Allegory

137

Use Of Allegory In Plato’s Work

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

‘The analogy of the cave tells us nothing about reality’. Discuss (30 marks)

It is perceived to an extent that Plato’s analogy of the cave gives us great insight into reality, due to the symbolic relevance of the different objects and characters in the Cave I.e. The prisoners, shackles, (eventually) the Sun and nature, and the knowledgeable prisoner put forth by Plato to encourage humanity to seek true knowledge and to never settle for unanswered questions. At the same time however, the realm of the Forms is meant to be perfect, unchanging, and eternal, (heavenly), but this world, according to philosopher Stephen Law, ‘requires the existence of deeply unpleasant things too, such as faeces, and mucus. The ‘Platonic heaven of the Forms’ does not sound so heavenly…’, therefore showing that the analogy of the cave does not accurately reflect reality, as the World of the Forms (the outside the cave in the analogy), is made to seem perfect.

Firstly, many may be of the impression that the Cave tells us a lot about reality due to the symbolism of the Prisoners- who reflect us as an apathetic society; who simply believe what we are told at face-value and through the media (Eikasia), instead of seeking to decipher true knowledge of morals and our World in its entirety- like the man who freed himself from the shackles. In spite of this, many others would perhaps take a similar stance to Aristotle- empiricist view in regards to the statement, as the analogy of the cave conveys a sense that humanity will only find absolute truths outside the normal realm of existence- in the World of the Forms (the outside of the Cave), whereas empiricists arguably believe that the analogy tells us nothing about reality because the physical world around us can give a great deal of information, instead of the ‘World of the Forms’ that the free prisoner had discovered.

Furthermore, one might argue from the point of view of Aristotle, that the Analogy of the Cave tells us a bit about reality, but from a different perspective as Plato, because although the prisoners according to Plato have the ‘lowest level of understanding’, Aristotle as well as Richard Dawkins may argue, that there is no transcendent ‘other world’ beyond the physical, and this World might be changeable, but we are still able to study it’s processes in order to gain valuable knowledge which benefits us in our daily lives. In relation to the prisoners, the analogy of the cave may somewhat reflect reality according to Dawkins and Aristotle, because the prisoners have still gained the knowledge of how to make the fire, and create different shapes and objects to be projected, and this satisfies the final cause of the objects, which is for fulfilment and entertainment for themselves, as well as the instinctive understanding of ‘true beauty’ due to the knowledge acquired making all the artificial shapes.

However, the prior view greatly differs to that of Plato, as he believed that the ‘true beauty’ lies in the realisation in the World of the Forms that the knowledge of forming these artificial shapes, can lead to the prisoners being able to physically feel the shapes; which highlights how a follower of Plato’s ideologies would perhaps say that the analogy of the cave tells us significantly more about reality than a follower of Aristotle’s ideologies would. Leading on from this, the end of the analogy alludes to the idea that even if the prisoners were released, they would kill whoever it was that freed them- which correlates to the way that Socrates was killed for spreading his knowledge on various philosophical ideas, thus showing that Plato based the analogy of the Cave on reality, so in this way, it must therefore reveal at least glimpses of realism in our World. Also, the way in which Plato was unable to explicitly use Socrates’ name in his book ‘The Republic’ further reinforces the idea that the analogy of the cave tells is about reality, because it showed the Plato was afraid that by sharing true knowledge, people would still react negatively even years after Socrates’ death- proving that humanity on the whole are content with minimal amounts of knowledge and do not deem it necessary to explore the infinite depth of knowledge that is hidden in our everyday lives; that Plato says is our duty to search for (because according to him, those that search for knowledge are considered to be philosophers, and their souls will live on in a state of wisdom in the World of the Forms).

On the contrary, followers in the Aristotelian concept of this argument may also argue that the analogy of the cave tells us nothing about reality, due to the fact Plato’s idea of the Form of Good is invalid because there is not a complete agreement on what goodness is. Since Plato believed that all other forms are the derivation of the Form of Good, how do we know what goodness is? The highest task of the philosopher is to gain knowledge of the Form of Good, but the analogy of the cave therefore does not tell us anything about reality because following this theory, someone who commits an unprovoked murder, may be considered to be committing an act of goodness, but in reality, we know that acts of this manner are immoral and sinful. Moreover, Aristotle’s 4 Causes could arguably show that the analogy of the cave tells us nothing about reality, because what if the Prime Mover- also known as the Unmoved mover or God made the Cave’s final cause/purpose (Telos) for the prisoners to live in forever? This would then disprove Plato’s theory that you have to find absolute truth in the World of the Forms, because who is to say that true knowledge does not exist in a material world depending on what you consider the Purpose (Telos) of particular situations to be. Ostensibly, Plato’s analogy does not successfully illustrate the difference between the visible world and the world of forms- which suggests that it tells us nothing about reality. Since Plato believed unlike the visible world, the forms are beyond the experiences of our senses, the analogy of the cave fails to illustrate this distinction: both the Form of Good (the sun) and the source of appearances in the cave (the fire) are the same type of thing because the sun is just a very big fire (making it subjective and not Universal like Plato says). The analogy does not therefore accurately help us to understand the difference between the Forms and the visible world, and regarding applications to reality and the statement in its entirety, this is like saying that this World and Heaven will be virtually the same, but in reality, we have been taught in scriptures such as: The Bible, Qur’an and Torah that this is not to be the case.

But Platonian followers may strongly argue against this, because they would say that the analogy of the cave tells us a lot about reality due to its key moral message left by Plato. Plato’s analogy symbolises that the world around us, which we think is so important, is really just an illusion, and that true reality, which is far more valuable, lies beyond our experience and existence. This idea could be interpreted to have some validity and relevant in our everyday realism because we might be taken in by someone’s personal appearance, and in fact it is their personality that is far more real and important for example. Therefore, the analogy of the cave tells us a lot about reality, due to the moral message that lingers. From a Christian person’s perspective, they may interpret this as being very extremely realistic because it further supports the Bible verse from John 7, stating ‘Do not judge by appearances, but judge with right judgment.’ and seeing as religion would be a Christian’s reality, then that also suggests that the analogy tells us a significant amount about reality.

Similarly, Heraclitus once said, ‘You never step into the same river twice’ and linking this idea to the statement and the fact that the analogy of the cave tells us a lot about reality, in the analogy the free prisoner found new knowledge whilst the other prisoners were ignorant and did not want to know about it. This links to reality because it shows that the World is always changing, because the river that the free prisoner saw for example, would have continued to flow and its actuality would have been different due to the Prime Mover. Furthermore, Brian Davies would argue that the analogy of the Cave reflects reality, because without Forms we would not be able to discuss general features of the real world such as beauty or justice, because we would have no knowledge or recognition of what these Forms look like, or what their essence is. Therefore, the analogy of the cave’s explanation to the Forms must tell us that there is more to our reality than we think, because why else would we be able to universally recognise the essence of these Forms? In the opinion of many, the analogy can tell us why we understand features within our reality.

In light of the matter, Plato’s analogy of the cave tells us somewhat about reality because he highlights with the characterization of the prisoners, that material and physical concerns can blind people to what is ultimately important, and also links to reality by accentuating that this World does not exist without any imperfections. But Aristotle’s criticisms are that there is no tangible evidence of the forms; there is a substantial amount to be learnt in this World without the idea of a ‘World of the Forms’, and if the free prisoner found ‘True knowledge’ from the outside of the Cave (World of the Forms), then why does no-one study the Forms; if it’s our duty in order to seek enlightenment? This again suggests that the analogy of the Cave tells us nothing about reality, because it conveys the message that you can only learn a lot by being in the World of the Forms, but in reality, it is widely argued by followers of the Aristotelian concepts, that the Telos of this World in itself is for humanity to live and gain knowledge, without having to gain ‘True knowledge’ elsewhere.

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154

Allegory as Main Device in Blindness Novel

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Allegory in Jose Saramago’s Blindness

The Nobel winning novelist Jose Saramago’s stories often take the shape of allegory, and in his novel Blindness he utilizes this technique on a universally grand scale. Most of the story takes place within a building where a group of two-hundred and forty blind people are being held captive. While trapped and struggling to survive, this group of people butts up against the primal drives for food, sex, pride, and power that sends their narrative into motion in ways that give this unique horror story a universal relation to the reader.

About halfway through the novel, Saramago is blatant in his structure of the allegory of the blind in the ward. The contamination ward is described much like a cave- it’s dark, the inhabitants are confined to their beds, and the presence of so many humans in one place drives each of them into despair while seeking a basic foundation to sustain their own lives. One resident is able to use her sight, however, and she eventually leads a small group of survivors through the exit of the ward. This structure is exactly the same as Plato’s allegory of the cave, in which the inhabitants are kept in darkness, chained to a wall, their gazes fixated on false shapes made by shadows. In the same way, Saramago’s group of blind are fixated by their immediate fear of survival- they are blind to the possibility of escape.

Saramago points out there are exactly two-hundred and forty residents in this ward. He then continues to segment this group into more definite fractions- a group of law-breakers, a group of fearful, a group of fearless- and he also characterizes them by profession and not by name- a doctor, the doctor’s wife, a whore, a boy recently separated from his mother, and another married couple with no distinct traits that act as a sort of control for the study of this group.

The story progresses so that the doctor’s wife, who keeps the secret that she is able to see, is the one that liberates the captives. This becomes a burden for her, but it also gives her a purpose. She is the only one that can give an advantage that leads to victory over the law-breaking group that steals the entire group’s food. She is the only person who can see there are no guards at the entrance of the ward. She is also the only person that can lead the surviving group to their homes upon escaping. Upon escaping, she is the only one that can see how the world has changed now that all of its residents are blind, and she strips naked in the rain during her realization of this new world as if being baptized. Each of her struggles are taken upon by her own will, and yet it is the curse of her eyesight that leads her to see these opportunities- she is only grateful for her eyesight for the fact that it allows her to lead others to safety. With this narrative, Saramago connects the story of Jesus Christ with that of the captive that breaks free and leads others to freedom from Plato’s Cave.

By segmenting the two-hundred and forty blind into obvious segments and characterizations, Saramago sets a stage for an experiment of universal meaning. He drives the blind captives to their lowest animal states and from there builds them up with the most basic tenants of human hope and tenacity. Along the way, he critiques the modern mindset to show that we haven’t changed as human beings since

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221

Main Message Of Allegory of the Cave

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Darkness

In this world, there are many things going on. A lot may know what is happening and some may not. There are many “dark” places in the world where they are isolated from the outside and they only know about the inside. Countries like the People’s Republic of China and North Korea are great examples of this matter, the people “trapped” in those countries have no clue about what is happening in the world that they live in. The idea of the “dark” is similar in a way to the essay, Allegory of the Cave and a 1998 movie called Pleasantville. In Allegory of the Cave by Plato, the story depicts the feelings of being in a dark cave and away from the light. In the movie Pleasantville, two characters are trapped into a television show from their normal lives and they have no idea what is going on in the real world after being trapped into the show. Darkness is a big problem in our society today and analyzing it would give us a deeper understanding of what it is.

Allegory of the Cave describes how negative being in a dark cave can be. A quote in the third paragraph of the essay follows, “Above and behind them a fire is blazing in the distance. They see only their own shadows which fire throws on the opposite wall of the cave. For how could they see anything but the shadows if they were never allowed to move their heads.” This quote tells us that the people are stuck in the cave are not knowing what is going on outside of the cave. Whatever happens in the cave will stay in the cave, just like the countries mentioned. Paragraph 10 of the essay, “And suppose once more that he is reluctantly dragged up a steep and rugged ascent and held fast until he is forced into the presence of the sun itself. When he approaches the light, his eyes will be dazzled. He will not be able to see anything at all of what are now called realities. He will require to grow accustomed to the sight of the upper world.” In this paragraph, Plato is saying that light can brighten someone and make them see realities. The people trapped in the cave cannot see reality because the cave is so dark and there is no light that can brighten them. If the cave people cannot see realities, then they must be seeing propaganda which is their own shadow. There is nothing else they can see in the cave since it is so dark.

The 1998 movie, Pleasantville describes how unhappy two characters, David and Jennifer are since they got trapped into a television show. The movie started out with David and Jennifer fighting over a television remote because the shows they wanted to watch were different. The remote broke after it dropped. They called up a repairman and he gave them a new one in which it broke again after it dropped. The television then pulled in David and Jennifer into the show. When they got into the show, they had to get used to the black and white world and not knowing what is happening in their actual would or where they came from. The Pleasantville that David and Jennifer got pulled into felt like an isolated world where Pleasantville does not know what is happening outside. Pleasantville is different from the outside world since they both have different people, environment, and much more. Pleasantville is a very outdated place where technology lags. Later in the movie, David and Jennifer start to experience problems and they want to leave. Overall, Pleasantville might not be so pleasant at all since it is not as cool as the outside world.

In conclusion, darkness and isolation is not fiction, but they are really events that are currently happening. They are both not positive and happy things to be experiencing, but it is good to understand them and use Allegory of the Cave and Pleasantville to analyze the topic. Both of those examples are very similar to darkness and isolation in many ways. Darkness and isolation should be reduced since many people are suffering from dark propaganda that is going around. Hopefully, the countries of the People’s Republic of China and North Korea will become more open and into the outside world. With this, the outside society can understand them and they can understand the outside society.

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214

Interpreting the Allegory in Faerie Queene

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

In many ways The Faerie Queene presents a unique challenge to the English reader. It can be described as epic, romance or fantasy and covers a wide range of topics religious and romantic, political and spiritual, Christian and Pagan. It is also incomplete, leaving the resolution of the separate narrative open for conjecture. Moreover, it is a poem that refuses to reveal itself in one sitting; demanding more of the reader than usual. MacCaffrey describes the challenge to the reader as

“The characters, including the heroes, move primarily in the horizontal plane, but Spenser’s readers have their attention repeatedly drawn to the upper and lower limits of reality which are also the sources of the poem’s truth. This vertical dimension is ordinarily beyond the horizon of the characters, but visible to us; as always when a distance develops between fiction and reader, the effect is to make us aware of fictiveness itself and to ponder the nature and relevance of fictions”

Interpreting the allegory in The Faerie Queene is not simply a task of deciphering a code, but a matter of relating to the Spenserian, Elizabethan and Fairy worlds in order to make sense of and then bring together the carefully structured layers and meanings of the poem.

Both Spenser’s contemporaries and his modern audience are likely to know when they approach The Faerie Queene that what they are reading is an allegory. Allegory as a literary device evolved out of the classical method of interpreting the world through figurative means with Gods and myths, combined with the (somewhat simplistically stated) progression from simile to metaphor to allegory. Allegory was used extensively in the Bible; thereafter the technique was regarded as one of moral intentions and was used throughout the medieval period from Dante and popular romances like The Romance of the Rose to Chaucer. Therefore Elizabethans would have been fully aware of the allegorical style of The Faerie Queene, as are modern readers whose copies are invariably prefaced by Spenser’s famous letter to Sir Walter Raleigh. So we should assume that Spenser was not intending to confuse his readers in any way but use allegory as a technique best suited to espousing his ideas and views on contemporary Elizabethan society.

Therefore the reader has to perform the task of following the narrative in Fairy Land as well as being conscious on another level of Spenser’s aims of “fashioning a gentleman or noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline” based on Protestant Christianity and glorifying, in the same vein, the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

The role of the Redcrosse Knight in Book 1 of The Faerie Queene can be examined to highlight the demands placed on the reader in interpreting the allegory. As MacCaffrey explains, “In the epistemological allegory of Book 1, Spenser compels both his reader and his hero to confront the duplicity of seemings”. This “duplicity of seemings” is mostly represented by the roles and differences of Una and Duessa. The reader already knows that Redcrosse is ‘holiness’ from the prefatory quatrain and must bear this in mind to understand the significance of the problems he has to overcome. Duessa, Abessa and Archimago are, for Spenser, allegorical representations of the Catholic Church – ones that are specifically aimed at deceiving Redcrosse and the reader, for Redcrosse is in many ways the Christian, or more precisely, Protestant everyman. His quest for truth and holy glory is one that Spenser sees as the duty of every man and it is the forces of Catholicism that are placed in the way. But Catholicism is not Spenser’s only evil in the poem; Islam, as represented by the 3 brother “Sarazins”, is seen to be without faith (Sansfoy), without law (Sansloy) and without joy (Sansjoy). There would have been very little problem in interpreting these names for Spenser’s audience as any reader of such a poem would most likely have rudimentary knowledge of the poem’s names Latinate origins; however the modern English reader may not comprehend the name’s meaning without secondary material. Comprehension of the names in The Faerie Queene is always useful at an early stage of reading as they provide a ‘short cut’ to the allegorical significance of the characters.

Another problem for the modern reader is the blatant and consistent attacks on anything non-Protestant, be it the Catholics, the Muslims or the faithless. As a prominent Elizabethan, Spenser was writing with the backing of the political and religious power base, and his views would have been either applauded or opposed quietly. However, modern English readers inhabit a society where multiculturalism is publicly celebrated and religious intolerance officially unacceptable. In Northern Ireland, for example, study of the allegory of The Faerie Queene would be a highly contentious issue as to celebrate the poem would blatantly be an attack on Catholicism in an area of the world where religious differences can cost lives.

Similarly unacceptable would be to endorse a poem that condemned Islam as being without law, faith and joy in a British society with an established Muslim community that would be deeply offended. Whilst it is impossible to criticise Spenser for lacking the sensibilities and enlightenment of the 21st century, a new task for the reader is to take Spenser’s targets and give them a universal meaning. This is dangerous in terms of developing an exclusive interpretation (i.e. attempting to publish a book defining a universal interpretation) but the allegory of The Faerie Queene should be interpreted personally so that it means something for each individual reader. This may mean accepting Fidessa-Duessa as being the personification of falseness, but ignoring her being the Whore of Babylon, or perhaps accepting her as the Whore of Babylon but rejecting that figure as a representation of the Catholic Church. Similarly, Sansfoy does not have to be a Muslim in order to represent the folly of being lawless. This selective interpretation may break the ‘completeness’ of Spenser’s poem but the process in itself would be a worthwhile experience.

For such a personal interpretation to occur, firstly the reader must understand Spenser’s intentions fully. The crux of this task lies in the navigation of the “vertical axis” that MacCaffrey mentions. Redcrosse does not symbolise a fixed concept or figure. We have seen that he is allied to the reader in the problems he has to overcome, making him in one respect an ordinary man, but he is clearly not just that. Spenser fashioned him to represent holiness, although this definition should be treated carefully as he is not holiness itself, but a man who has holiness. There are characters, such as Malbecco (Jealousy) in Book 3 who are concepts in themselves and Una as Truth represents this type of allegorical figure. Whenever she is with Redcrosse he has ‘true Christian Truth’; when she is absent he is prey to the evils of Duessa and Archimago. Redcrosse possesses holiness and courage but lacks experience; at the beginning of Book 1 he is described as yearning for glory: “his hart did earne / To prove his puissance in batell brave”. This gives us an impression of youthful endeavour – he yearns for glory in battle, thus suggesting that he has not yet achieved much. The way he is deceived by Duessa is a challenge – one that he initially does not seem able to win as he is led towards Lucifera and the seven sins, but overcomes eventually by way of his holiness and his reunion with Una. The allegory here is not only for the individual man to steer away from deceit and pride towards truth and holiness, but a chronicle of how Christians as an entire religious people were deceived (in Spenser’s eyes) by the Catholic Church. It was only the true holiness of man that enabled him eventually to embrace the ‘true religious faith’ of Protestantism. The religious allegory is the primary concern of Book 1; only with the introduction of Arthur does the political one begin (to be developed later).

When the Redcrosse Knight is revealed as St. George the reader then has a new level on the ‘vertical axis’ to deal with. His role as a Protestant role model is combined with his representation of the British nation. Whilst the device of allegory can be categorised by the different applications, techniques and situations with which it is used, e.g., situational allegory, typological allegory, psychological allegory etc., this need not concern the reader as such a categorisation can prove confusing and unhelpful. Rather, the priority for the reader should be the distinctions between the topics of the allegory, for example when Redcrosse is led up the mountain by Contemplation the reader should consider this an important part of his development in the surface narrative but also bear in mind that Redcrosse signifies a Moses or Christ-type figure; “he leads him to the highest Mount; / Such one, as that same mighty man of God, / That bloud-red billowes like a walld front”, as well as being symbolic of England – at the top of the mountain his destiny as St. George, patron of the English, is revealed as well as contemplation of London and Elizabeth in their allegorical forms of Cleopolis and the Faerie Queene. That Spenser is quite explicit with his references to his referred meaning again demonstrates that he openly intended for those meanings to be apparent to his audience. It is when Spenser is not so open about his intentions that the reader has to juggle priorities in his consciousness.

In conclusion, the task of the reader of The Faerie Queene involves active participation, patience and a compromise between objectivity and subjectivity. The surface narrative, which can be overlooked as a hindrance to understanding the poem, becomes a help when the reader is prepared to follow the fairy story – the battles between Knights and monsters against a backdrop of bleeding trees and mythical creatures. For the narrative of the fairy story is designed to be synchronised with the allegorical developments. Thus the journey to the mountain, led by Contemplation, is the cerebral ‘calm’ before the physical (and allegorically spiritual) ‘storm’ of the dragon battle. If the reader is confused then the enjoyment of the surface narrative will engage the attention so that rereading is possible and fruitful. Keeping the different allegorical strands in mind when reading The Faerie Queene is, however, what makes reading it rewarding; once it is understood the surface narrative becomes subservient to the referred meaning as ultimately it is a vehicle for Spenser’s ideas. In other great epics like, for instance, Paradise Lost, any allegory concerning the English Civil War is essentially subservient to the surface narrative about the ultimate battle of good and evil. But the reader of The Faerie Queene must always have allegory as the priority of their consciousness to fully receive the complete impression of the poem.

Bibliography

  1. Greenlaw, Edwin. Studies in Spenser’s Historical Allegory. London: OUP, 1932.
  2. Kermode, Frank. Shakespeare, Spenser, Donne. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971.
  3. MacCaffrey, Isabel G. Spenser’s Allegory. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1976.
  4. MacQueen, John. Allegory. London: Methuen, 1970.
  5. Parker, M. Pauline. The Allegory of The Faerie Queene. London: OUP, 1960.
  6. Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queene, ed. Thomas P. Roche, Jr. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
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242

The Cultural Allegories behind Twelve Angry Men

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Twelve Angry Men is an allegorical play written by Reginald Rose in 1955. It depicts the way in which economic, social and cultural factors can have a significant impact on the process of justice. Rose encapsulates 1950s America through each of the 12 jurors, giving them back-stories relating to economic, social and cultural factors.

Post-war America flourished with wealth, production, and use of income and wealth on commodities. While America was emerging as a superpower in the world, Europeans were penny-pinching and living in a time of austerity. Thus, with immigrants from Europe came a sense of xenophobia and racism within Americans. An example of the bigoted and racist persona is Juror 10, to which he refers to people in the ‘slums’ as ‘common ignorant slob[s]’. Rose is criticizing the racist attitudes of society in 1950s America through the character of Juror 10, as he is an elderly man with a merciless approach to new things. He does this through the contrast between Juror 9 and 10. Juror 9 is also elderly, with his opinion often being overlooked, however he understands, to some extent, the legal system, the role of a juror and the method behind ‘reasonable doubt’. He has taken the time to try to modernize and relate to the younger generations, rather than being ignorant and uninformed like Juror 9.

Rose is criticizing the older generations values and the oblivious attitudes employed by some members of the elderly generation. Another example is Juror 11’s background. Rose welcomes those in society who speak out against others who are narrow-minded and discriminatory to those in a lower class, and Juror 11’s attention to detail and understanding of ‘responsibility’ engages into this. Juror 11 understands that ‘facts may be coloured by the personalities who present them’, and that respect for the legal system and the law aids in the process of a progressive society. Hence, Rose’s appreciation of the legal system highlights his disdain of social class prejudice and racism through the factors of commercial gain.

The role of a juror is to disregard any outside influences and solely focus on the job at hand, and though each of the jurors will have pre-disposed ideas and thoughts, some will display them, and some will not. As a result of being in a society, each juror has some form of pre-conceived beliefs, and their job is to put those aside and focus on the case, to decide whether the accused is guilty or not guilty. An example of how outside stimuli have influenced the decisions made in the jury room is when Juror 3 states that ‘we’re trying to put a guilty man in the chair where he belongs.’ Rose is criticizing the ill-informed nature of some members of society through showing what Juror 3 thinks his job is. His predetermined set of values shine through, and Rose is exposing the disregard and disrespect of justice.

Another example of how outside influences can impact the decisions in a jury room are when Juror 4 says ‘The slums are a breeding ground for criminals.” Rose is chastising the class gap in society through this blatant display of social prejudice. Also, Juror 7 is more interested in going to the baseball game, and only changes his vote so he can go home. He is bored and uninterested in the case, and can’t be bothered to be involved. Rose explores the blatant insult of justice that embodies many Americans, reprehending the ill-informed ways of living that some choose to live. Thus, social factors can largely impact the course of justice.

The cultural factors surrounding the production of this play can give great insight into Rose’s principles and what he values. When this play was written, Americans were convinced the Soviet Union was going to take over the world, and anybody sympathetic to the idea of Communism was now considered an enemy. People were turning in family, friends, and relatives in order to save themselves, and did so without any solid evidence. This defied the burden of proof and the idea of reasonable doubt, and left Americans fearful of expressing their views in fear of being labeled a communist sympathizer.

Rose wrote Twelve Angry Men in order to reflect America’s society at the time, using the play to show Americans that what they were doing was morally wrong through buying into the paranoia of the era. Rose wished to educate and motivate people to speak out, rather than just being a follower. An example of this is when the first vote is taken, and some hands ‘go up immediately’, whereas ‘several others go up more slowly’. This is a prime example of the repercussions of McCarthyism, of which Rose is criticising. People in 1950s America were too worried about expressing their own views and saving themselves than ensuring the course of justice wasn’t obscured. Rose wished to highlight this in the play, and did so by instilling fear in everyday citizens. Thus, cultural factors are a huge impact on the process of justice, for it defied the sole underlying function of the system.

Rose wrote this allegorical play to instill fear into Americans, and to educate them on the significant impact their attitudes and actions can have on the legal system, and how they may corrupt it. The law is created to govern, not to undermine, and Rose used economic, social and cultural factors to portray this to his audience.

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294

Hidden Allegory In Haroun and the Sea of Stories

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Haroun and the Sea of Stories: An Allegory for all Readers

Salman Rushdie’s Haroun and the Sea of Stories tells a fictional tale of a young protagonist named Haroun who travels to the Sea of Stories to help his father gain back his skill of storytelling. This narrative was a consequence of Rushdie’s many years in hiding. After he published The Satanic Verses, a novel about Pagan Meccan goddesses which insulted many Muslims, former Iranian Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini issued a fatwa ordering the death of Rushdie. As a result, the English government put Rushdie in hiding and he was forced to be separated from his young son, Zafar. In an effort to reconnect and entertain his son, Rushdie wrote an entertaining story for children: Haroun and the Sea of Stories. Although the tale resonates with younger audiences and portrays a sense of magical realism, the allegory also makes several allusions to works only familiar to older audiences. Rushdie’s references to King Lear, Plato, and The Beatles demonstrate this dichotomy, resulting in a work which aims to please a child’s sense of wild creativity, yet also attracting more experienced readers familiar to complicated topics. One way in which Rushdie hooks his second, presumably older, audience is by explaining the importance of speech and storytelling in a profound philosophical context. Describing the circumstances of his fatwa, Rushdie appeals to the second audience which an overarching framework of how speech promotes a richer private and public life. In the tale Haroun and the Sea of Stories, Rushdie simultaneously appeals to children and experienced older readers. By utilizing magical realism to further the plot, allude to other known children works, and introduce a myriad of magical creatures, Rushdie immediately grabs the interest of children. Almost contrastingly, Rushdie informs the readers about the importance of storytelling, painting Khattam-Shud, the opposition to all storytelling, as an antagonist and developing Haroun’s gradual love for storytelling and culture.

After several years of hiding and isolation from his family, Rushdie longed to connect with his young son, Zafar through a story which would entertain him. Thus, Haroun and the Sea of Stories is formatted as a children’s book to demonstrate the bond between Rushdie and his son. The first way in which Rushdie exemplifies this is through using the art of magical realism to further the book’s plot. Magical realism is defined as genre of fantasy fiction which expresses a distorted, magical account of the real world. Magical realism is a commonly used when writing children’s stories, such as Peter Pan or Harry Potter, both of which begin with a protagonist living in reality and discovering a revolutionary, magical world. Rushdie’s first allusion to other children’s works is early in the third chapter, when Haroun is introduced to Iff, the Water Genie. The character Iff most closely resembles the genie from Aladdin’s Magical Lamp, as he serves as Haroun’s guardian throughout the plot and has some physical similarities. Iff is described to have baggy pants and a turban, common Middle Eastern garments which strongly resembles the genie’s background from Aladdin. The description and role of Iff, a significant role in the allegory, shows the reader Rushdie’s primary intention was to write a book that caters to younger children, especially his son. Furthermore, in the fourth chapter, Rushdie makes an explicit mention of the fairy tale Rapunzel, writing, “What Haroun was experiencing, thought he didn’t know it, was Princess Rescue Story Number S/1001/ZHT/420/41(r)xi; and because the princess in this particular story had recently had a haircut and therefore had no long tresses to let down (unlike… Rapunzel)” (Rushdie 73). The story is placed into the narrative of a different, popular story which furthers the adventure and reaffirms Rushdie’s intention to make this a story accessible to children. Finally, another visible allusion is in the seventh chapter, when Haroun observes a man viciously fighting against his own shadow with a sword. However, the shadow was fighting back “with equal ferocity, attention and skill” (Rushdie 124). The reference to Peter Pan in this scene is evident, as Peter Pan similarly fought his own shadow. The adventurous and magical plot of the book makes it far more accessible to younger children. Similarly, using magical realism to shift a change in the storyline is common for children’s fairy tales. Thus, the use of magical realism, the countless allusions to popular child fairy tales, and the introduction of different bizarre characters affirms the notion that Rushdie wrote Haroun and the Sea of Stories in an attempt to entertain his son and other children.

Although Rushdie’s primary intention when crafting Haroun and the Sea of Stories was to write an entertaining fantasy for his son, he also wrote it to explain the circumstance that fatwa had put him in. Rushdie begins this process by telling the reader of Khattam-Shud, translating to “silence.” Khattam-Shud is the story’s antagonist who poisons the streams of the Sea of Stories and captures Princess Batcheat. Haroun best describes Khattam-Shud as a “a skinny, scrawny, snivelling, drivelling, mingy, stingy, measly, weaselly, clerkish sort of fellow, who had no shadow but seemed almost as much a shadow as a man” (Rushdie 190). Immediately, the reader is presented with a negative connotation of the character responsible for silencing Haroun’s father. Rushdie stresses the importance of free storytelling, which Khattam-Shud vehemently opposes. Rushdie continues to write, “The Chupwalas… turned out to be a disunited rabble… many of them actually had to fight their own, treacherous shadows! And as for the rest, well, their vows of silence and their habits of secrecy had made them suspicious and distrustful of one another…The upshot was that the Chupwalas did not stand shoulder to shoulder, but betrayed one another, stabbed on another in the back, mutinied, hid deserted” (Rushdie 185). The Chupwalas, translating to “the quiet ones,” were silenced by Khattam-Shud, and as a result, suffered due to censorship. Rushdie once again argues that a society which suffers from censorship can never stand when challenged and fight themselves and their own shadows. He viciously criticizes the Khattam-Shud character for his lack of tolerance and authoritarian rule, but also portrays the acceptance of storytelling in a positive light. He explains from Haroun’s point of view, “he looked into the water and saw it was made up of a thousand thousand thousand and one different currents, each one a different colour, weaving in and out of one another like a liquid tapestry of breathtaking complexity… these were the Streams of Story… each colored strand represented and contained a single tale” (Rushdie 71-2). Haroun’s realization of the beauty of storytelling indicates a shift in the plot, as he admires both his father’s and Rushdie’s occupation. Khattam-Shud, the enemy of speech and destroyer of myth, most closely resembles Iranian Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini, as he attempts to silence and orders a fatwa on Rushdie. As a result, Rushdie indirectly criticizes Khomeini in his tale, while also explaining the societal harms of censorship and why storytelling and free speech is so valuable. As Haroun comes to discover, imaginative storytelling promotes a rich inner life and a stronger, healthier, human community. Thus, to address the injustice of having the fatwa placed upon him, Rushdie explains to his experienced audience why unrestricted and creative storytelling has such merits.

In the tale Haroun and the Sea of Stories, Rushdie simultaneously appeals to children and experienced older readers. By utilizing magical realism to further the plot, allude to other known children works, and introduce a myriad of magical creatures, Rushdie immediately grabs the interest of children. Almost contrastingly, Rushdie informs the readers about the importance of storytelling, painting Khattam-Shud, the opposition to all storytelling, as an antagonist and developing Haroun’s gradual love for storytelling and culture. Haroun and the Sea of Stories is the product of a father-son relationship. As Rushdie certainly appeals to younger readers through his vivid description of bizarre events, he also attracts older, experienced readers by formulating a storyline which philosophically addresses the importance of speech and words. Rushdie proceeds to tie these two components together by explaining the circumstances of his fatwa. The publication of Haroun and the Sea of Stories and the framework of free storytelling are byproducts of the fatwa and being forced into hiding.

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254

“O Captain! My Captain!” Essay [Allegory, Allusion, Repetition]

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

O Captain! My Captain!’ is an allegorical poem written by Walt Whitman. The poem is one of the best-extended allegorical poems. Among the significant poetic concepts and literary devices that make his poem exceptional are the sound of words (a combination of words to reveal a special effect when we read them) and allusion (allegory, referring to something in an indirect manner, without using words that signify that one has made any direct reference). In this essay, “O Captain! My Captain!” shall be reviewed and analyzed.

Moreover, he extensively incorporates imagery (vivid language that evokes mental images or generates ideas) and rhyme (words having different sounds but with endings that sound alike) to make the poem more allegorical. Extensive use of poetry concepts has made people have an in-depth understanding of the poem in reference to Abraham Lincoln, the American president.

In essence, the allusion in “O Captain! My Captain!” refers to Abraham Lincoln. Whitman wrote the poem in the year 1865, the same year that Lincoln died. Captain is an allusion to the president, Abraham Lincoln, while the ‘ship’ (Whitman 1) is an illusion to the United States. The ‘fearful trip’ (Whitman 1) is an illusion to the troubles that the Americans including the president have to go through during the American Civil War while the phrase ‘some dream that on the deck, fallen cold and dead’ (Whitman 2) is an illusion to Lincoln’s assassination.

This implies that the poem is an illusion to Lincoln’s assassination during the American Civil War, a time when Americans were troubled and feared that they would die because of the war.

We get to know more about the assassination and the era through imagery, which incorporates three senses, sound, touch, and sight. Sight is in the second part of the first paragraph, the second line, ‘O bleeding drops of red’ (Whitman 1). One gets to envision the Captain bleeding and wonder what could have caused the bleeding.

This makes us realize someone hurt the Captain, Lincoln, which leads to the irony in the poem. In the second paragraph, the second line of the first part, there is sound imagery ‘the bugle trills’ (Whitman 2). This makes one imagine how joyful people were. Even though he was dead, people were grateful to Lincoln for helping them end the civil war, and that is why they held him highly. Thus,allegory in “O Captain! My Captain!” is clearly evident

One of the imagery incorporating touch is in the third paragraph, the first part, the second line ‘he has nor pulse not will’ (Whitman 3). This makes one realize the sadness of the poet as well as the people. Someone has to feel Lincoln’s pulse to ascertain that he is dead. It is unbelievable that he will never be the president even though he has helped Americans deal with the war.

The poem makes use of internal rhyme to maintain a steady rhythm. In line three ‘the port is near, the bells I hear’ (Whitman 1), and in the twentieth line ‘from fearful trip, the victor ship’ (Whitman 3), the poem exhibits an internal rhyme that enables the poem to have a joyful, quick and upbeat rhythm. Special syntax structure that features parallelism in lines adds to the tone of the poem

This exhibits excitement, and we get to know that the poet is speaking about how people are excited that they have won the civil war. However, when the poet is talking about sullen and sad moments, he interrupts the poem’s rhythm and redirects the attention of the reader.

To emphasize the shock of finding out that the Captain, Lincoln is dead, the poet makes sure that in each paragraph, the first part has a distinct rhyme scheme pattern. Nevertheless, as the analysis essay on “O Captain! My Captain!” shows, in the second part of each section, the rhyme scheme changes and focuses on the mood that reveals that the captain, Lincoln, is dead. For instance, in the first paragraph, the rhyme is AABB. However, in the second part, the rhyme takes a different direction CDEF

The poet also makes used of words and their sounds to communicate to the audience. In line one and nine, the repetition of the phrase ‘O Captain! My Captain’ (Whitman 2) is used to reveal that the captain’s death, immensely shocked the poet. In addition, at the end of every paragraph, the phrase ‘fallen cold and dead’ (Whitman 2) is repeated.

This emphasizes how difficult it is for people, including the poet, to believe that Lincoln is already dead. The repetition in “O Captain! My Captain!” reveals intense sadness and a hidden wish, the wish that Lincoln was alive. As explained, all the major poetry concepts used by Whitman, including the sound of words, allusion, imagery, and rhyme, helps us to understand the poem better in the form of a poem based on an extended metaphor.

Works Cited

Whitman, Walt. O Captain My Captain. Poetry Foundation, 2011. Web.

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202

Plato and the Allegory of the Caves Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The parable of the cave is a philosophical argument by Plato depicting the dilemma what human life is and what it means. In his vivid presentation, human beings live imprisoned in a cave throughout their lives, unable to see the world around them as they are chained in such a way as to prevent them from turning round.

There is a distant fire above and behind them, so they cannot move up or backwards. Furthermore, ahead of them, there is a wall that blocks their path. The bottom line is that movement is very limited in this cave. Occasionally, the carriers of the objects speak to one another, but their voices reach the prisoners in form of echoes from the wall ahead of them. Since they are not able to see who is speaking, they are convinced that the echoed voices are from shadows they see ahead of them.

With time, the prisoners begin to interpret the images and sounds they see and hear as constituting reality. The more they become accustomed to this world of illusion, the more it gets difficult to dissuade them to see what reality actually is. After observing the shadows keenly for a while, they get used to the pattern of movement, and whoever correctly predicts the shape that will pass next is applauded as being knowledgeable (Plato 90).

The analogy of the cave explains why many humans find the world of fantasy too comfortable for them to contemplate leaving it. They would rather live in illusions than face the truth, which is too much to bear. The cave idea is born of the fact that we go through cultural assimilations, and our characters are shaped by the environment we live in.

Therefore, it becomes extremely difficult, if not impossible, to get out of such conditioning and adopt a broad mind that can appreciate other dynamics of life. This is what creates the “shadow people” who cannot move their head around and appreciate the outside world in totality (Plato 90).

The only way a prisoner can get out of the cave is through an emancipation of the mind from such mental slavery. This is a herculean task because their path is constrained by the fire behind them, the wall all around the cave and the chain to their limbs. The prisoners who are set free to explore the world will find themselves in a culture shock.

They will find most of the practices and beliefs of their fellow human beings from other socializations too strange and unacceptable (Benjamin, 67). If they are shown the objects that cast the shadows, they would believe the objects are a fictional creations of some very great mind. Their reality is the shadows and nothing else.

Things are much worse when the prisoner is actually taken out of the cave to sunlight. This is a move to greater levels of intellectual capability where one can distinguish between objects of reality and fiction with utmost clarity. According to Fullerton, “the eye is unusual among the sense organs in that it needs a medium, namely light, in order to operate” (56). The light must, however, be of medium intensity.

If it is too bright, especially when one has just moved from darkness, the eye experiences too much pain to bear and would either close or the person would turn around to avoid looking at the source. If it is too little, the human being will not see clearly and end up with an optical illusion. This is applicable to the intellectual eye as well. The prisoner who leaves the cave rather absorbs a little of the changes at a time than takes in everything in one swoop.

With time, however, the culture shock waves of honeymoon, negotiation, adjustment and mastery phases. In the honeymoon phase, the practices in the new environment are amusing, and a person links them romantically to his/her own culture. After the prisoner has made enough observations, he begins to get used to the culture and actually begins to love it. The most interesting part of the whole cycle is a reverse culture shock.

The prisoner begins to scorn at his/her own former culture which he found difficult to shed off. In other words, if the prisoner leaves the bright light of the sun and goes back to the cave, he will find it too dark for him to see his way around. Walking in the cave is difficult – he falters and even steps on people’s toes trying to walk. His former society begins to take note and you hear comments to the effect that he dropped his cultural orientation and his people’s way of life and exchanged it with the ways of foreigners.

However, Plato argues that we should not be quick to pass judgment on such a disoriented person before we discern the exact cause of the disillusionment (Dova 67). The whole idea of education is about pointing the student in the right direction to acquire knowledge by relying on the strength of his or her mental capabilities. Plato argues that it is the intellect that can understand the realities of the world, not the senses.

Works Cited

Dova, Benjamin. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Four Dialogues. Grand Rapids, MI: Discover Publishers, 1992. Print.

Fullerton, George Stuart. An Introduction to Philosophy. Scotts Valley, California: CreateSpace Publishers, 2011. Print.

Plato. Apology: Crito and Phaedo of Socrates. Charleston, South Carolina: Bibliobazaar Publishers, 2007. Print.

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140

Use of allegory of Civilization versus ‘barbarism’ and violence Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The film “Dona Barbara” employs allegory to portray two worlds. The novel is set in the 1940s Venezuelan transitional period. During this time, the country was experiencing a new culture and way of life brought about by the discovery of oil.

As such, an oil economy was starting to emerge, bringing with it an urban culture. The emergence of urbanism set the pace for a conflict between modern civilization and barbarism. This conflict is neatly depicted through allegory. Therefore, the film can be seen as both a national as well as a literary allegory.

In “Dona Barbara”, the conflict is signified through a number of allegorical symbols, such as urban culture versus the rural, progressiveness against retrogressiveness, the law against the outlaw, masculinity versus femininity, rational thought against the irrational thought (passion and Freudian sexual desires), et cetera.

There are many critics of the film, each of whom has a varied version of the use of allegory. However, all the critics are in agreement that the use of allegory helps to clearly depict two oppositions not only in the film but also of the 1940s Venezuela. Thus, the film is seen as a way of confronting the old and the new cultures and the significant conflict that arises from this fusion. Allegory is not only used for literary sense but also for explicitly portraying the social cultural history of Venezuela.

The allegorical nature of the film is embedded in the film itself as seen in a number of symbols. Allegory is used to illustrate a transition between civilization and barbarism. The character, Dona Barbara, is seen as a synthesis not just of the two worlds, but also in transit between barbarism and civilization. She is an allegory of barbarism and a symbol of the uncultured woman of loose morals.

This is evident in her tendency to use the power of seduction to overpower men, a characteristic that has earned her the title, ‘the devourer of men’1. Still, Dona Barbara is seen as a representation of civility and decorum when she genuinely falls in love with Santos Luzardo2. She is seen as a child of the two worlds and a victim of the Venezuelan social cultural conflict. This transformation from bad to good is overshadowed by the general character of Dona Barbara, otherwise christened Barbarita (a homophone to barbarism).

The initial representation of Barbara as a simple girl is soon overshadowed by her transition to a gang leader who uses violence to achieve what she wants. This transition is translated in the Freudian perceptive that childhood sexual experiences determine adult behavior. Dona is a victim of child rape and violence and this transformation is thus seen as a way of reliving her childhood. Dona is thus the allegory of the Venezuelan woman who is a victim of the synthesis between civilization and barbarism.

The film is a good example on the use of literature to reflect on matters of social cultural and historical importance to a nation. Allegory is used to show a clear distinction between the Venezuelan historical conflict between law and lawlessness, and

  1. John King. Magical reels: a history of cinema in Latin America. (London: Verso, 2000). 49
  2. Juan Pablo Dabove. Nightmares of the lettered city: banditry and literature in Latin America. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007). 271-280

the subsequent consequences. This country has always been torn between the old agrarian order (the rule of the law) and lawlessness (characterized by violence). This is portrayed in the Ilanera agrarian rural culture in which there is confusion between law and lawlessness.

The director of the film achieves this by intertwining cattle ranching (the allegory of agrarian law – civilization) and cattle rustling (the allegory lawlessness – barbarism) 2. Santos Luzardo, a civil gentleman, is also a symbol of the confusion between lawlessness and the rule of the law.

The judges (symbolic of lawfulness) rule against him, thereby denying him the ownership of his property3. Santos Luzardo’s acceptance of this rule is an indication that he does not necessarily see himself as a victim of the injustices as he is well aware of his violent past, a means through which he acquired his wealth. As such, literature is used to not only synthesis civilization and barbarism, but also to clearly depict Venezuelan social cultural historical struggles with lawlessness.

The film is a clear depiction of how literature can be used to illuminate not only the relevance of literary characters but also of reality. Allegory is a stylistic device employed by the director of this film to highlight the social cultural conflict in 1940s Venezuela, brought about by the emergence of urban civilization. It thus helps to portray the synthesis of the civility of modernity and the barbarism of the

  1. Juan Pablo Dabove. Nightmares of the lettered city: banditry and literature in Latin America. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007). 271-280
  2. “Dona Barbara” directed by Fernando de Fuentes. (RTI Colombia) pre-1940s Venezuela. This synthesis is seen effectively through some characters like Barbarita, law, and gender, among others.

Bibliography

Dabove, Juan. Nightmares of the Lettered City: Banditry and Literature in Latin America. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007. 271-280

“Dona Barbara” directed by Fernando de Fuentes. RTI: Colombia.

King, John. Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. London: Verso, 2000. 49

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193

Myths: Types of Allegory and Historical Periods Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Knowledge, Belief, Myth, and Religion

Myths are traditional stories that include specific knowledge about nature or humans. Myths are often discussed in religions because they also contain a certain belief in gods and wonderful forces. Beliefs and myths are related to each other, and they differ mainly in the form of representation. Myths and religion are related to each other because they try to answer the important questions for humans, such as the story of world creation, which is presented in myths and religious texts (Coolidge, 2001, p. 12).

Myths

Greek Myths

Myth 1: Achilles Literature it’s found in:
Madeline Miller, The Song of Achilles
Myth 2: Sisyphus Literature it’s found in:
Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus

Greek myths include the stories about heroes and gods associated with the world’s creation and development. Myths are associated with the struggles among gods and heroic actions of kings and gods’ children.

The pieces of literature are important to discuss the themes developed in the Greek myths from the modern point of view.

Physical Allegory Myths

Myth 1: Aphrodite Literature it’s found in:
Isabel Allende, Aphrodite
Myth 2: Daphne Literature it’s found in:
Ovid, Metamorphoses

Physical allegory myths are associated with the idea of transformation and embodiment. Thus, Aphrodite often stands for love and beauty. Daphne is associated with the tragic story of love.

Ovid discusses the story of how Daphne was transformed into the laurel tree because of the tragic story of love. Allende discusses the story of Aphrodite as the embodiment of love. These pieces of literature are important to accentuate the associations of people associated with mythological characters.

Historical Allegory Myths

Myth 1: Priam Literature it’s found in:
Homer, Iliad
Myth 2: Cynortas Literature it’s found in:
Pausanias’s Description of Greece

Historical allegory myths presented the stories related to the real places and people in the context of Greek mythology.

Priam and Cynortas were the kings of the Greek territories, and the pieces of literature represent the stories about their rule as myths. These works are important to discuss real historical events with references to their heroic nature.

Moral Allegory Myths

Myth 1:
Pyramus and Thisbe
Literature it’s found in:
William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream
Myth 2:
Eros and Psyche
Literature it’s found in:
Apuleius, Cupid, and Psyche

Moral allegory myths are focused on the moral issues and aspects of the relationships. They are important to demonstrate ways to find the right moral decisions.

These tragic myths discuss the themes of eternal love, trust, and morality. They help in leading people to the right decisions regarding their feelings and relationships.

Medieval and Renaissance Myths

Myth 1:
Venus and Adonis
Literature it’s found in:
William Shakespeare, Venus, and Adonis
Myth 2:
King Arthur
Literature it’s found in:
The Story of King Arthur and His Knights

The Medieval and Renaissance myths were based on the classical Greek myths and on the medieval stories, which discusses the ideas of knighthood (Trembinski, 2006, p. 58).

Theories of Enlightenment Myths

Medieval myths represented in stories are important to understand the chivalry laws followed in the society. Renaissance myths are based on rethinking the Greek scenarios in the context of imitating classical ideas and patterns.

Myth 1:
Hyperion
Literature it’s found in:
John Keats,The Fall of Hyperion
Myth 2:
Arcadia
Literature it’s found in:
John Keats, “Ode on a Grecian Urn”

Enlightenment myths are based on the Greek myths, but they provide the discussion of the Greek themes in the social and moral contexts. The main focus is on social rules and morality (Barnett, 2003, p. 12).

These pieces of literature are important to present the interpretation of the classical myths in relation to the traditions of the 18th-19th centuries.

Works Cited

Barnett, S. (2003). The Enlightenment and religion: The myths of modernity. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Coolidge, O. (2001). Greek myths. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Trembinski, D. (2006). Medieval myths, legends, and songs. New York, NY: Crabtree Publishing Company.

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