped human victims. He is just but not at all merciful, and he kills with enthusiastic cruelty. He is also grandiosely arrogant; his conception of himself as an “artist” reduces his victims from human beings to mere means toward his selfish ends. Indeed, he writes his confession at the end only because he cannot bear the idea that his perfect crime will go unappreciated.

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And Then There Were None Summary of Chapters 9-12

November 2, 2020 by Essay Writer

Chapter 9

Lombard is convinced that the two deaths on the island are coincidences, but Dr. Armstrong thinks that Marston’s death was not suicide. Blore thinks that perhaps something that Dr. Armstrong gave to Mrs. Rogers is to blame for her death. He accuses Dr. Armstrong of giving her too much of medicine. Armstrong strongly denies it. Lombard becomes mad with Blore, and Blore confronts him about the reason for bringing a pistol to the Island. Lombard tells them that he expected to run into trouble while on the Island and then he he tells the story about how the Jewboy, Mr. Morris, had convinced him to come to the island. Lombard tells them that he knows now it was all a trap.

Mr. Rogers makes a lunch of tongue and boiled potatoes for the guests, and they all enter the dining room. Emily Brent says that the General is not here yet. Dr. Armstrong volunteers to go and get him, and he leaves the room. There were guests of wind, and Miss Brent says that a storm is coming soon. Then, Armstrong comes back and tells them that General Macarthur is dead. They come back to the table and see that there are only seven Indians left.

Armstrong looks over the body and tells them that he had been killed by a blunt trauma to the back of the head. He tells them that he thinks that the deaths are acts of murder and that Mr. Owen has brought them all to this island in order to kill them. He tells them that he is sure Mr. Owen is on the island and that, in fact, Mr. Owen is one of the guests. The judge begins to go over all the evidence with all of them. He tries to find the killers. Then they all decide that even though Armstrong and Wargrave are good men, and Rogers is just a butler who would have had to kill his wife, there is no way to completely find if any of them are the killer. Mr. Justice Wargrave says, «There is no way to find the score of character, position, or probability».

Wargrave tells them that no one can be eliminated from doing the death of Anthony Marston since a poison had killed him. He says that Mr. Rogers and Dr. Armstrong are the likely suspects in the death of Mrs. Rogers, but many of the other guests could have had the chance to make a perfect amount of poison. Blore wants to know where this all leads. Wargrave talks more on the death of General Macarthur and thinks that Lombard, Armstrong, Blore, and Vera Claythorne all had the chance to kill Macarthur but that each guest had had moments when they were not sure about the others. Wargrave warns them to be more careful and to suspect every one of them.

Chapter 10

Lombard talked about if they believe everything that Wargrave said. Lombard said he did not know what to think, but he was sure he was the murder. They both think that it is a dream. Lombard tells says that he does not think that Vera is the murderer, but Vera is not as sure that Lombard is the murderer too. She tells to him that he does not seem to kill someone. He reminds her that if he were to kill one of the others, it would only be for what he could get out of it. Lombard thinks that Wargrave might be the murderer since he’s played God Almighty for a long time and this fact must go to someone’s head soon. Vera says that she thinks it is Dr. Armstrong since two of the deaths were by poison. Lombard says that Armstrong probably would not have had time to kill Macarthur in short time he was alone. Vera tells him that he had the chance when he went down to call the General to lunch.

At the house, Rogers and Blore talk about who they think might be the murderer. Blore says that the person he thinks it is a “very cool customer.” In another room, Dr. Armstrong is going crazy and crying that they must leave the island. Wargrave tells him that in this weather, it is likely that a boat would come or leave the island. Armstrong thinks that Wargrave is probably much more crazy than anyone knows. Wargrave says that, though he does not have proof, that there is one person he thinks is cost likely the killer. Armstrong says that he is confused.

In her room, Miss Brent takes out a small diary and begins to write the events of the day. She notes that Wargrave thinks the murderer is one of the island’s visitors, and that means that one of them is the killer. She sits with her eyes closed for a moment and then, writes The killer is Beatrice. She looks down at what she has written and cannot believe it came from her.

All the guests gather in the drawing room for tea. They close the curtains and turn on a light. Suddenly, Rogers comes in and asks if anyone has taken the bathroom curtain. None of them can understand why anyone would take it. Fear comes over them once again. All the guests eat dinner, and Miss Brent and Vera Claythorne go to their bedrooms. All the men hear the sound of the bolts being locked on their doors. The men go an hour later, and Wargrave tells them to lock their doors. Rogers goes back downstairs and has a thought he locks the dining room door so that no one has the opportunity to sneak in and take another of the Indians.

Chapter 11

Lombard wakes up and hears the wind from outside. He goes back to sleep before finally waking up at nine thirty. Thinking that things are weird, he knocks on Blore’s door and wakes him up. They then go to each room and wake the others, except for Miss Brent who cannot be found. They all think it is odd that Rogers has not brought them tea. Then they started to search the house. Miss Brent joins them. She had been walking around outside in the storm, something they all tell her was foolish. Vera then sees that on the dining room table, another of the Indian is missing.

They soon find Rogers in the shed, and he is dead. A large ax leans against the wall with blood on it. Rogers had been hit over the head with it. Armstrong says that he thinks that it would not have taken a strong person to do the fatal blow. Blore finds no fingerprints on the ax. They all hear laughter in the yard and see Vera Claythorne standing there, laughing and asking if there are any bees on the Island. She explains that the murders are going in order of the children’s rhyme. The last line had been, “Seven little Indian boys chopping up sticks.” The next line is, “Six little Indian boys playing with a hive.” Dr. Armstrong calms Vera and sends her and Miss Brent into the house to begin preparing breakfast.

Blore pulls Lombard aside and gives him his take on the situation. Blore remembers a case of murder by ax some time ago, an unsolved crime because it seemed too incredible that a housewife could have committed such a killing. This makes Blore believe that it is Miss Brent and her religious that must be the culprit. He reminds Lombard that Miss Brent had been out wandering the island when Rogers was murdered. Lombard and Blore both agree that they do not think the other of the crimes. Blore opens up and tells Lombard that, indeed, he had been responsible for that the man named Landor away to prison where he had died. He did it on a bribe from a crime organization. Lombard promises not to tell. He then tells Blore that he is a target for U.N. Owen because he has not a criminal. Lombard declares that he has his own craziness and plans to get off this island.

In the kitchen, Vera begins to feel bad because she became so hysterical. This brings a memory from her day with Cyril. She tries to calm herself, telling herself that Cyril had drowned long before she had been able to reach the rock where he swam. However, because she knows that Hugo, her true love, knew just from looking at her that she had been there for the death. Vera goes to Miss Brent and talks about how calm she is. She asks her if she is afraid and says, “Don’t you mind dying?” The word shocks Miss Brent, because she had not thought of this before. She thinks, the others would die, but not Emily Brent. At breakfast, everyone is there, but each is thinking about who the murderer could be and who would be the next to die.

Chapter 12

When the breakfast is over, they clear the table and wash up. Miss Brent says that she would help, but that she is feeling good. Dr. Armstrong tells her it is everyone in the kitchen. As Miss Brent sits in the dining room, she begins to feel dizzy and to have a quiet buzzing in her ears, like a bee. She thinks it is somebody in the room, but she cannot turn around and scream. She feels a pinch like a bee sting on the side of her neck.

Everyone waits for Miss Brent in the room. Blore speaks up and tells everyone that it is Miss Brent, because of her religious mania. He reminds them that she would not explain herself from the last time. Vera Claythorne tells them that she had confided in her and then tells her the story. Mr. Justice Wargrave observes that it is a reasonable story. They walk into the dining room, looking for Miss Brent, and find her sitting up straight, her face is covered with blood, with blue lips and dead eyes.

Armstrong sees the mark on the side of her neck and declares that someone had injected her with poison from a syringe. In the window, a bee is trapped inside and trying to escape the room. Lombard tells them that this is the killer’s “touch of local color!” Wargrave asks if anyone brought a hypodermic needle, and Armstrong admits that he always travels with one. The entire party moves upstairs and discovers that the needle is missing.

Armstrong insists that someone must have taken the needle, and the judge tells them that one of them must be the murderer. Wargrave suggests that all medicines and Lombard collected it and safely put it away. They all go to Lombard’s room to fetch his collected item and are shocked when he opens a drawer, and it is not there. Each guest submits to a search of his or her person. They are searched except for Miss Claythorne and are searched for any weapon. Mr. Justice Wargrave then takes the collected drugs and medicines into a small case, which he then puts into a cabinet. He locks both and gives the key to the case to Lombard and the key to the cabinet to Blore, reasoning that since they are the strongest physically, one would be able to stop the other from obtaining the other key if one is the murderer. They then decide to search for the revolver, but Blore tells them that he thinks he knows where the syringe might be. He goes into the dining room and finds another broken Indian figure. The syringe is next to it. They search the house for the revolver, but find nothing.

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And Then There Were None Summary of Chapters 13-16

November 2, 2020 by Essay Writer

The group sits in the drawing room. Armstrong seems nervous; he lights many cigarettes with shaky hands. The guests use candles since Rogers isn’t around to use the generator. Vera says she will go make tea and the other four go watch her make it. They agree that nobody will go anywhere at the same time and the other four will stay together.

Later Vera goes to take a shower and she enters her room and suddenly feels like she is at the seashore where Cyril drowned again. She smells the salt water and the wind blows her candle out and she feels something wet touch her throat and screams.

The men rush to her room and find out it was a piece of seaweed hanging from the ceiling. Lombard thinks it was supposed to scare her to death. Blore goes to get a glass of alcohol and they fight over whether he might have poisoned it. Suddenly they notice that Wargrave isn’t with them. They run downstairs and see him sitting in a chair dressed in the red shower curtain that was missing and a gray judge wig made of wool that Emily lost. Armstrong inspects Wargrave and says that he got shot in the head.

Wargrave’s body is carried to his room. Again everyone notices the similarity to the “Ten Little Indians” poem. The four that were left ate canned tongue for dinner and then went to bed. Everyone thinks they know the killer is but nobody accuses anyone out loud. While entering his room Lombard realizes that his revolver is back in his drawer.

Vera lays awake and is tortured by memories of Cyril’s death. She remembers telling him he could swim out to the rock knowing that he would not be able to make it there so he would drown. She wonders if Hugo knows that she did it. Vera notices there is a hook in the ceiling and realizes that the seaweed must have been hanging from it. For some reason the hook fascinates her.

Blore hears a noise outside and he listens at the door and hears it again. Going into the hall he sees a dark figure going downstairs and out the front door. He checks the rooms and finds out that Armstrong isn’t in his room. He wakes up Lombard and Vera and the two men tell Vera to stay in her room and they run outside to investigate.

In her room Vera thinks she hears the sound of glass breaking and then sneaky footsteps in the house. Blore and Lombard return without finding anybody the island is empty and Armstrong vanished. In the house they found a broken window and only three Indian figures left in the dining room.

The three that are left eat breakfast and pass, they feel like a nightmare passed. Lombard starts to make plans to signal the mainland and they discuss Armstrong’s disappearance and Lombard and Blore get into a fight, Blore finds it suspicious that Lombard has his gun again but Lombard refuses to hand it over. Blore says Lombard might be the killer and Lombard asks why he wouldn’t shoot Blore if he was the killer. Vera yells at them for being distracted and she points out the part of the poem that relates to Armstrong’s death. She also thinks Armstrong isn’t really dead and that he tricked them.

Vera, Blore, and Lombard spend the morning on the cliffs and tried to send a signal to the coast by using a mirror but they didn’t get a answer. They decide to stay outside to stay away the dangers of the house but eventually Blore wanted to get something to eat. He is nervous about going by himself but Lombard refuses to give him his gun. When Blore is gone Lombard tries to convince Vera that Blore is the killer. Vera says she thinks Armstrong is still alive. Then she says that the killer could be alien or something supernatural. Lombard thinks this indicates Vera’s troubled conscience so he asked her if she killed Cyril. She denies it at first but when he asked if there was a man involved she was exhausted and admits that there was.

They hear a loud noise from the house and go to look. Blore got smashed by something thrown out of Vera’s window and it was the marble clock that was shaped like a bear on her mantle. Thinking Armstrong might be in the house, the two wait for help. On their way to the cliffs they see something on the beach below them. They climb down to look and they found Armstrong’s dead body.

Vera and Lombard stand over Armstrong’s dead body. Vera looks at Lombard and sees his wolflike face and sharp teeth. Lombard says that the end has come. Vera says they should move the body above the water line. Lombard agrees and when they are finished Lombard realizes something is wrong and turns around to see Vera pointing his gun at him. She took it out of his pocket. He decided to lunge at her so she pulled the trigger and Lombard fell to the ground. He got shot in the heart.

Vera feels relief and she is exhausted. She heads back to the house to get some sleep before help arrives. As she entered the house she sees the three statues on the table and she breaks two of them and picks the third one up trying to remember the last line of the poem. She thinks it is “He got married and then there were none.” She begins to think of Hugo the man she loved but lost as a result of Cyril drowning. At the top of the stairs she dropped the gun without noticing what she did. She feels sure that Hugo is waiting upstairs for her. When she opens the door to her room she sees a noose hanging from the black hook. She saw that Hugo wanted her to hang herself and then she remembers the real last line of the poem: “He went and hanged himself and then there were none.” Without thought she put her head in the noose and kicked the chair away.

Two policeman named Sir Thomas Legge and Inspector Maine discuss the Indian Island case. They reconstructed most of what happened on Indian Island from diaries kept by different guests. It’s clear to them that the killer wasn’t Blore, Lombard, or Vera. When they got there the police found the chair Vera kicked away to hang herself mysteriously set upright against the wall.

We learned that Isaac Morris who hired Lombard and Blore and bought the island in the name of U. N. Owen died of a sleeping pill overdose the night the guests arrived on the island. The police think that Morris was actually murdered. The police know that the people of Stickle haven were instructed to ignore the distress signals from the island and they were told that everything taking place on the island was part of a game being played by the rich owners of the island and their guests.

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Agatha Christie’S “And Then There Were None” – A Novel Written As Drama

November 2, 2020 by Essay Writer

Throughout Agatha Christie’s “And Then There Were None”, Christie does a fine job of writing the novel as if it were an actual film or play, to be acted out before the viewers’ eyes. The main reason that the novel can been seen as a drama being staged and arranged, was partly because it was. The end of the novel reveals how the person responsible carried out their act of murdering the house full of killers, in a fairly theatrical fashion with an artistic purpose.

Throughout the novel, Christie stages the death of the characters in very dramatic ways that to the reader appear to be a madman carrying out these acts following a rhyme, but the end of the novel reveals that the killer operated in a way very fitting for a drama. Justice Wargrave details the why and how of his actions, thus discarding the illusion that there was some unseen maniac killing everyone on the island, and explaining his actions from his point of view. At one point he reveals the motive for leaving his note stating that “It was my ambition to invent a murder mystery that no one could solve. But no artist, I now realize, can be satisfied with art alone… I have, let me confess it in all humility, a pitiful human wish that someone should know just how clever I have been.” This statement reveals the sadistically artistic nature of his actions. He killed to satisfy the need he had to kill criminals, and did so in a pattern that made him a serial killer. Like many other serial killers, he could not keep his actions to himself, and felt a compulsive need to tell someone about his crime, even if there was only a chance of someone finding his letter. This also contributes to the events being arranged for artistic effect because it means that he did this to satisfy an inner need of his.

In his letter, he also mentions that he left three clues for police to find, further pointing to the actions on Soldier Island being a kind of drama, played out with artistic effect. The three clues he mentioned were that first, the police knew Edward Seton was guilty and that in a paradoxical fashion he would be the only person on the island that was not a killer before the events took place, so therefore he must be the killer. Second, he says that the “red herring” line of the poem lined up too perfectly with Armstrong’s death and that it would be implied that some trickery was involved in killing him.

Lastly, he says that the mark on his head is the mark of Cain, a symbol placed upon Cain so that everyone would recognize him as a killer. This helps conclude that Wargrave desired to be recognized for his actions, further pointing to the events on Soldier Island being orchestrated in a dramatic and artistic form.

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Literary Analysis: And Then There Were None By Agatha Christie

November 2, 2020 by Essay Writer

ATTWN Literary Analysis

Homosapiens are the most psychologically complex organisms on Earth. We have governments, languages, arts, music, and technology. Each person on the planet is so incredibly unique that it would be easier to find two identical snowflakes than finding two identical people. However, we do have some things in common, despite what most think. The 10 homicidal characters conjured up by the famous magician of an author, Agatha Christie, are invited to a seemingly-innocent millionaire’s island by the mysterious U. N. Owen in the award-winning novel, And Then There Were None. Each person is invited by different people for different reasons: an old army-buddy reunion, an undercover investigation, and a secretary position. Then, they’re all accused of heinous felonies by a recording and are assassinated one by one until there were none remaining alive. The characters from And Then There Were None represent humankind’s self-preservation, fear, and predictability.

Humans have a knack for blaming others to redirect accusations on themselves. If a student, for example, decided to cheat on a test, they’d probably get a good grade, but they’d be breaking a rule. So, they wouldn’t admit it because it benefits them. This is similar to how the 10 characters from And Then There Were None committed murders and got away with it. They wanted to protect their own well-being and avoid getting in jail. For example, on page 191, Detective William Blore and Philip Lombard are having a heated discussion about Blore’s crime. Blore is continuing to defend himself against Lombard’s accusatory animadversions until he starts challenging Lombard’s rationale for bringing a revolver. They continue to do so in order to preserve themselves. Earlier on, Lombard admits unmitigatedly that he killed twenty-one men that were part of an east-African tribe. He says, “Story’s quite true! I left ’em! Matter of self-preservation. We were lost in the bush. I and a couple of other fellows took what food there was and cleared out. Not quite the act of a pukka sahib, I’m afraid. But self-preservation’s a man’s first duty. (pg. 67)” Similar to Lombard’s arrogant actions, the other characters eventually stop caring about the others’ fates; they just worried about their own futures on the diabolical island they were trapped on. The victims all obstinately say that they did not or will not ever perform any kind of illegal activities, much less murder.

Fear is another drive for the things we people do. On page 265, Vera Claythorne and Philip Lombard are in a predicament. After the discovery of Detective Blore’s death, the list of suspects was down to one: each other! Vera finessed Lombard’s revolver, while he was distracted with his back turned to her, and shoots him dead out of fear that he would slay her. Overall, humans don’t want to die. Believe it or not, some people are even terrified of the prospect of dying! Who would’ve thought? So in order to shield themselves from dying a premature death, they do everything in their power, sometimes, to do so. This shows how similar fear and self-preservation really are.

Our species are so intellectual that we can also predict each other’s actions. Sometimes, it doesn’t even have to be people who are very close. At the end of the harrowing tale, the murderer, Justice Lawrence Wargrave, explains why he imprisoned 9 other people on an island, executed them one by one, and ended his own life (pgs. 285-300). He was incredibly adroit and was able to foresee how each person would act in a specific situation. He meticulously plotted his ” fantastical crime. (pg. 287)” down to a tee. Wargrave correctly forecasted that Dr. Edward Armstrong would gullibly ally himself with Wargrave and help fake Wargrave’s death and ” rattle the murderer (pg. 295). ” He also knew that the remaining survivors would trust Armstrong’s verdict: “He’s been shot. (pg. 223)” Of course they would assume that what Armstrong said was true because he was a doctor! But, in fact, he was lying. If a man dressed in a police officer’s uniform with a badge with a told you that you were under arrest, put handcuffs on you, and told you to get in his car, you would wouldn’t you? But what if he wasn’t a police officer, but a kidnapper that would steal you for ransom?

This book, however, stole the hearts of people around the globe with over 100 million copies sold, placing it as the sixth best-selling title. Although humans, collectively, are the smartest species on the planet, we still have strengths and weaknesses as everything has; we have powers and flaws such as selfishness, despair, and uniformity. But, in the end, that is what molds us into the remarkable species that we are.

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Murder: In the Name of Justice

March 25, 2019 by Essay Writer

“He choked — choked badly. His face contorted, turned purple. He gasped for breath — then slid down off his chair, the glass falling from his hand” (Christie 74). So begins Justice Wargrave’s murderous machinations on Soldier Island. In the novel And Then There Were None, Justice Wargrave’s sociopathic tendencies allow him to have several personalities. His Id is active when he plans the murders of ten strangers, his Superego is strongest when he is fighting for justice and the sanctity of the law, and his Ego is in play while he is around other guests, putting on a “normal” facade. These identities shape him to be the perfect character to commit the murders flawlessly and without remorse.

The Id is characteristically “the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse” (Schacter 481). This is an adequate description of Justice Wargrave’s murderous tendencies, which were active even when he was a child. After his vile plot was complete, he put a message in a bottle to describe his background and to truly explain how clever he was. In the letter, he admits: “I was born with other traits besides my romantic fantasy. I have a definite sadistic delight in seeing or causing death. I remember experiments with wasps–with various garden pests… From an early age I knew very strongly the lust to kill” (285). While he talks of justice and upholding the law, his deeper, darker, and truer thoughts consist of gaining pleasure from ending life. He mentions that he has always wanted to commit a murder. These thoughts are not typical in the average person’s day-to-day life. He has a unique connection to the Id within him in which he is comfortable indulging its desires and dark fantasies. According to psychology, everyone has some part of an Id influencing their thoughts and actions, which could almost make Justice Wargrave a bit more relatable to readers. However, the way his mind functions differs markedly from the minds of the vast majority. Most would never follow through on horrifying thoughts of murder. Because of his rare psyche, he is a cruel and heartless character to anyone who does not commiserate with him.

The Superego “… can be thought of as a type of conscience that punishes misbehavior with feelings of guilt” (Reber). This side of Justice Wargrave is witnessed when he makes judgements and upholds the law under any circumstance. His entire fascination with his murderous plot was to bring people to justice who normally could not be proven guilty. He disapproves of the nine hidden criminals escaping fate so easily. One of the ways he punishes their misbehavior is by playing mind games to bring out past guilt. At the commencement of their stay on the island, a recording is played throughout the mansion informing all guests of one another’s misdeeds. Their reactions are telling of their past crimes and the guilt that followed: “The voice had stopped. There was a moment’s petrified silence and then a resounding crash!… At the same moment, from somewhere outside the room there came a scream and the sound of a thud” (48). Some guests react to the shocking accusations more calmly than fainting or dropping a tea tray, but nonetheless, every guest is affected by the fear that their murky pasts may be discovered. In the midst of this chaos, the Judge once again relies on his Superego to explain that he was falsely accused: “‘Nevertheless, on the evidence, he was certainly guilty… I did my duty and nothing more. I passed sentence on a rightly convicted murder’” (65). Wargrave is accused of sending an innocent man to death, but he defends himself by saying that the primary judgement was correct and that the man was indeed guilty. With the aid of his Superego, he has the power to take control of a turbulent situation and bring about the righteousness of the law unto a room full of felons.

The Ego “attempts to mediate between id and reality” (Freud 110). This is precisely what the other guests see from Justice Wargrave during their stay. That is to say they see the mask he wears in their presence to bury any and all suspicion. He is mindful of the fact that if any part of the Id festering inside of him leaks through the careful concealment, the original plan will fall through. Because the stakes are high in this particular operation, he knows he needs to tread carefully and be manipulative in order to succeed. On one such occasion, he endeavors to take over a crazed situation with seemingly reasonable suggestions. While other guests scramble to discover information about their host, Mr. Owen, Justice Wargrave enters with a calming, resolute voice and the start of a solution: “‘We are all his guests. I think it would be profitable if each one of us were to explain exactly how that came about’” (57). Immediately, a sense of security and hope spreads through the party as their focus shifts from their present trepidation to actively working toward a resolution. With the sheer complexity of his mind and the full extent of his knowledge, Justice Wargrave effortlessly manipulates a crowd of strangers to change their mindsets, bettering his chances at succeeding without a hint of suspicion. His ego, in the psychological sense, helps the id’s ambitions become reality in a way that satisfies the needs of both the Id and the Superego.

Throughout the enigmatic life of Justice Wargrave, he has been self-aware. At a young age, he yearned to commit a murder. He has known that his thoughts are unique and that, if shared with others, they could lead him to a miserable future of isolation. Caution was crucial to his survival and success. By separating himself into three personalities working together; the Id looking for primal satisfaction, the Superego staying true to the law, and the Ego mediating between them and finding the best solution, he became an unsuspected but completely unstoppable force that could literally get away with murder. Not one of the guests on the island could compare to his vast abilities, and he knew that not one of them had a chance of staying alive. Carefully planning every miniscule step in the process and annihilating the criminals one by one, he is delighted with the final product and it satisfies every abnormal need he had previously felt. Even today, sociopaths walk among billions of people without being discovered. Their dark genius may never be understood by anyone who cannot identify with their rare situation. These people and Justice Wargrave have the power to take control of others in many instances without their conscious knowledge. With her acute understanding of sociopathic behavior, Christie creates the profoundly credible character of Justice Wargrave, a calculating and bitter executioner.

Works Cited Christie, Agatha. And Then There Were None. New York, HarperCollins Publishers, 1940.Schacter, Daniel. Psychology. 2nd ed., Worth Publishers, 2009.Reber, Arthur S. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology. 4th ed., Penguin Books, 2009.Freud, Sigmund. New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. W. W. Norton & Company, 1990.

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