Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler Rise To Power History

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

During the 20th century, the Germans faced a terrible economic depression during which time the people lost trust in their government, and taking advantage of this opportunity, Hitler rose to power. The Treaty of Versailles, established post World War I, led Germany to humiliation. They lost their land, military, respect, and a say in world affairs. Germany became isolated, and to the German people, Hitler was their ultimate savior. In a matter of years, Hitler quickly rose to power and boosted the economy.

He had satisfied Germany, in the early years, and came to power in a legal manner.

Along with the rest of Germany, Adolf Hitler was depressed after World War I due to the loss and the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler, still enlisted in the German military, was assigned undercover duty as an agent. His main task involved finding out who were Marxists, and on September 12, 1919, he investigated them at a hall in Munich, Sterneckerbrau, where a meeting took place.

During the meeting, he gave an emotional speech that mesmerized his audience, and as a result, he was asked to join the German Worker’s Party, to which he accepted. Abandoning his undercover spy mission, he became enthusiastic about the group and came to be highly involved with their activities. In addition, he placed ads for rallies and public meetings in anti-Semitic newspapers. Soon enough, the German Worker’s Party was changed to National Socialist German Worker’s Party (NAZI). For the party’s platform, Hitler created the twenty-five points that involved nullifying the Treaty of Versailles, revoking civil rights for Jews, confiscating war profits, and seizing land by decision of state. In addition, the Swastika (卐) was adopted as the party’s symbol.

Hitler hoped that the party would allow him to gain national recognition as well as a respectable politician that the German people would favor. In addition, the party allowed Hitler to use Storm Troopers or Brown Shirts and this would help him gain support from the people. Deploying the Storm Troopers in rallies impressed the German people by raising nationalism. These Storm Troopers would be present in parades all across the country and during election rallies that would significantly influenced the vote of many. CITATION In addition, thousands would join the party because they were victims of hyperinflation and blamed the Jews for economic troubles. Joining the party would show that they supported Hitler and wanted serious changes in Germany, starting with the Jews.

On November 8, 1923, Hitler held a rally at a beer hall in Munich, known as the Beer Hall Putsch, to declare a revolution, and he led over two-thousand men to overthrow the Bavarian Government. The men all wore Brown Shirts to emphasize how much they supported Hitler and his beliefs to make Germany better. CITATION However, the rally resulted as a disaster and Hitler was charged with treason. He was taken to trial, which he used to his advantage by promoting the Nazi platform, and he gained popularity. He was ruled guilty by the court and sentenced to prison for five years, however, he had only served nine months due to a recommendation from the governor of Landsberg who stated that his behavior conduct in prison was satisfactory.

During the short time in prison, Hitler wrote the book, Mein Kampf, which made him rich by selling five million copies when published in 1927. The book spoke about his life and the future of Germany, which viciously attacked Jews as the root of Germany’s problems. The Jews were attacked so much because they were believed to have caused economic inflation, political instability, unemployment, and humiliation from World War I. CITATION The book also discussed how Germans were superior, the need to take Russia, failures of Communism and Democracy, and the Fuhrer principal.

Mein Kampf stated, “The Jews’ ultimate goal is the denaturalization, the promiscuous bastardization of other peoples, the lowering of the racial level of the highest people as well as the domination of his mishmash through the extirpation of the folkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own people.” CITATION By this statement, Hitler wanted to keep the German bloodline pure, and by this, he did not want intermarriage between Jews and Germans. The perfect Germans was known as Aryans, who were blond haired and blue eyed. Hitler marked Jews as enemies of Germany, along with Slavs, and labeled the Jews as an anti-race that would only harm the German people and destroy Germany as a whole because they were “invading” Germany. By “invading” Germany, Hitler believed they were stealing all business from the German people and started controlling Germany politically.

After Hitler was released from prison, he no longer wanted to take power by force but in a legal constitutional manner. He knew how to speak to the German people because his oratory skills were spectacular. Therefore, he spoke to large audiences mainly addressing issues with Jews and Communism. He wanted to create the Third Reich, and wanted it to last one-thousand years. The Nazi party became powerful as wealthy industrialists supported Hitler due to economic circumstances. Hitler received support from Erhard Milch, Alfred Hugenberg, Fritz Tyssen, and Emil Kidorf. Hitler would use Erhard Milch to his advantage by chartering an aircraft from him to go around the country in hopes for political success.

In April of 1932, Heinrich Bruening, Chancellor of Germany, banned the storm troopers in Germany to end the Nazi regime. The Nazis were outraged and wanted Hitler to fight the ban. However, on May 8, 1932, General Kurt von Schleicher held a secret meeting with Hitler to make an agreement to lift the ban. In addition to lifting the ban, the current government of Germany would fall, new elections would be called, and Chancellor Bruening would have no political value. In return, Hitler would support Schleicher in a conservative nationalist government. Soon everything went to play and Chancellor Bruening was labeled “The Hunger Chancellor” because of the economy and the unemployment rate of six million Germans. CITATION He looked like a Marxist by his estate proposals on dividing land to peasants, and eventually he resigned on May 29, 1932.

Franz von Papen became Schleicher’s puppet and promoted him with the aid of President Hindenburg to become Chancellor of Germany. Hitler supported Papen and the ban on the Nazis was lifted as promised by Schleicher. The Nazis went on an all-out rampage across the country singing songs and causing fights with Communists. CITATION Papen was unable to form any coalition in Germany, and was forced to resign from his position. Schleicher believed that this was the right decision and a new Chancellor should be appointed.

Hitler asked President Hindenburg to be Chancellor of Germany on many occasions and he always replied with rejection to Hitler’s request because of the terrorizing behaviors of the Brown Shirts. Whenever President Hindenburg asked Hitler to cooperate with other parties, Hitler always replied with the same answer President Hindenburg gave him, no. Businesses and wealthy industrialists sent a petition to President Hindenburg to ask him to make Hitler Chancellor of Germany because it would be good for business. President Hindenburg did not know what to do, but he appointed Schleicher as Chancellor because he believed he could make the Nazis fall apart. Schleicher held secret meetings with a Nazi named Gregor Strasser, who was with Hitler since the beginning of the party. Schleicher offered Strasser the status Vice-Chancellor and control of Prussia, which was an appealing offer. However, Papen told Hitler all about this and was devastated. Hitler even became depressed and threatened to shoot himself because Strasser resigned as a Nazi and went off to vacation in Italy. Schleicher became furious and wanted to declare a state of emergency to control the Nazis, and President Hindenburg rejected that proposal. Soon Schleicher would resign because he and President Hindenburg could no longer get along or make decisions together. President Hindenburg even heard rumors that Schleicher was going to arrest him for some sort of treachery, and after that, he never talked to Schleicher again. CITATION

The Nazi party gained eighteen percent of the popular vote in the 1930 elections, and Hitler ran for President in 1932. He won thirty percent of the vote, which forced his competitor, Paul von Hindenburg, into a runoff election where a political deal was made. In this deal, Hitler could be chancellor of Germany in exchange of him supporting Hindenburg politically. Hitler agreed and was officially appointed to office in January 1933 as Chancellor of Germany. For a short time in 1932, the people believed that Hitler’s rise to power would fail due to the number of seats in the Reichstag that decreased from two-hundred thirty seats to one-hundred and ninety-six seats between July 1932 and November 1932. However, President Hindenburg believed that the Nazi party could come to power and he did that by making Hitler Chancellor of Germany. Hitler’s first act was to call for a new election, and to his advantage, the Reichstag building was burned exactly a week before elections took place. Hitler publicized that Communists were to blame for this action and he persuaded President Hindenburg to sign a decree that gave power to the Nazis to jail all political opponents that could have been responsible for the attack on their parliament. He used this as an excuse to limit all civil liberties and the Enabling Act was passed to give him more power.

President Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934 in his Prussian Estate, and Hitler was to be his successor. After taking the power of Hindenburg, Hitler made himself a dictator and eliminated all opposing parties and government institutions. Hitler named himself Fuhrer instead of President and gained huge appeal from the German people because he seemed as a World War I hero who would bring glory back to the country. After Schleicher resigned from his position as Chancellor of Germany, it only took Hitler fifty-seven days to rise to complete power in Germany.

Hitler had successfully risen to power in Germany, and soon he would use the Mein Kampf as an outline for the German people. The economy was succeeding due to the industries prepping for war. Anyone against him was either sent to prison or executed because Hitler made sure that there were no faults to his plan. Hitler wanted to take all actions necessary in order to make Germany prosper, gain world recognition, take revenge from World War I, and please the German people. Hitler had successfully convinced the German people that Germany would regain its glory, and soon Hitler started prepping for treacherous tasks, world domination, and complete annihilation of the Jewish population.

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Operation ValkyrieMany have wondered if anyone had attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

Operation ValkyrieMany have wondered if anyone had attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, one of the greatest mass-murderers in history. Operation Valkyrie was an important event in history that highlighted the attempted assassination of Adolf Hitler. The assassination plot of Adolf Hitler, known as Operation Valkyrie, was drafted to put an end to the atrocities he was committing, drawn up in secret by his own German soldiers, and will forever live on in the history of World War II. Ironically, the German conspirators used a previous German emergency plan as the basis for their assassination plot.

Adolf Hitler had complete control of the German army and was not doing good things. Many members of the German government believed he was destroying Germany and all they have made for themselves, (Crime Museum). The only way to keep from getting taken over by the Allies was to get rid of Hitler and take away his power, (Crime Museum). The conspirators who were all either, part of the bureaucratic government or the military, had a plan to take back control, their plan was based on a modified version of Operation Valkyrie so they could take control of Germany and make peace with the allies before they invaded Germany, the Operation was okayed by Hitler himself in case there was a break down in law and order or communications between different parts of Germany’s Government were cut off due to revolt or attack, (Crime Museum).

In the revised version of Operation Valkyrie, the starting event would be the assassination and death of Hitler along with a few of his key advisors, (Crime Museum). The suspicion of it would then fall on the more frantic branches of the government, thus leaving the Reserve Army, under the direction of General Friedrich Fromm, to take complete control of the government, (Crime Museum). The army would then take control of important buildings such as buildings of communication in Berlin, so that he and the conspirators could gain and reorganize the government, (Crime Museum). The plan to kill Hitler was filled with risk; Claus von Stauffenberg would carry a briefcase loaded with explosives, through the checkpoints to the Wolfs Lair, where Hitler was at, and position the briefcase as close to Hitler during Hitler’s briefing on the status of the war, (Last1).Stauffenberg would then take a phone call to get out of the room and after the briefcase exploded, Stauffenberg would then head back to Berlin, where by the use of the Reserve Army would take control of the government, (Last1). The main conspirators of the operation were Claus con Stauffenberg, Wilhelm Canaris, Carl Goerdeler, Julius Leber, Ulrich Hassell, Hans Oster, Peter von Wartenburg, Henning von Tresckow, Friedrich Olbricht, Werner von Haeften, Fabian Schlabrendorft, Ludwig Beck, and Erwin von Witzleben, (Crime Museum). The group of conspirators was led by Gen Henning von Tresckow. Claus von Stauffenberg was one of the main conspirators of the plot. Tall, well bred, Stauffenberg was the son of one of the most prestigious old families of south Germany, (Galante, Pg.5). He was an aristocrat catholic and spent his life as an army officer, (Last1). In 1943 he was badly injured while serving in Tunisia. He lost an eye, his right hand, and two fingers from his left hand, (Last1). Then in 1944 he became Chief of Staff for the commander of the German Replacement Army, (Last1). This post gave him admittance to Hitler and an opportunity to carry out the assassination attempt, (Last1). Friedrich Fromm was the General of the Reserve Army. He was the only other one than Hitler that could put Operation Valkyrie into effect. If he had not joined the plan would have failed. After planting the bomb and leaving the room, Stauffenberg got in his car and saw the bomb explode and he sped off and got on a plane to Berlin sure that Hitler was dead. Of the four casualties, Hitler was not one of them, (Crime Museum). He’d only suffered minor injuries, with burnt clothes; a cut hand and ear drum problems, (Wilde1). The conflicting reports on if Hitler was dead or not made those in Berlin stall before initiating the operation. The different reports on if Hitler had survived the assassination or been killed caused the conspirators wait before beginning the next part of the operation. Until Hitler himself had recovered enough to call up several officers himself and tell them he survived, (Crime Museum). After news of Hitler’s survival was out things began to fall apart. The first batch of conspirators, including Stauffenberg, were arrested and shot, (Wilde1). Others that were tangentially connected were arrested, tortured, brutally executed and filmed, (Wilde1). By the end thousands had been executed and others sent to camps. Thousands were executed and relatives of important figures were sent to camps, (Wilde1). In spite of their efforts, they failed in achieving their goal. However, Hitler ended his own life later on and Germany surrendered. Operation Valkyrie was created to end the horrors that Adolf Hitler was committing in Germany, was written up by his own German soldiers, and will remain an important aspect in World War II history. Ironically, after Germany was forced to surrender, Adolf Hitler would take his own life.

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Hitler’s Life and Background

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

April 20th, 1889 in Braunau, Austria, a boy by the name of Adolf Hitler was brought into the world. Though they didn’t know it yet, the same baby Alois and Klara Hitler had just laid their eyes upon would, only 44 years later, be the mastermind behind the worst form of genocide the world has ever seen. Anti-Semitism was the key to Hitler’s door of power. Having had to make his way up from the bottom, building off pre-existing beliefs and prejudices, and mesmerizing his audience with powerful, nationalistic speeches, Hitler easily rose to dictatorship.

Germany was at rock bottom prior to exposure to Hitler and he seemed to be their sturdy ladder back up. Facing humiliation after humiliation was becoming a reoccurring theme for the Germans and Hitler was ready to take the world by storm.

The events between 1889 and 1933 display the main points of build-up leading to Hitler’s toxic regnant. Growing up, Hitler was enthralled by the blonde, Aryan heroes who derived from indestructible, pure, German roots.

Hitler learned early on the benefits of such traits and idealized a physical appearance similar to one that mirrored the men he admired in adolescents. Though Hitler had passions, like Aryan conquerors, he struggled in areas he lacked interest in. His dislike for school and learning was apparent at the beginning of his education and his grades were substantial evidence. Following his father’s death, Hitler dropped out of school and sought out to become an artist free from traditional schooling. Hitler applied to a prestigious art school in Vienna to fulfill one of his life long dreams and self-assured talents. Feeling quite confident and collected, he received news he had been rejected due to lack of skill and ability. Hitler had yet again been confronted with another failure. His life began to spiral downwards as he became homeless and his pockets weightless. During his life on the streets and in hostiles, he began to pick up on German history and anti-semitic literature. Hitler found it best to overuse the blame game and turned his back on certain minority groups including Jews. It’s recorded that A Jewish man pitied Hitler’s living situation and offered him a warm coat in the winter. One person’s actions, good or bad, do not set the tone for an entire group of people. Despite the care Jewish people offered to Hitler, he remained in opposition.

Hatred for Jews was already surfacing prior to Hitler and he only added fuel to the fire as he became a public figure. Anti-Semitism was a popular standpoint for many Christians across Europe directly targeting the Jewish people. During the Great War, all of Germany was in shock by the significant loss after being assured victory was in sight. Many of those had felt betrayed by the Jews on the homefront and belittled them to traitors of the country. Forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was brought to shambles as their army was nearly abolished, left responsible for considerable reparations, and stripped of some major territories. The Weimar Republic also proved failure to the nation as a whole, displaying the need for repairs in the government.

A party in its beginning works would soon rise to power as well as one of their newfound speakers, Adolf Hitler. The Nazi party existed as a far-right political German party to overthrow the previous government and fight against communist uprisings. Stuart Kallen states the purpose of the Nazis as, “The Nazis promised jobs, food, education, and power. They blamed the loss of WWI on the Jews.” (14)

As Hitler gained fame, the minds of his supporters were morphing into one like his. Hitler was almost hypnotic. Crowds gathered laughing, crying, and shouting as Hitler waved his arms all about. The German people lived for Hitler and praised his Nazi based transformation of the government and country.

As a party member, Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933. Upon reaching this new level, Hitler began the war on Jews within the same year. His goals for “The Final Solution” saw no limits, and he overestimated the abilities and strength of his men. His overconfidence caused alterations to the average lifestyle of those in Germany. Anti-Jewish propaganda became present in newspapers, children’s books and in school lessons for children as young as four years old. Hitler enlisted children and teens into groups entitled “Hitler’s youth” where they were taught to despise the Jews and spy on those who spoke against him. Additionally, Hitler created a secret police bureau, also known as stormtroopers, who were prepared to attack those who evidently opposed Hitler. By this point, Hitler seemed to be unstoppable. No one interfered when he began building concentration camps, forced labor and transit camps, and killing centers. In total, Hitler had 42,000 incarceration sites for the “unwanted” throughout the course of WWII. The Nazi’s were able to mass murder roughly six million Jews which is equivalent to two-thirds of Jewish people in all of Europe.

Following the war, people struggled with the thought of how it could all happen. How Hitler dictated most of Europe and killed off generations of Jewish people, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, disabled and elderly persons, and anyone who resisted the Nazi ideals. It all seemed like a plot straight out of a nightmare. Everyone knew what Hitler had been planning. Hitler stated, “If at the beginning of the war and during the war, twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the people had been held under poison gas, as has happened to thousands of our best German workers in the field. The sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain. ” (Ch. XV)

During the Holocaust, promotion meant murder. Young men had to kill to get somewhere and too many showed no remorse. People were all too willing to turn on their Jewish neighbors, classmates, friends, and coworkers. Every person is accountable for their actions during the war. Logistics workers who managed and oversaw the arrangements, transit staff, and policemen who “guarded” the streets are all responsible. While some people claimed their full support for the Third Reich, others who showed confliction typically decided to remain silent in order to avoid bloodshed and danger upon their families. Though, often when people were given the choice to stop fighting or leave the party, they went on committing atrocities. Historians have yet to find evidence people were threatened if they no longer wished to participate in the Nazi party’s acts. Major Wilhelm Trapp, commander of the Reserve Police Battalion, told his men in one of his speeches that if they didn’t want to take part, they could depart. In the end, only fifteen out of 500 soldiers opted out. The measures taken by men, women, and children were purposeful and personal. When Nazis met confrontation after the war, the most common excuse for their barbarity was that they were simply following orders. Hitler was their god and hate was their religion.

Nearly everyone is affected by the Holocaust and WWII in some way or another. The Holocaust wasn’t a freak accident. Knowing this, we can better learn from the events that took place and Hitler’s idea of a purer nation. Since the war, multiple other continents have been found guilty of similar mass killings. There has never been a shortage of people willing to do secretive and deceitful things for a potentially good outcome. To prevent this, The International Community turned genocide into a criminal defense and established the International Criminal Court for unjust actions. Genocide has been determined as no longer being normalized as a “war tactic.”

In conclusion, Hitler was a confident, charismatic speaker who preached abominations confidently. Like a preacher, Hitler spoke what seemed to be words of wisdom and the German people believed every word. Based on their state of being, the people saw Hitler as a godsend and healer to their social and economic wounds. The popularity of Hitler was toxic and induced immoral outwardness in the German people. Hitler created his own path, manipulated the minds of others, and lied through his teeth flawlessly. Hitler had the people of Germany wrapped around his finger and they weren’t going to let go till the worst was over. What they didn’t know was the intensity of Hitler’s will for sabotage and blood. Germans were blindsided by the voice that told the nation as a whole that all their problems could go away. Jews were sacrificed in exchange for empty promises. Hitler. Hitler is the man with whom we directly link the death of millions and his footprint on the world is permanent and unforgivable.

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Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

Hitler was the German leader for the Nazi Party and was known as the most powerful fascists of the 20th century according to History. He took advantage of financial hardships, popular discontent, and political disagreements so that he could take all the power of Germany. This is what gets me, is why someone would want so much power over a country or over innocent people. This event started in 1933. The intrusion in Poland led to the start of WW2 in 1939. The Nazis took much of Europe.

Eventually, all of this led to the murders of 6 million Jews along with some of the people that were held captive in the Holocaust. That is a lot of people killed because of one person who is greedy for power and selfish. He had to have so much hate and cruelty in him. In the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler helped grow the Nazi Party and it began to spread like wildfire. In the mid-1920s, Hitler published his book titled ‘Mein Kamf’ which translated in English is called ‘My Struggle.

’ Hitler grew on nationalistic and anti-Semitic views. He developed these views in Vienna when he was in his early twenties. He even had plans for when he came to power. He wrote his second book in the late 1920s called ‘The Zweites Buch.’ This book was published titled ‘Hitler’s Secret Book.’

I can remember being in my high school history class and we were talking about dictators like Hitler and Stalin and I can remember thinking how cruel these people were. They killed so many people, for what? Power? I felt so bad for the people who had to endure that and go through such a dark time. I could not imagine, and I do not ever want to have to imagine this or go through something like this. At a time like that, it had to be really scary not knowing what was going to happen net. These dictators must have had such miserable lives leading up to this kind of cruelty. On another note, Stalin began to rise to power in 1912. This happens to be the same year the RMS Titanic hit an iceberg and sank! This also the same time the Bolsheviks came to power.

A man by the name of Vladimir Lenin had founded the Soviet Union at this time and began his leadership. Now, Stalin’s early life went a little like this. He was born into poverty, so his family struggled a good bit throughout his life. However, he grew up to earn a scholarship so that he could become a priest at an Orthodox Church. Eventually, he became fascinated with the ideas of Karl Marx. However, he then got expelled from the institution he was attending because he was missing major exams. He then became involved with the Marxist Social Democratic movement. Stalin was responsible for a lot of bank robberies because he was using the money to help fund his political organization. He was even arrested at one point. All of this led to his rise in 1912. However, his dictatorship began at some point in the 1920s. any person who did not agree with his ideas or his political views was killed, held captive, or banished.

In 1953, Joseph Stalin died from a stroke. He was 74 years old at the time of his death. Stalin and Hitler were both very cruel and evil men. There was absolutely no reason they had to kill all those people. When I was in my high school history class, we were told that Hitler killed mostly Jews and blonde hair and blue-eyed people as well. I would have hated to be in that era under their rule. You almost lived everyday in fear when they were in power. You almost were not even able to have your own ideas and way of thinking. Basically, you had your hands tied behind your back and you were imprisoned or worse, killed, if you had your own opinion. I believe this was not a healthy way to live and to be controlled like that had to be miserable.

I honestly feel bad for these people because if I were them I would be scared to lay my head down at night and if I did, I would not want to wake up the next morning because of the possibility of being killed. I would hate to even walk out my door. I do not know how things could get worse than what Hitler and Stalin did to all those innocent people. Also, to think, the Holocaust started under Hitler’s rule and to think the people held captive were not fed well and they did not have proper hygiene and were not in a clean environment. They were even sent in gas chambers and left to die. Many even died because of starvation or died of diseases caused by not being clean. These innocent people had it bad and I bet it was absolutely traumatizing. I can only imagine what the survivors are going through right now after having to go through and witness all that.

Works Cited: Editors. ‘Adolf Hitler.’, A&E Television Networks, 29 Oct. 2009,

‘What Bad Things Did Stalin Do?’ Reference, IAC Publishing,

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Adolf Hitler and Holocaust

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

Adolf Hitler bears the prime responsibility for the Holocaust. He was the the author and instigator of the ideology to exterminate the jewish people. In his book Mein kampf, published in 1925, set out his ideas of a pure Aryan German race. The ideas of this pure German race stemmed from the ideas of the Eugenics Movement which was started back in the late 1800’s. Eugenics was a practice that aimed to improve the human race by controlling who was allowed to give birth.

This meant that people with weaknesses would not be allowed to give birth and only people with desirable traits or heritage could have offspring.

Hitler used this idea and expanded it. His idea was to not only to disallow people of inferior worth to have children, but undesirable people were to be exterminated. He wanted to eliminate Jews from Europe as well as other people such as gypsies, homosexuals, sick and disabled people. Although Hitler was responsible for initiating these ideas were accepted and adopted by the German people who voted him into power.

The Nazi Party and, particularly the higher ranking officials believed in his ideas absolutely. They were blinded by their belief in him and adopted this racial hatred as their own. They became fanatical in their following of the ideals and did everything in their power to make them happen. Without the people’s following of him, Hitler would not have been able to put his ideas into practice. The building of the death camps and the rounding up of the Jew’s all needed manpower to carry out. This was done by Nazi officials and soldiers, particularly the SS (Stormtroopers)and the Wehrmacht.

Most of the general public had no idea of what was going on and the scale of the killings, but there were people in the know and they did nothing to stop it. Other countries were informed of the atrocities that were happening, but they either didn’t believe it, or decided to turn a blind eye. They must bear part of the blame of letting such a horrific thing happen in modern times.

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Adof Hitler Biography Paper

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

Adolf Hitler is very important to history because he was responsible for starting World War II and also for the European jew massacre and jew genocide in 1933. He reminds us how not to act. Adolf Hitler was the leader of the National Socialist Nazi Party and Chancellor of Germany. He was born on April 20, 1889 in Austria, and he died on April 30, 1945 in Berlin, Germany. He led the Nazi Party from 1933 to 1939. As a child, he lived in upper Austia where both his mother and father died.

He never went on with school after high school.

He desired to become an artist, but kept failing at getting into a university for fine arts. During these years, he had a lot of loneliness and secretiveness. In 1914, he signed up for military service, and was classified as unfit because of his inadequate physical build, and was not accepted. But as soon as World War I started, he was immediately was accepted into the German army.

In the war, he was continuously in the front line as a headquarters runner. He was rewarded the Iron Cross and the First Class for his bravery in action. In 1921, “strong arm” squads formed a private army party.

Hitler noticed that conditions were very good for the growth of this small army party. In 1921, he became the leader of this party with almost unlimited powers. On November of 1923, Hitler tried to force the Bavarian government and the local army commander to start a national revolution. After the revolution, police and army killed some of the marchers, 4 policemen and injured Hitler. Adolf was sent to prison for five years but only served in prison for nine months. After the Great Depression in 1929, Hitler made a campaign against Germany’s war payments.

With this campaign, Hitler was able to get support from many of buisness’s and industries that controlled political payments, and he was able touse them to create an antisocialist government. One of Hitler’s most important achievements was the establishment of a national party, with its voters and followers from diffrent classed and religious groups. Hitler’s party became the second largest party in the country. Hitler had his partner, Hindenburg, who allied with him to form the revolution go into the presidential election in 1932.

With Hindenburg as the new president, Hitler insisted that he should be put into the chancellorship, and on January 30, 1933, Hindenburg gave Hitler the chancellorship of Germany, which included a few Nazis at the time. Once in power, Hitler created an absolute dictatorship for himself. On March 23, Hitler gained full powers from the Enabling Bill by the votes of Nazis, Nationalists and center party deputies. After Hitler was recieved full power, all non-Nazi parties and organizations became non existing. In November, Hitler held a secret meeting with his fellow military leader.

Hitler discussed his plans for his future conquest. In February, Hitler invited the Austrian chancellor and forced hin to sign an agreement including Austrian Nazis with the Vienna government. When the chancellor tried to say no, Hitler ordered the invasion of Austria by German troops. Hitler was later faced with a decision to where he could either choose between gains by a peaceful agreement, or he could have a great war against Czechoslovakia. Hitler decided to create a peaceful agreement and accepted the Munich Agreement on September 30.

A few months later, Hitler marched into Czechoslovakia and made it into a German protectorate. Then, Hitler turned to Poland for his next invasion. Hitler formed the “Pact of Steel” with Italy in 1939 as a non-aggression pact. Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, and two days later, the British and French declared war on Germany. On June 10, Italy entered the war and allied with Germany. On June 22, Hitler signed an armistice with the French. Hitler tried to negotiate an armistice with British, but they didnt accept and Hitler decided to invade Britain.

Hitler had to redate his attack on Britain because when Mussolini invaded Greece, Italian armies were failing which made it necessary for German forces to come to help Greece. After German troops aided Italy against Britain, Hitler planned an attack on the Soviet Union. The German army then attacked the U. S. S. R on June 22, 1941, taking about three million Russian prisoners, but did not succeed with their attempt in destroying their Russian opponent. On December 7, the Japanese attached U. S. forces at Pearl Harbor. Hitler had an alliance with Japan which forced him to declare war on the United States.

This event started the second world war. Hitler ordered the reorganization of the German economy on a full-wartime basis. From 1933 to 1939, Hitler planned to expel the Jews from Germany. During 1941, Hitler’s plan to expel the jews suddenly changed to exterminate the Jews. Nazis then created concentration camps, which expanded to extermination camps. The Nazis also created mobile extermination squads. Catholics, Poles, homosexuals and handicapped people were targeted for persecution, but the Jews of Germany, Poland and the Soviet Union were of the most importance to imprison.

The Jews had the most amount of people persecuted among all the victims. In the German populated part of Europe, about 6,000,000 Jews were killed during World War II. Hitler began to change during all of this was happening. He refused to go to bombed sites for the fear of being captured or killed. He also became very dependent on his physician for large amounts and varieties of pain medicines he took. After Mussolini was arrested on July 1943, Hitler focused his attention on rescuing him. Enemy officers and anti-Nazi peoples became tired of all this that was happening, and was ready and willing to negotiate a peace with Adolf Hitler.

There were several attempts to kill Hitler, but most were unsuccessful. There was one attempt to kill Hitler during a conference at his headquarters in Prussia on July 20, 1944, where colonel Claus Von Stauffenberg exploded a bomb during the conference and injured Hitler. Hitler ended up escaping with only a few injuries, and those that helped plot the attempt to kill Adolf were captured and killed. Once this happened, Hitler had National Socialist political officers stand at guard at all of the military headquarters.

Hitler’s injuries made him very ill, but he did not ease up or lose control. On June 6, 1944, Hitler’s allies liberated eight European capitals in the Invasion of Normandy, which started the end of World War II. In December of 1944, Hitler planned to split the American and British armies. He did not succeed at his plan to split these two allies. After abandoning his plans to attack the Soviet forces that were closing in on Berlin, extreme exhaustion set in for Hitler. Hitler accepted the fact that he will not win this war, and prepared to hill himself.

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Nazi Revolution

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

The Nazi revolution of power was as extraordinary as it was unique. It was a revolution that placed the ‘unknown soldier’ or the ‘nobody of Vienna’ in charge of government in one of Europe’s most powerful countries. It had not been too long before, that Adolf Hitler had been in prison and it had not been too long before, that the Nazi party was a fringe party on the edge of the political spectrum, which most people considered to be irrelevant.

The amazing fact is that to the general observer, the revolution would appear to be completely legal. After all, the Nazi party did receive the largest share of the votes in the Reichstag elections and the Enabling Act, which secured Hitler dictatorial powers, was passed through the Reichstag. However, if the general observer was to look beneath the surface, there is no doubt that he would discover elements of illegality, which were crucial in assuring the Nazi ascension to power.

As Ian Kershaw points out, Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor was an extraordinary political drama and one, which unfolded largely out of sight of the German people (1). It was the result of several meetings between Hitler and Von Papen and several more between Hindenburg and Von Papen. It was not the result of elections, which should have been the case considering the Weimar Republic claimed to be a democracy. At the end of the talks it was decided that Hitler should be appointed Chancellor as Germany needed a strong leader with public support and one who had the ability to crush Communism.

As mentioned above, the Nazis did receive a large amount of the vote and was by far the largest party in the Reichstag. When elections were again called in March 1933, whilst Hitler was the Chancellor (der Kanzler), the Nazi party again received the biggest share of the vote with 43.9% of Germans demonstrating their preference for Nazi leadership. It is therefore customary to declare this as legal because over forty percent of the German population had demonstrated their support for Hitler by giving him their vote. However this is only part of the truth. The election campaign witnessed a huge barrage of SA violence and intimidation, which resulted in the deaths of sixty-nine people and the destruction of one of Hitler’s main rivals, the Communist Party. In Prussia Hermann G�ring (a Nazi who held the position of interior minister for Prussia), took control of the police force (over half of Germany’s entire force) and insisted that they serve Nazi interests and that if they did not, they would be sacked. He also drafted in many SA men to become part of the police force and went about arresting and assaulting many political opponents. It is therefore not surprising that the Nazis won a large share of the vote. The election campaign of 1933 was far from legal.

Five days before the elections, on the 27th of February 1933 somebody set fire to the Reichstag. A young Dutchman by the name of Marinus van der Lubbe was arrested in connection with the attack and confessed whilst in police custody. Although he confessed to working alone the Nazis immediately claimed that it was part of a treasonous Communist plot and by the following morning, 4000 Communists had been arrested. This seriously undermined the Communist election campaign and resulted in them losing 19 of their seats. Hitler also persuaded Hindenburg into granting The Decree for the Protection of People and State which allowed the government the power to arrest without trial, censor post and telephone calls and restrict freedom of expression.

This went directly against much of what was in the Weimar Constitution. Also, many historians have pointed to the convenience of the fire which, five days before the election, allowed the Nazis to seriously disadvantage the Communists during the election campaign. Also a subsequent trial eighteen years later acquitted van der Lubbe from the crime altogether, and it emerged that there was a tunnel leading directly from G�ring’s house to the Reichstag. All of this suggests that the arson attack was not a Communist plot to overthrow the government but instead a Nazi plot to destroy the Communists, a major rival party. This was one of the most crucial moments for the Nazi revolution, but all evidence suggests that it was completely illegal.

On 5th March 1933 the Reichstag voted to pass the Enabling Act. This Act resulted in the Reichstag becoming irrelevant and giving the cabinet the right to pass laws without the Reichstag’s permission. It gave Hitler the power of a dictator. To the general observer this would appear to be completely legal as it was passed through the Reichstag. However, many of the Communist deputies in the Reichstag were in custody following the Reichstag Fire and also, all of the entrances to the Reichstag were guarded by the SA who refused to allow Communist and Socialist deputies in. This accounted for 107 deputies who would have voted against the Act. This completely contradicts democracy and was therefore completely illegal:

‘Giring added that, if necessary, some Social Democrats could be ejected from the chamber. That is how little the Nazis’ ‘legal revolution’ had to do with legality.’ (2)

The most blatant illegal part of the Nazi revolution but perhaps also the most crucial was the Night of the Long Knifes in July 1934. Mass murder is one of the biggest crimes that can be committed. However it is exactly what Hitler did. He believed that the leader of the SA, Ernst R�hm was becoming a threat. R�hm wanted to merge the SA with the army, but the army were extremely opposed to this idea as they saw the SA as untrained street thugs and they also despised R�hm because he was an alcoholic and a homosexual, both of which were characteristics looked down upon by the conservative army commanders. Hitler desperately needed the army on his side as they were the only group, who could seriously threaten his revolution, so were dangerous enemies to have. He therefore sent the elite SS to kill the most prominent figures within the SA. They were murdered in cold blood. The army chiefs were extremely happy about this and when President Hindenburg died in August that year, the army swore an oath of loyalty to Hitler. Hitler had achieved what he had wanted to, but he had not achieved it through legality.

From January 1933 to August 1934 Hitler had transformed from a Chancellor who had been ‘hired’ by Von Papen and Hindenburg, to the supreme dictator of Germany. Although, from the outside this revolution can appear legal, and to the German people at the time it all seemed perfectly legal, this revolution was littered with spots of illegality. The election result was largely the work of illegal SA intimidation and murder. The illegal arson attack on the Reichstag was probably committed by a Nazi. 107 Communist and Socialist deputies were illegally refused entrance into the Reichstag for the passing of the Enabling Act and most obvious of all, approximately 90 people were illegally killed in the Night of the Long Knifes as a result of an order from Hitler. The Nazi revolution of 1933-34 can not, in the slightest, be described as a ‘legal revolution’.

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Factors of the rise of Hitler

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

The treaty of Versailles, 22 June 1919.This only dealt with Germany. The peace treaty imposed upon Germany at Versailles by the victorious allies was an impossible burden for a country already crippled by the human and material cost of the war. The prospect for a success was weak.

The allies maintained their naval blockade while their armies threatened to resume their attacks on German forces if the German Government refused to accept the treaty 1919-1920.

Shortage of materials and food 1918 – 1920

French occupation of Saar 1919 – 1926

Hyperinflation 1922 – 1923 had been a latent threat to the republic since 1918, but in mid April 1923 the German mark collapsed and by August the exchange rate stood at four and a half million marks to the American dollar.

In 1918 �1 was worth 20 marks in 1923 �1 was worth 20 000 000 000 000 marks. Two women were going to the bank with a washing basket filled with notes, they passed a shop and saw a crowd standing round a window, so put down the basket when they turned around all the notes were there but someone had stole the basket this happened in Berlin 1923.

Germany because of the war guilt clause, was blamed for the war had to pay an astronomical sum in reparations �6,600 million demanded by the allies as reparations for war damages in May 1921 but by 1923 the government fell behind with the payments because it was short of money.

Army and navy reduced 1919

Anarchy in cities 1920 – 1923.

SA members were provided with a distinctive Brown shirt emblazoned with the swastika in 1924 – 1945

Paramilitary organisations 1924 – 1945

Weak Weimar Republic 1919 – 1933 The new prosperity depended on American loans, and if they stopped German industries would collapse.

Strong leadership

Weak leadership 1919 – 1923

Death of Stesemann On 3 October 1929 Stesemann died, then on 28 October the American stock market crashed wiping out billions of dollars worth of shares overnight, and sending financial shock waves around the world, and the USA slid into depression. German banks and businesses that depend on loans from the USA had to close because of the USA withdrawal of loans. Industrial production fell by 30% and unemployment rose to 5 1/2 million in 1932. The Government was short of money, but the new chancellor bruning, failed to persuade the Reichstag to increase taxes or reduce unemployment benefit. Germany hated the Allied pace makers but that hatred was transferred to the German politicians who signed the treaty.

The great Depression was an essential pre-condition for the rise of fascism in Germany, but it is necessary to examine how the nsdap exploited political uncertainties and particularly, middle class fears in order to understand how Hitler seized power in 1933.

Racial purity was taught in schools all subjects, German language, history, geography chemistry and mathematics must concentrate on military subjects the glorification of military service and of German heroes and leaders and the strength of a regenerated Germany. 1939.

Scapegoats: Jews, orthodox Jews had fled from Trarist persecution. In the 1935 Nuremberg Laws 1935 A Jew cannot be a citizen of the Reich. Any marriages between Jews and citizens of German and kindred blood are herewith forbidden.

Scapegoats; communists normally were more radical Socialists.

Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933 Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to pass an emergency decree banning socialist and communist meetings and allowing the arrest of the left wingers. In March 1933 Hitler called elections, which the Nazis won with 44% of the vote.

Hung parliament

Nazi propaganda was organised by Joseph gobbles to persuade Germans to believe in Nazisim. Hitler realised the importance of propaganda and used it to target many Germans’ specific grievances.

Unemployment which dropped to a relative low point of one and a quarter million in august 1929, reached three million by December and seemed set to reach four million by the end of 1930. By the winter of 1932 about one third of the German workforce was unemployed.

Re – armament

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Hitler’s defeat at Stalingrad can be seen as the turning point of the struggle against Russia

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

I feel that Hitler’s defeat at Stalingrad was a turning point in the war and I think each source gives us information which helps prove that. From a military point of view, Source B tells us about how Stalingrad required more and more troops, instead of freeing them up elsewhere. ”More and more German troops were drawn away… to strengthen the desperate efforts at Stalingrad. ” This then left the Germans vulnerable in other areas and increased their casualty number in Stalingrad.

We also know from Source C that twenty-two German divisions were either taken prisoner or destroyed. ‘Twenty-two divisions have been destroyed or taken prisoner. ” Source E which I think is the most reliable as it was written 50 years later and has the benefit of hindsight, tells us that the battle of Stalingrad was a ”Key battle” and although the Germans had suffered local defeats on the eastern front before they had always resumed the offensive. But this time, ”the tide of the Axis advance had come to end” and ”with the encirclement and destruction of the 6th Army in the Nightmare of Stalingrad” the period of German victories had come to an end and it was now going to be the Allies who were on the attack.

There were a number of psychological points as well as military. Source A, the video clip, showed us how down and disheartened the German troops were. Their expectations of simple and easy victory over Russia had been dashed and they were now on the back foot. Source D, one of the only sources where a German admits to defeat, tells us about the distress and alarm the people felt when they realized the Germans had been defeated. ”The disaster of Stalingrad profoundly shocked the German people… ever before had so large a body of German troops, come to so dreadful an end. ”

Source E has psychological points in it as well as military. German troops had been defeated before but had always resumed the offensive, whereas this time they had been defeated and it was the Allies who were now on the attack. Psychologically this must have dented Germany an enormous amount as they realized for the first time that they weren’t the super power they had once been. Finally we see more psychological factors in Source F.

The desperation of the German troops start to show as Hitler announces ”Stalingrad will be taken, you can be sure of that. ” Yet after 140 days the Russians were still standing strong so we know the Germans would be starting to feel depressed and discouraged. In conclusion I feel that Hitler’s defeat at Stalingrad can be seen as a turning point in the struggle they faced against Russia. Each source gives us either a military point, a psychological point or both and I think we have enough evidence when all the sources are added together to say that Stalingrad was a turning point.

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The Holocaust Was the Result of Hitler’s Personal Desire for Genocide: Assessment of the Statement

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

The Holocaust was not the result of Hitler’s desire for genocide, but rather stemmed from Hitler’s desire for genocide. Hitler’s desire for genocide meant that he was able to create the circumstances in Germany under which genocide could be possible, and encourage other individuals, such as Himmler to become involved. It is clear from Hitler’s first public statements made as early as 1920 that he had a long term desire for the extermination of the Jews “there can be no compromise – there are only two possibilities: either victory of the Aryan, or annihilation of the Aryan and the victory of the Jew.

This suggests that Hitler perceives himself as defender of the Aryan race, for the Aryan’s to be victorious the Jew’s must die and thus his desire for genocide. Hitler’s strong anti-Semitic beliefs can be seen in the 25 point programme, Mein Kampf and the increasingly discriminatory measures, Dawidowicz[1] asserts these advocate his vision for the final solution.

However, some historians have used Mein Kampf and discriminatory measures in order to discredit the view Hitler had a desire for genocide, but have suggested that they are indicative of a gradual movement to the “final solution” which ‘preceded rather than followed on from a central decision to carry out the genocide of European Jews. ’[2] Furthermore, although Hitler had a proven vision for genocide this alone did could not lead to the Holocaust, he needed to put this vision into action.

However, one of Hitler’s main restraints in doing so, was his personality as he was legendary for hesitating with almost disastrous effects, when faced with grave decisions, such as the Roehm Purge, the Munich Crisis and whether to run in the presidential election of 1932. Therefore mass killings of about one million Jews occurred before the plans of the Final Solution were fully implemented in 1942, indeed Hitler had a desire for genocide but lacked plan.

Himmler therefore became the catalyst as he was the ‘architect of the final solution’ [3] who had the qualities Hitler lacked such as the organizational talent that was necessary for the annihilation of the Jew’s, This enabled him to translate Hitler’s vision of a “racially pure Europe” into a reality, culminating in the mass killing of over six million Jews between 1939 and 1945. Hitler’s anti-Semitic ideology layed the foundation for the Holocaust.

By 1924, Hitler’s had made his stance towards Jews undeniably clear “it by no means believes in an equality of races, but along with their difference it recognizes their higher or lesser value and feels itself obliged to promote the victory of the better and stronger, and demand the subordination of the inferior and weaker in accordance with the eternal will that dominates this universe. ” This suggests that Hitler felt obligated to make the Jews surbordinate to ‘Aryans’, and exclude them from society which the Nazi’s used as justification for the Holocaust.

The anti-Semitic ideology Hitler expressed paid contribution to the process of the Holocaust. There were many early references to gassing made by Hitler, which became an integral part of the extermination process. “If at the beginning of the War and during the War, twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the people had been held under the poison gas, as happened to hundreds of thousands of our very best German workers in the field, the sacrifice of millions would not have been in vain. [4] Based on his avowed anti-Semitism as early as Mein Kampf (1923) and his early statements (1939) that Jews would be completely destroyed if they plunged Germany into another world war, therefore all decisions, political and military, were made with an eye to the ultimate extermination of the Jews. However, historians such as Dawidowitz have come under sustained criticism for using Mein Kampf as evidence that Hitler had a desire for genocide. As Mein Kampf is 684 pages long, there are few and far between references to the annihilation of Jews.

However, the fact that gassing became an integral part of the extermination camp suggests that ideas in Mein Kampf were meant to be carried out when it became possible in which case demonstrate a long term desire for genocide. However, historians have criticised the use of Hitler’s ideology as proof that he had a true desire for genocide, but have suggested that he had a desire for power and sought genocide in order to gain the support from what has been perceived as anti- Semitic Germany. Hitler used the Jews as scapegoats by presenting them as the culprits of Imperial Germany’s downfall and subsequent economic problems as well.

Consequently, historians have suggested that Hitler, with a knowledge that Germany was highly anti-Semitic, capitalised on their desire for the Jews to be exterminated in order to consolidate his power, as he believed people would have voted for him on the basis of his anti-Semitic ideologies. This is supported by Goldhagen[5] who suggests that anti-Semitism that was rampant in Germany before Hitler and Shulamit Vulkov’s [6]interpretation of the late nineteenth centuries anti-Semitism as a ‘cultural code. However, Hitler’s desire for genocide was genuine as he gained votes not because of his anti-Semitism, but in spite of it. This is demonstrated throughout the 20’s in which Germany had shown any interest in voting for Hitler even with his vehemently anti-Semitic ideas, but after the Great Depression the number of Nazi seats in the Reichstag rose from 12 in 1928 to 230 in July 1932. This suggests the German people voted for Hitler, because of the failings of Weimar and not because they agreed with his anti- Semitic beliefs.

This is corroborated by Browning “For the Jewish issue was but one among many, neither top priority nor source of the greatest fear”. [7] This is also supported by the poor sales of Mein Kampf before Hitler came to power. Similarly, an abridged English translation of Mein Kampf was produced before World War II and the publisher removed some of the more anti-Semitic and militaristic statements. This implies that Hitler’s desires were genuine rather than pragmatic as his ideology was not particular popular until he was in power.

However, Hitler once in power, this desire was to be the inspiration behind the legislation he introduced. Hitler’s visions before he was in power, once in power put into action in legislation, which was reflective of his long term desire for genocide. The first wave of legislation introduced limited participation of Jews in public life with the ‘Law of the restoration of service Act’ April 7th 1933. In 1935 the Nuremburg laws were introduced, excluding Jews from German life. By 1937 the government had forbidden Jewish doctors to treat non-Jews and revoked the licenses of Jewish lawyers to practice law.

Between 1933 and 37 the legislation became more oppressive and far reaching in an attempt to gradually initiate Hitler’s ‘final solution’. Hitler wanted de-sensitize the German population as he was aware that to initiate the final solution immediately would face huge opposition, and so would introduce increasingly discriminatory measures. Hitler’s fears were realised in April 1933 when Hitler attempted to introduce a one-day national boycott of Jewish shops and businesses, but the boycott failed to gain the support of the population as many Germans were either sympathetic or indifferent towards the Jews.

This undermines Goldhagen’s position that Germany was largely anti-Semitic as it is clear that Hitler is almost restrained by the German people. The legislation that Hitler introduced has also been criticised as not representative for his desire for genocide. Lebensraum and the Madagascar plan were both designed for the forced emigration of the Jews. This suggests that Hitler did not desire genocide as he would not have wasted time trying to put these plans into action, only to exterminate the Jews.

This is supported by A Farmer “Nazi Jewish policy from September 1939 to early May 1941 seems to have been largely improvised little had been planned before 1939, given the constantly changing decisions nothing was inevitable”. [8] Therefore, Farmer suggests that the legislation was not part of a long term plan to de-sensitize the Jews but was ad-hoc and sporadic whilst Hitler searched for a “final solution”. Although the legislation does often illustrate that there was no consistency in Nazi policy, it was not as Roseman suggested “but it was not yet decided that the final solution meant murder alone”. 9] The fact that there appeared to be no plan, is not indicative that Hitler did not have a desire for genocide. Hitler’s desire was deep-rooted although he lacked the organisational skills to be able to implement a policy of extermination single-handedly. Although Hitler did have a clear desire for genocide this alone was not enough to lead to the Holocaust as Hitler lacked the skills to be able to implement an organised plan. Therefore the holocaust could not be the result of Hitler’s desire but stemmed from Hitler’s desire.

This is because although Hitler had a desire for genocide, Himmler took this desire to the next level, making Hitler’s vision a reality. Hitler had often been perceived as disorganised and spontaneous, whereas Himmler was well organised and systematic. Brietman supports this idea in stating “Hitler needed Himmler for more practical and less emotional reasons”. “As Hitler struggled to bring both the unruly stormtroopers of the Stermabeiltung (SA), and the first Nazi parliamentary force and the tiny SS under control, he pparently picked someone both capable and unlikely to cause trouble. ”[10] Himmler allowed a systematic and organised plan for the Holocaust to take place and has led to him being infamous as the “architect of the final solution. ” However, Himmler orchestrated the final solution Heinrich Himmler was not only head of Hitler’s SS police, but was also in charge of the death camps in the East. Himmler also went beyond what was asked of him, and investigated death camps to find more effective ways of exterminating the Jews.

This suggests that it was Himmler’s desire for genocide that actually led to the Holocaust, as he transformed what began as a vision, into a reality. Although many historians agree that Hitler’s desire was the stem of the holocaust, the significance of other factors that led to the Holocaust have been highly contested. Browning has argued that the Germans also had a role to play in making sure Hitler’s desire for genocide became a reality. Christopher Browning states ‘Why did the Germans amongst the people of Europe come to play such a fateful role in the murderous climax reached in the 20th century”[11].

Goldhagen also advocates the same view stating “Endemic anti-semitism shared responsibility for moving Germany to genocide”. [12] This suggests that it was not only Hitler’s desire for genocide that led to masses of Jew’s killed but the everyday German people played a significant role. Evidence of this has been shown through a decision by normal shop and restaurant owners not to serve the Jewish population displaying placards such as “Jews not admitted” and “Jews enter this place at their own risk”.

Alfred Rosenberg and Houston Chamberlain were both writers of anti-Semitic literature and must have had an audience. However, David Bankier, Ian Kershaw and Otto Dov Kulka reached consensus that the population did not have an urgent priority for anti-semitism it was the minorities. Although the German people were pulled along by the Holocaust, it is unfair to say that they were a factor that actually led to the Holocaust. However, it is true to say that a minority did hold anti-semitic ideas and therefore could be held responsible, like Himmler for making Hitler’s desire into reality.

Sual Friedlander makes a similar distinction with “onlookers” in contrast to “activists”. The role of other individuals such as the SS and the police have been said to have contributed to the Holocaust, which would have been the “activists” Saul Friedlander spoke of. An argument has emerged that the Holocaust almost ran ahead of Hitler, as the SS began ad hoc killings taking matters into their own hands as they made makeshift gas chambers in trucks configured to pump out poisonous gas and carbon dioxide.

However, this was not the case as Hitler not only knew what was happening, but desired for it to happen on a larger scale, hence calling in Himmler to implement a plan for genocide. In addition it was a minority of German people that supported anti-Semitic, who arguably were brainwashed but Hitler anyway. As Lawrence Rees states “Whilst anti-Semitism existed is would not get people to burn synagogues”[13] suggesting that the German people did not have a desire for genocide.

Hitler and Himmler had a true desire for genocide, and it was inevitable that the German people would be pulled along. Martin Broszat held an alternative view, stating that the idea developed from practice of sporadic murders of groups of Jews led to the idea to kill all Jews systematically, rather than Hitler having a deep rooted desire for genocide. [14] Much like Roseman,[15] Martin Broszat articulates that Hitler never took a definitive decision nor issued a general order for the Final Solution.

Instead, he suggests the annihilation program developed in stages in conjunction with a series of isolated massacres at the end of 1941 and in 1942. These locally limited mass murders were improvised answers to an impossible situation that had developed as a result of two factors. First the ideological and political pressure for the creation of a Jew-free Europe that stemmed from Hitler and then the military reverses on the eastern front that led to stoppages in railway traffic and caused the buffer zones into which the Jews were to be removed to disappear.

Once the annihilation program was in progress, it gradually institutionalized itself until it was noticed that it offered the simplest solution logistically and became a program universally applied and single-mindedly pursued. This suggests that Hitler was a catalyst as opposed to a decision maker. Overall, although Hitler’s desire was the stem of the Holocaust it could not have taken place without the ‘architect’ of the final solution,[16] which was Himmler. Hitler’s early statement in 1920 epitomised his vision for genocide and this meant he put ideological and political pressure to create a Jew- free Europe.

His desire spread the seeds of anti-semitism which enabled the largely resistant-free environment for the Holocaust to happen. Himmler, with the organisational skills key to the Holocaust was able to translate Hitler’s vision into a reality by coming up with a clear and effective plan. However, the fact that Hitler had a strong and vehement desire for genocide meant that he would have found someone to implement his desire. Therefore Hitler’s desire was indeed the stem of the holocaust, but Himmler was the catalyst because Hitler lacked the skills to be able to implement a mass killing.

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