How Hitler Compares to Stalin Report (Assessment)
Plan of Investigation
This paper seeks to investigate and compare leaders of countries that were “single party states” (Weinberg 23, par 2). Therefore Hitler who ruled Germany and Stalin who ruled Russia about the same time will be compared in terms of the leadership styles and the overall effects they had on their respective societies.
Hitler led by Nazism which can be identified as a form of fascism while Stalin was a communist, however, their effects on their respective societies is significantly comparable (Bullock 3). It is important to note that both countries (the USSR and Germany) were single party states.
Summary of evidence
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin “(1878-1953) was the General Secretary of the communist party of the Soviet Union’s central committee for 31 years since” 1922 to 1953. (Gellately 57) He won this elective position mainly due to the important role he played in the Soviet Revolution.
Initially the post of General Secretary was not so powerful in the party; however, following the death Vladimir Lenin who had led the communist party from 1917, Stalin strengthened the opposition by eliminating opposition within the party (Bullock 4).
During his semi retirement times, Lenin had written disparaging statements about Stalin. He was particularly against Stalin’s rise to power due to his behavior, which he described as being rude, ambitious and power hungry (Harrison 137).
To strengthen his influence in the party Stalin formed an alliance with allies Zinoviev and Kamenev who were members of the central committee in the party. After the death of Lenin, Zinoviev and Kamenev began to disagree with Stalin, thereafter they found themselves isolated as Trotsky (Bullock 45).
In the years that followed, Stalin gained a lot of power such that he begun to run the party as a one man show. In the 1930s he spearhead radical economic reforms that saw the Soviet Union take a U turn from the near capitalist state it was becoming (Kuper 134).
His policies are thought to have been the main cause of the deadly famine that caused millions of deaths between 1932 and 1933. As time went by Stalin consolidate a lot of power, he orchestrated the expulsion of several members from the party, subjecting some of them to banishment and execution (Lewis 34).
For instance, he executed Kirov because he was becoming more popular. Later in the same year Stalin passed a new law on “Terrorist organizations and terrorist acts” (Harrison 138, par. 2).
After the passing of the law, multiple trials followed by torture, deportation or execution took place in Moscow and elsewhere in the USSR by operatives of the NKVD. Most of the original members of Lenin’s cabinet were executed during this purge.
The NKVD detentions and executions grew to include all opposition groups, all foreigners and the peasant farmers who were seen as an outlawed class (Snyder 135). An estimated number of between 3 and 30 million people are thought to have been killed during the terror. Stalin died in 1953.
Adolf Hitler (1889- 1945) “was the leader of the National Socialist German workers party (NSDAP) or Nazi and the Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945” (Kershaw 5, par.6). Hitler begun to rise after the First World War in which he had excelled as a fighter. He ventured into politics as an extremist angered with the way Germany was being ruled.
Hitler later took part in an attempted coup, imprisoned for five years but later released after a year. Following his release Hitler decided to follow the long legitimate path to power. While in prison Hitler wrote the book “Mein Kampf”, a book that played major role in his rise(Payne 23).
The Nazi party had no solid philosophical basis and its ideology was much likened to fascism. It however had some basic principles which depicted it as being; socialistic, totalitarian, anti democracy, anti communist, anti Semitic and anti international capitalism (Weinberg 34).
A series of conspiracies, manipulations, threats, promises, alliances and betrayals saw Hitler become an all powerful head of state. Hitler moved fast to effect national socialism in Germany. Sweeping reforms were undertaken to boost industry and agriculture to win support for Hitler.
The education system was changed to favor National Socialism. Judges and other workers were only employed if they favored Nazism. The Arrests and punishment of political prisoners was undertaken by the SS (a special security force) (Bullock 169).
The persecution of Jews in Germany begun after Hitler took power in 1933. It started by wide spread arrests and public humiliation by members of the SA or the brown shirts (Harrison 65). Initially the Jews were excluded from the civil service, their shops and buildings smashed or looted and boycotted.
The final solution for the Jewish problem was organized by the Nazi in 1941 through mass deportations into extermination camps. At the end of Hitler’s reign up to five million Jews had been killed (Snyder 35).
Hitler’s quest to regain all German speaking nations led to the Second World War in which over 50 million people were killed. Hitler committed suicide in 1945 following the Germany’s defeat in the Second World War (Weinberg 201).
Evaluation of sources
Two important books were used in this analysis. The first book which is titled “Conflicts the Twentieth century” offers a precise account of all the conflicts that took place in the last century (Harrison 1). The book written by Scott Michael Harrison offers a detailed factual description of the events surrounding conflicts in the last century.
The book has visual illustrations that have been carefully selected. The illustrations indeed clarify and provide more evidence to the written accounts.
The book is also reinforced by direct quotations from written accounts by individuals who witnessed the events. On Hitler and Stalin, the book provides a detailed account of events complete with the dates, pictures and description of the symbols.
For instance, the four arms of the Swastika are described as meaning: Nationalistic; Totalitarian and anti-democratic; Anti-Semitic; socialistic and against foreign nationalism. The book provides accounts of what the leaders ideologies were about. For instance, the Chapters on Adolf Hitler have several excerpts from his book “Mein Kampf” (Harrison 68, par. 8).
For instance, to show how Hitler hated the Jews, this quote has been lifted from the book, “Was there any shady undertaking, any form of foulness, especially in cultural life, in which at least one Jew did not participate?” (Harrison 68, par 9)Similar detailed accounts are given on Stalin.
The book is not biased in its approach but it gives a sort of summary of the events that took place. The second book used for this analysis is titled “Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives” (Harrison 46). The book which is written by Allan Bullock offers a detailed biography of the two men who can be described as the most evil in the 20th century.
The book offers a precise description of how the two lives are indeed parallel. In different chapters, the book describes how the two sought, achieved and then used power for their own evil nature (Bullock 2). Through the chapters that are reinforced by quotes from first account sources the book describes how the two men legitimately rose to power.
This book is a valuable source as it concentrates on the two leaders who are coincidentally the focus of this investigation. However, the book may be biased as it is mainly seen to draw comparisons between the two leaders. A list of other vital sources has been used in this investigation to support what has been identified in the two main books.
There is no doubt that the leadership of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin are comparable in many aspects. Hitler can be said to use the Fascist political ideology to wage war on the Jewish population in Germany and elsewhere.
However, he did not stick with the Fascist principle that requires the commitment to the interests of the nation, and thus he is seen to have been hell bend in seeking to control the entire Europe (Harrison 69, par 5).
Nazism, which can be described as a variety of fascism was the main ideology with which Hitler’s Nazi party ruled. It was characterized by biological racism and anti-Semitism (Bullock 23).
The Nazi ideology that proclaimed the supremacy of the Aryan race was hell bent on creating a powerful pure Aryan nation. Thus the Jews were seen as the greatest stumbling block in the attainment of this object. Stalin did not stick to the basic principles of communism that entails free association and common ownership of means of production.
Stalinism betrayed the communism ideology by hiding into the fact that he was adapting to the changing needs of the Soviet society (Kuper 5). Stalin applied the theory of class struggle to repress hi political opponents. It’s important to note that both Hitler and Stalin had secret security agents or forces, the SS and the NKVD respectively (Overy 56).
The SS was mainly used to; instill fear in people and discourage opposition, and systemically perpetuate atrocities against the Jewish. The NKVD was initially used to crush opposition but was subsequently expanded to commit atrocities against civilians, especially those of foreign origin.
The analysis of Hitler and Stalin cannot be limited to there adherence to party ideology a lone as the two are arguably remembered as the most evil leaders of the twentieth century. The two leaders committed crimes against humanity which can be described as wholesale destruction of civilian life in their societies. However, there rise to power was similar in many fashions.
Both were veterans of war in their respective countries. Hitler was a war Veteran in the First World War while Stalin had played an important role in the Soviet revolution. They were also master politicians who, in their quest for power adhered to the rule of law and endured years of patience with precise strategies and manipulations (Weinberg 5).
A clear distinction comes in the nature of their ambition. Whereas Hitler seemed to be obsessed with keeping Germany pure while expanding his rule into other neighboring countries, Stalin was more concerned with consolidating power within the USSR and with timid foreign ventures.
It’s easy to point out that the two men were so much attached to what they perceived as their important historic roles in the realization of new order in their respective nations (Bullock 112). Stalin was particularly skeptical about the motives of other political figures and he would detain torture or execute them.
In the end both Hitler and Stalin caused a lot of suffering for their own people and were responsible for the deaths of millions of people they were supposed to safeguard as leaders (Bullock 120). It’s imperative to note that the two leaders ruled in same time and even signed a pact, and fought each other in the Second World War.
This paper sought to investigate how Hitler compares to Stalin in terms of leadership style and effects of their leadership to their respective societies.
It has been identified that Hitler and Stalin were leaders of single party states namely Germany and Russia respectively. Hitler ruled by Nazism which can be identified as a form of Fascism while Stalin’s Russia had communism (Kuper 33). Both leaders came to power through legitimate means but ended up being dictators who caused untold suffering to their own people.
Their leadership was characterized by systematic elimination of civilians by terror squads that operated as special security forces. In the end each of them had committed crimes against humanity in their countries and beyond and the two were responsible for the deaths of millions of people (Bullock 44).
Bullock, Allan. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. Print.
Gellately, Robert. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe . London: Knopf, 2007. Print.
Harrison, Scott Michael. World Conflict in the Twentieth century . London: Macmillan, 1987. Print.
Kershaw, Ian. The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. New York: Arnold publishers, 2006. Print.
Kuper, Leo. Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century. Yale : Yale University Press, 1982. Print.
Lewis, Robert. The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 1994. Print.
Overy, Richard. The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered . London: Routledge, 1999. Print.
Payne, Stanley. A history of Fascism. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1995. Print.
Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books , 2010. Print.
Weinberg, George. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 1995. Print.
Germany under Hitler Essay
World War 2
To comprehend the events that took place in Germany during Hitler’s era, it is prudent to analyze the geo-political climate of Europe. The changes in the international system in Europe caused the two world wars. European leaders took advantage of the situation since the international system changed from its previous status to the modern form that emphasized on the formation of alliances.
Before the World Wars, European politics was characterized by the balance of power. The major powers respected each other since they were all assured of mutual destruction. In this case, it can be observed that the international system was multi-polar since France, Britain, Germany and Russia were all powerful.
The states cooperated on mutual basis since there was no need of solving conflicts through war. Hitler took advantage of the European politics to consolidate support and create a totalitarian government that would later lead Germany to fight a deadly war. During the First World War, the central powers were led by Germany while the allied powers included Britain, Russia and France. Italy joined the war on Germany’s side mainly because they had similar ideologies (Mueller 1973, p. 64).
The multi-polar international system continued to support the actions of leaders such as Hitler, even after the First World War Western powers allowed Germany to ream itself due to the fears posed by the international system. Britain was weary of Russia and France. In other words, the international system allowed real politicking where states were simply concerned about the national interests.
Britain feared that France would embark on its mission of domination just the way it did during the Napoleonic era. In this case, Britain embraced Germany and appreciated it as a development partner in the international system. This gave Germany an advantage and encouraged Hitler to consolidate power around him. The unfolding events in Russia gave Hitler a chance to form a totalitarian regime in Germany.
France and Britain were forced to tolerate Hitler’s governance style due to the Lenin’s Bolsheviks acquisition of power in 1918 (Browning 1998, p. 11). The communist ideology and the strength of the Russian military posed a threat to other actors in Europe. Britain and France were therefore forced to allow Germany to revitalize its army. In this case, armed Germany would serve as s rampart against the Red Menace.
Furthermore, the grotesqueness of the First World War presented Hitler with an opportunity to revamp the military. Britain and France had encountered many casualties since the young generation was affected greatly. When Hitler took power in 1933, Britain and France did not take action for fear of retrogressive effects. In 1938, the major world powers allowed Hitler to annex some parts of Czechoslovakia. This was a sign of fear on the part of Britain and France.
Having considered the Aryan race as being too strong, Hitler employed some techniques that would assist the race ascend to power. Initially, Hitler used the ideas of the communist party to capture governmental power and authority.
He observed that communism was against the wishes of many Germans. German investors trusted him and went ahead to fund his campaigns hoping that communism would be resisted by the state. Even though they differed in ideology, Hitler employed the tactics of Stalin and Mussolini to suppress any opposition to his rule.
For instance, he unleashed terror to those who opposed his style of leadership. In this case, the police was deployed to arrest and intimidate any opponent of the state. Hitler and the Nazi party encouraged people to be hardworking, sacrificing and loyal to the administration. Through this, Hitler knew that Germans would be self-sufficient and submissive to his ideas. Stalin also employed the same tactic (Orlow 2007, p. 42).
Moreover, Hitler understood the power of the press as regards to propaganda. The Nazi party under the directorship of Hitler scared other races by sending out information that would amount to hate speech. In this case, the schools churches and the press were effectively used to venerate the Nazi goals. To minimize the influence of the economically superior race, Hitler opened up concentration camps for the Jews.
This was aimed at giving the Nazi party a chance to invest in the economy that was previously dominated by Jews. Hitler underscored the fact that people would be loyal to his administration only if their economic status was improved. This led him to come up with restructuring programs that would improve the working conditions hence raise the standards of living. Due to this, Hitler banned protests and introduced a system that would rectify the wages and salaries of workers.
Hitler viewed himself as a transitory leader who had absolute powers over the matters pertaining to governmental decision-making. He was therefore a leader with power to determine the activities in society. In other words, Hitler was considered a prince whose duty was to reform society, bring unity and ensure that people had the same visions and missions.
What Hitler did could only be measured according to how it preserves the status of the state. In this case, it was believed that a leader is born but no made. Hitler’s leadership was not to be questioned as long as the greatness of the state was achieved. Those questioning his authority had to face stern consequences. Therefore, political assassination was another technique employed by Hitler in the management of state affairs (Schneider 1998, p. 12).
To Hitler’s sympathizers, the leader had to employ all forms of tactics to manage the state. Leadership could only be measured through the stability of the state. Hitler viewed the modern state being civilized but not barbaric. For this reason, the leader had to employ modern tactics to succeed in whatever he or she pursues. Hitler understood that being strength alone could not bring greatness to Germany.
Therefore, he decided to be as cunning as a fox in order to be successful. Through tricks, he made people to believe that Germany could conquer other races only if it became self-reliant economically. For this case, people had to work very hard to produce enough goods that would sustain the state.
Furthermore, Hitler understood that it reaches a time when the only language that a man understands is violence. Therefore, both violence and murder become valid tools in achieving state stability. Hitler utilized this tool to suppress any form of political opposition. In terms of supremacy, it was the responsibility of the state to wage war against other states, annex some sections of foreign land and conquer other nations.
All these involve waging war. Although Hitler was kind at some instances, he knew that the subjects would easily misinterpret his kindness to mean ineffectiveness. He therefore employed the tactic of unpredictability where he could change his character from time to time. This was important as far as his goals and aims were concerned.
It can be concluded that Hitler’s rise and fall was propagated by the changes in the international system. Britain and France allowed Germany under Hitler to rearm itself for fear of the Bolsheviks in Russia. Hitler employed a number of techniques in order to trounce his enemies but the major one was the use of propaganda.
List of References
Browning, C 1998, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, Harper Perennial, New York.
Mueller, J 1973, War, Presidents, and Public Opinion, John Wiley, New York.
Orlow, D 2007, History of Modern Germany: 1870-present, Prentice Hall, New York.
Schneider, P 1998, The Wall Jumper, Chicago, University of Chicago press.
Is Barrack Obama like Hitler? Expository Essay
Comparison of American presidents George W. Bush and Barrack Obama to Adolf Hitler or the Nazis has become very common. After eight years of comparing George W. Bush to Adolf Hitler, Obama is also receiving the same treatment. The actions, believes and personal associations of Obama are compared to those of Hitler on many internet blogs and newspaper columns.
Adolf Hitler is one of the most forceful and powerful personalities in history. He was a philosophical and political leader of the National socialist party (Nazi) and what most people agree on about his personality is that he was evil.
He has become the most infamous leader for his extremist stands. Comparisons between Obama and Hitler are based on their policies. However, it is absurd and inexcusable to compare Barrack Obama to Hitler. Obama is not like Hitler at all and it is a logical fallacy and a dilution of history to compare them.
Hitler rose to power during a period when Germans needed a hero to save them from a recession. The same is the case for Obama to whom, most Americans looked for a savior from the economic problems facing America. Both individuals wanted change and those comparing Obama to Hitler have used such phrases, as “Hitler wanted change too”.
It is wrong to assert that since Hitler wanted change, every other person who wants change is morally or politically equivalent to Hitler. From the books audacity of hope by Barrack Obama and mein kampf (translated loosely as my struggle) by Adolf Hitler, it is clear what kinds of change these two persons believed in.
Hitler wanted change to the German population and actually not to the government itself. He blamed the Jews for the failures in the German society since he believed Germans were superior to other races (Michael, para 8). Mein kampf reveals Hitler’s extreme hatred for Jews (Meler, para 39). According to his book, Obama on the other hand recognizes and desires to change the problems in the American functional government and state of politics.
Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi party, a political party that believed in National Socialism. Hitler was therefore a socialist unlike Obama who although branded a socialist by some critics has personally rejected claims that he is a socialist. Republicans are yet too convincingly proof that his policies are socialist and again, being a socialist does not imply that someone is like Hitler.
Hitler’s form of socialism was based on racial supremacy. In his period of leadership, Hitler sought to increase German dominancy among other nations and employed an expansionist foreign policy that triggered the World War II. His policies were based on racism and anti-Semitism. During the short period as a president, Obama has tried to improve the relationship between America and other countries, especially Arab speaking nations.
There is no way these actions can be similar to those of Hitler. Obama has not tried to increase America’s dominance over other countries but has mainly focused on reducing the possible threats against America by trying to undo some actions of previous regimes.
Inhumanity, dictatorship and mass murders dominated Hitler’s leadership. His leadership policies lead to mass extermination of Jews and other racial minorities. Those comparing Obama to Hitler argue that these vile actions of the Nazi had their roots in socialist, eugenics and imperialism ideologies that Obama supposedly posses.
From his publication, the audacity of hope, he writes, “there are certain things that anchor my personal faith, the golden rule, the need to battle cruelty in all its forms, the value of love and charity, humility and grace” (“Book summary: Audacity of hope”).
This indicates the different personalities between Hitler and Obama. Hitler believed in cruelty and he forced his soldiers to perform inhuman acts on Jews and other race minorities. He was a dictator and he perpetrated genocide in Germany through race cleansing.
Obama’s policies are against inhuman actions, dictatorship, racism and cruelty. By supporting the Geneva Convention against torture, Obama portrays a character that is completely different from Hitler. The Obama presidency is about avoiding mass murders whenever possible by employing other gentler means to solve the current world problems. By employing dialogue to bring understanding between nations, Obama focuses on creating cohesion.
Obama is an extreme supporter of pro-abortion bills. This has generated a lot of criticism and the continued likening of Obama to Hitler. By supporting abortion, some critics accuse Obama of perpetuating genocide just like Hitler. This is far fetched and out of context.
The debate about humanity in abortion has been going on for along time and people have different stands on the matter. What is worth noting is that in Obama’s viewpoint, every woman should be allowed to decide whether to do abortion or not. He does not therefore support abortion but the right to choose.
In his perspective, abortion decision rests on the actual individuals involved. They can make the decision to go ahead with it or not depending on their moral inclinations and believes. Hitler on the other hand was a dictator who determined whether an individual dies or not. He prohibited abortion for the “pure-blood” Germans and allowed it for the other races as a case of “racial hygiene.” He wanted to control the reproduction of the other races.
Therefore, supporting pro-abortion laws does not at all portray Obama as having the same moral values as Hitler. Hitler did not give any choice to those he deemed deserving to die. They were just executed. Obama does not call for execution of unborn children but for the right of the mother to choose.
In conclusion, Obama is not like Hitler. He does not fit into Hitler’s moral or political personality. Not everybody who wants change in government and political environments is like Hitler. It all falls back to what the individual in question wants to change. Obama wants to change the way the functional government operates and the political environment in America.
Hitler wanted to change the German population by racial cleansing. He promised to improve the economy and Germany’s global dominance but perpetuated racism and inhuman actions. Persons can only be termed to be like Hitler if they practice his kind of ideologies.
Without bias, Obama’s ideologies do not fit into those of Hitler at all. He has a different view of America from the one Hitler had about Germany. In audacity of hope, he writes, “there is not a black America and a white America and Latino America and Asian America- there is the United States of America” (“Book summary: Audacity of hope”).
Therefore, the comparison of Obama to Hitler is a poor comparison only meant to gain attention. Although not everybody approves of Obama policies, more logical comparisons to other leaders should be made but not to Hitler. Doing this is down playing the evil of Hitler’s leadership.
“Book summary: Audacity of hope.” Political books summaries, reviews and opinions. 31 July 2009. Web.
Meler, David. “Adolf Hitler’s rise to power.” Dickinson State University. 2000. Web.
Michael. “Adolf Hitler’s rise to power.” Adolf Hitler. n.d. Web.
Hitler’s Schutzstaffel Research Paper
The analysis of World War II and Hitler’s S.S reveals that the leaders of this organization were the framers of Hitler’s final resolution. This can be depicted from Hitler’s life his involvement in the army and his political intervention. Long time ago, in fact during the age of civilization, was born a man who would become a great leader and institute Nazi war.
In a small town of Braunau-am-Inn near Austro-Germany perimeter worked his father as an officer in customs department. On April 20, 1889, Adolf Hitler was born to Alois and Klara Hitler. The childhood life of the young Hitler Adolf was not so much pleasing. He had a dream of becoming a professional and career artist.
However, due to his poor performance in school, Hitler failed to secure an admission into Vienna Academy, which majored on Fine Arts and other artistry works. In addition to Hitler’s reigning problems, at 19 years of age, his father died of cancer, leaving him helpless with nobody to sponsor his education.
Therefore, Hitler had to search for survival tactics in order to save his mother and sister from hunger. As a mean to survive, Hitler decided to involve to in business and some commercial selling. For example, since he had an ambition of being an artist, he decided to do some paintings for sale and sometimes engage in day-to-day chores to get money for up keep. (Shirer pp.119-125).
The First World War broke out in Europe instigated by differences between Germany and France and their respective allies. Hitler decided to volunteer to offer services to the military troops at war. Onto his dismay, the army accepted to incorporate Hitler in the war as a soldier.
Indeed, this became Hitler’s best profession as he fought bravely making him to earn several promotions in the army ranks. To this far, Hitler grew his personality and started gaining fame and respect from hiss fellow colleague troops. For example, in the army, Hitler became a corporal and later, an administrator in the detention camp at Traunstein.
Due to Hitler’s increasing personality and influence, the authority appointed Hitler among other army officials to oversee and urge soldiers who were returning from war not to engage in dubious acts like pacifism or communism lest it destroy the nation and divide military. The exposure to persuasion theatrics on the contrary, increased his power to speak fluently and woe many to his side.
In addition to persuading his fellow troops not to welcome pacifism or communism, Hitler was responsible for spying those who went against the wishes of Germany authorities. Hitler could spy even political organizations to the government and provide counteracting political strategies. These and many other roles shaped Hitler to participate fully and even be a key figure in the Second World War. (Shirer pp.271-275).
As time went by, Hitler entered into Germany politics by forming a political party called Nazi under his leadership. This political party had several organizations falling under it. Moreover, this political party had its own strategies and policies like any other political party.
For example, one of the organizations under Nazi Party was that of Schutzstaffel- a military force for political and security reasons. The role of this organization was to influence people to support Nazi party using any means whether detention, massacre or use of excessive force. (Lumsdem pp.52-54).
On the other hand, Schutzstaffel ensured that other political parties did not outwit the fame and influence of Nazi Party. The SS continually forced Nazi ideologies and created new strategies for their political dispensation. In fact, history reveals that, SS was responsible for all atrocities and holocausts committed to civilians during Hitler’s administration. The Germany army together with Schutzstaffel participated in the Second World War though defeated.
Creation of Schutzstaffel
The Nazi Party created Schutzstaffel in 1925. The formulators of this organization- Nazi Party saw the need to protect their magnificent leader because of deterrent enemies and rivalry from within and outside Germany. In 1925, the chore of SS was to provide protection to Adolf Hitler from any attack.
The group composed of small members called paramilitary cluster. In order to execute the roles of this group, any chosen member had to be of Germany origin and show loyalty to the party. Besides, physical fitness mattered most during recruitment. Therefore, from recruitment stage, the vice of racism thrived evidently. Because the group was to fight Jewish majorities, members who were from Jewish ancestry never joined the group. This is because; the Nazi organization hated Jews. (Southgate Para. 1-9).
The SS cluster of men had special uniforms, which were black in color, and in addition, they wore hats with their motto inscribed on the forehead. Anybody who became part to this group had to swear allegiance to their leader, Hitler.
Hitler commanded these henchmen to carry out any activity best to his ability. Largely, these men were masterminds of evil forms from massacre to torture to rape. Some historians are quick to depict and call this group as physically and mentally challenged. However, these cluster of men had no psychological problems. The success of Hitler and his policies depended on the SS group.
For example, the ascension of Adolf Hitler to power was through a just and democratic manner. However, as Bulow indicates, in the middle of power reign, stood inclinations and accusations from other opposing groups (Para.1-7). History of SS dates back to 1925 when Hitler formed eight able men to guarantee him safety.
These men acted as formal bodyguards. However, as an expansion of the group, Hitler ordered all Nazi party offices to have at least ten men to offer security. By the end of 1926, Nazi party had two SS groups namely SS-Gaus and SS-Oblerleitung. Each of these groups had its own roles to perform. For example, Oblerleitung constituted a group that was responsible for offering security to leaders while the other cluster offered security to the offices of Nazi party. (Cook and Bender pp.18-20).
Adolf Hitler created the SS group as a strategy of attaining power. Many atrocities committed under Nazi regime resulted from a directive of their leader. The SS group for example, is responsible for the massacre, torture and ostracizing of the Jews during the Second World War. Over 9 million Jews underwent different forms of torture from this well trained gang under the direction of their leaders.
Duties of Hitler’s SS
The formation of SS group ensured security to Nazi leaders. However, Nazi seemed to create another independent state that offered security to a group of individuals. The presence of the Germany police was not part of the strategy of the Nazi group. This was a regime inside another regime but executing its policies. Unlike the Germany police, the SS group was an elitist group of people with uncompromised loyalty to their leader.
It comprised of men who were of Germany origin and no immigrant served in the SS militia. The motto of this group was to see their leader leading Germany especially to the Second World War now that Germany failed to show off in the First World War. Therefore, Nazi police officers or SS ensured security to all Nazi members and Nazi party offices. Hitler wanted to usurp powers and rule Germany. He therefore had strategies to come by.
Among his strategies included divide and rule. Therefore, the distribution of people all over Germany was a matter of great concern and a move towards attaining power. Hitler therefore demanded the arrangement of people according to their ethnicity, race and origin. The SS paramilitary identified people in terms of their ethnicity and ensured their settlement based on the enacted population policy. (Yerger pp.5-47).
Interestingly, other chore tasks of the SS included, the management of the Germany police in the manner they did their job. All police security and investigatory chores had to pass through SS offices before any further step. Moreover, the SS controlled detention camps where torture and murder took place.
Other duties done by SS include the implementation of modules and concise plans which meant to change the population of Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union also adversely affected as the plan included a structure meant to exhume the recentralization of the region.
SS recruitment continued up even up to 1929 when Hitler sought to appoint Heinrich Himmler to lead the group comprising of 280 members politically inclined to Hitler and identified as Germany nationals by birth and race. Himmler picked members to join the group with regard to attaining the vision of Hitler.
The vision and dreams of Hitler ware to attain a Third Reich. Since Hitler had smelt power, he spelt out two fundamental chores, which the SS was to perform. The first one was to offer an internal security to Nazi leaders and officials and the second, ensuring racial limpidness all over Germany. Furthermore, Himmler determined how marriages conducted especially those involving inter races.
For example, if a Germany and Portuguese nationals had sexual relationship, the SS will execute them immediately as a measure of guarding racial diversity. By the end of 1933, the SS group had grown into large numbers totaling around 50 000 members. Therefore, the need to have able leaders arose to control SS and ensure they execute the mandate of Nazi in full swing. (US Holocaust Museum Para. 5-10).
Just years before the start of the Second World War, the dispute between the government and the Jews diversified. The SS quickly assumed diplomatic responsibility but unluckily failed to join the two parties. Consequently, the SS drafted a policy on the Jewish Question. The draft demanded the execution of all European Jews who went contrary to Germany authorities by demanding ‘the unnecessary’.
On hearing this, the furious Jews entered war with SS. This led to the Germany Holocaust where the SS killed millions and millions of European Jews totaling to about 10 million. (US Holocaust Museum Para. 1-5). Other SS duties included offering tight security in political rallies and taxation of members who subscribed to their newspaper published by Nazi party. However, by this time Nazi Party was not yet in power.
Hitler appointed Heinrich Himmler to be the leader of SS. Himmler was a loyalist to Nazi Party and fought to ensure protection of its Nazi officials and ensure implementation of its strategies. Any official whether from the party or government who went contrary to the party, received discipline from the group. SS comprised of two factions.
There was the belligerent unit called Waffen-SS and the second one was Allegemeine-SS. Under these two SS branches, there were further subdivisions responsible for racial matters, those charged with genocide and prison warders. Himmler introduced military training to the group including psychological torture aimed at killing without mercy on their part. (Browder, pp. 8-35).
During the Second World War, this group was the most feared all over Europe. They committed unspeakable atrocities maneuvering and gunning enemies ruthlessly. As time elapsed, the two groups increased to make three groups. Each group had its own function to perform, notably, each group had its own leader but under the leadership of Hitler as the Chief of General Staff.
As soon as Hitler assumed power, all SS members became part of the police and the state paid their wages. Himmler had the authority to appoint senior officials to lead various SS and police wings. For example, he named Heydrich to head the third wing of SS called Gestapo.
During the Second World War, Hitler had of course made his empire the most affluent economically and politically across Europe and abroad. Therefore, to defeat a nation like this, collaboration was to work well. Under the SS hierarchy, three branches led the movement. These branches under supreme, regular and higher leaders were responsible for any answer that Himmler demanded.
The End of SS
Both the security and the military sections were responsible for torture cases that occurred in Germany especially in the Second World War. When Hitler became the head of Germany Empire, he created powerful army commandos that provided security and destroyed the enemies of Nazi Party.
For example, the SS masterminded the war and invasion of Poland. The SS security wing created detention camps under the leadership of Theodor Eicke. Here, the SS tortured any detainee who refused to claim loyalty to Nazi party policies. However, the SS group could not last forever.
It had its own weaknesses no matter how loyal and racial enough they were to their leader and party. As the Second World War continued, Hitler became suspicious of the defeat, which Germany faced. The consequences befalling Hitler and his army commanders together with SS members faced dire consequences. Therefore, the first step Hitler and SS took included the burning and obliteration of the evidences in the camps.
Furthermore, since the surviving detainees acted as evidences against this murderous group, the SS killed all detainees. By the end of the Second World War, the SS men had committed numerous murder cases through execution, torture, rape and massacre-holocaust. As the new regime took control in 1945, the SS members faced justice for causing a Holocaust in Germany and the entire Europe.
Many SS members committed suicide because of guilty. Additionally, those who did not commit suicide had to face the full force within trial chambers in Nuremberg. The tribunal caught many SS soldiers guilty and sentenced these Nazi loyalists to death. On the other hand, those who escaped death sentence and suicide, decided to immigrate therefore, escaping to countries in southern America. (Goebbels pp. 175-235).
It is quite evident to note that Hitler and his SS faction group committed many atrocities in Germany. Hitler gained popularity through conceptual and inclusive political theatrics. No sooner had the authority made Hitler superior in the army rank than he was gaining popularity.
Hitler’s SS faction group masterminded the Second World War. These members purely represented Nazi party policies like racial segregation and loyalty to the Party. The leaders of SS made sure that any conspiracy from within the political divides did not arise. Though SS later disembarked, it had done many atrocities not to be mentionable to ordinary and sound psychological mind.
Browder, George. Hitler’s Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS security in the Nazi Revolution Summary. Boston: University Press, 1996. Print.
Bulow, Louis. Masters of Death. The SS Men. 2008. Web.
Cook, Stan, Bender, James. Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler. (Volume One). San Jose: R. James Bender Publishing, 1994. Print.
Goebbels, Paul. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. (Volume II).Washington: USGPO, 1946. Print.
Lumsden, Robin. A Collector’s Guide To: The Allgemeine – SS. London: Ian Publishing Company, 2001. Print.
Shirer, William. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Simon and Schuster. 1960. Print.
Southgate, Troy. Hitler the Demagogue. 2009. Web.
US Holocaust Museum. The SS. Web.
Yerger, Mark. Allgemeine-SS: The Commands, Units, and Leaders of the General SS. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 1997. Print.
Hitler’s table talk Essay
Hitler’s passionate hostility towards Christianity as depicted in his table talk does not quite reflect his position as often asserted by many historical analysts.
While it is true that in more than one occasion Hitler criticized certain Christian dogmas, the church and priests, it would be inadequate to overlook the fact that even God-fearing Christians do criticize each other. However, it stands out that most of what he said cannot be disputed. This talk should be viewed within the perspective of understanding Hitler’s authority, psychology and leadership philosophy.
The understanding of Hitler’s table talk
After the Third Reich, the religious views which Hitler held previously underwent tremendous changes. Hitler’s support for Christianity was witnessed as he effortlessly worked towards making sure that unity was attained between the state and protestant church.
This pursuit went on until he failed in his third attempt when he began giving his famous anti-Christian remarks. My understanding from one of the remarks he made in October 1937 is that he felt liberated from living a life full of childish imaginations and intense inner struggles with religion.
In addition, judging from the tone of his speech, it is easy to conclude that he was talking about his long-held Catholic faith. From that time, it is possible to argue that although Hitler was deeply religious, whatever he was claiming depicted him as entirely anti-Christian. One of the instances that supported this argument can be seen when he mentioned that Christianity was a rebellion against nature and natural law, and also a show of human failure as well as sign of decay.
There is need to answer the following questions in order to counter the above unambiguous argument. Could Hitler have been in another religion apart from Christianity when he was making these statements? Was he not a Christian? My understanding is that Hitler was a Christian despite his strong and subjective statements against Christians. Actually, he was more religious than one would imagine and could be impossible to replace this faith. He may have meant Catholicism in his table talk against Christianity.
The concerns by priests to address the issues of state regarding economic orientation were indeed very critical and timely in the sense that the society required key changes for purpose of growth. While these concerns have gained widespread support among many historians, their execution has face myriads of obstacles that hinder positive results. Hitler’s wish that the protestant church would have policies that support Nazism failed.
This factor made him declare Christianity to be guilty and eventually condemned Bolshevism. In my perspective, the principle of active corporate participation is crucial in bringing the much needed justice to all people. This principle entails involvement of all the parties in establishing the necessary corporate culture at all levels. If the church had cooperated with the demands of Hitler, his troubled views and hostility could not have been witnessed.
Hitler’s thoughts and words are a reflection of what he intended to carry out. These could be easily understood in terms of totalitarian leadership which he greatly valued. Critics of his talks sadly regret that his utterances marked the definite end of liberalism and emergence of political totalitarianism.
Besides, leaders of the classic era manipulated their followers since they expected their subjects to exhibit emotions in a given manner and change them regularly when demanded. On the same note, Hitler’s perspective on Christianity may not have been driven by totalitarianism. Even though totalitarianism was the model of leadership held by Hitler, the table talk did not bring out his stand since much of what he said were not accomplished.
Another factor that could have caused Hitler’s passionate hostility towards Catholicism was the Roman Catholic’s extremely dictatorial structure of leadership. Its leadership generated a sense of oppression while claiming to give hope to the communities that existed during that time.
My understanding is that the Roman Catholic monarchies and authorities during Hitler’s time took captive of the social, economic, and political outlook of the state with the aim of extending the long term expansion. For instance, they demanded absolute obedience at all levels; took over power to organize agriculture, and further empowered other authorities in their management. Through these actions, the Catholic Church was negating the same teachings that were being advanced to the community.
The above practices by Catholics caused Hitler’s anticlericalism to be expressed in both his private and public speeches. One such speech took place in January 1939 when he called for a clear separation between the state and the church. He wanted his territory to be like America and France.
He also reassured German priests of protection but promised destruction to priests who posed as political threats to Germany. My comprehension of his threat to the clergy as well as the church is specific and does not extend to the whole religion. In fact, priests who avoided outright enthusiasm on matters regarding the state and instead preached political quietism were reciprocated and received Hitler’s affections.
The involvement of priests in the affairs of the state provided important insights on some of the reasons that made Hitler to be ruthless in his table talk against Christians. It further created the understanding that an illustrious reason forms the basis that defines a move whereby a leader comes out strongly and declares war or conflict with an aim of destroying his or her enemies completely.
As proven from his table talk, leaders who fail to establish institutional capacities and unity, but rely on personal ambitions risk destabilizing their leadership. Scholars who disagree with Hitler regard his table talk as an evidence of distraction which depicts a leader who has deviated strongly from the voice of reason to the verge of destroying his subjects.
Even with the authenticity found in the table talk, there is proven evidence of self-contradiction by Hitler as it has been clearly documented in the book. However, Hitler was seen on most instances to be consistent as he did not demote Jesus and was extremely negative in his assessment of paganism.
His consistency was witnessed when he was chatting with his audience at Obersalzberg, in Berlin Headquarters and in public places. Nevertheless, one would not overlook Nazi’s hostility towards Christians as posited in some secondary literature. Hitler’s table talk revealed some of the occasions when he was talking from a bitter point of view. One of his reflections was that Christianity was at the brink of taking over the position of Germans in the country.
This compelled him to set up laws which he used to incite and poison the minds of Germans against Christians. In spite of his negative attitude and indifference towards Christianity, his regard for Jesus as a strong leader who fought against Jewish capitalism is reflected in his talk. This could probably explain his actions against the Jews.
Hitler considered the presence of the Jews in Germany as a major problem. As manifested in his table talk, he wanted to see the complete extinction of Christians and the Jews from Germany. He longed to see them suffer as their land and belonging were taken away. In addition, his hope was to see Christians subjected to policies set by Nazis even as they became entirely dependent on his authority. In my view, Hitler made his created scenario appear real.
The notion created by Hitler on how Christians were being manipulated to defy him and other existing authorities could only be understood as part of his efforts to show the world that Germany was back and could not be dictated upon like it happened on previous occasions. He also talked about creating laws which were supported by his people, a move which in my opinion reflected the thin difference between him and the people.
To sum up, it is evident that Hitler’s table talk with its contradictions cannot be disputed. However, his position against Christianity and specifically Catholicism was consistent as his anticlericalism was evident both in his private and public speeches. This was a problem that was caused by several factors such as rejection by the Protestant Church to have its policies support Nazism. His war-time feelings against Christianity did not actually mirror Hitler as an individual who hated religion since he was also a Christian.
Saddam Hussein and Adolph Hitler Essay
A man full of determination and persistence, something that majority of world leader get along with in haste. He was born in 28th, April 1937 in Tikrit village, in Iraq. His thirst for readership oozed up when he was still a student, since 1957, while he was still at the university he was recruited in the ‘revolutionary Baath party’. As a man of a worldwide mind, he was determined to get his way at all mean to be an upstaired position.
“He proved this in 1958 when he launched his political career by assassinating a supporter of Iraq ruler Abdul-Karim Qassim” (Aburish, 40) The higher lank gone thirstier it makes” got on him as in 1959 Saddam felt that he had what it takes to rule Iraq and to do it in a practical was he opted to assassinate the current president Abd al-Karim Qasim. However, this mission failed and was forced to flee to Egypt Cairo, where he took this opportunity and attended a law school (45).
All in all, his determination and a spirit of “tomorrow is the best day” seemed to keep him going. Being in exile didn’t kill his dream of once becoming an Iraq leader.
Talking of being opportunistic, when Ba’thist gained power in 1963, he returned to Iraq but all was not well on his side because, in1963, Ba’thist were overthrown and he was jailed. He portrayed a mind of international oriented since dealing with his own country alone was a theory out of his envelop. He expanded his fume not only to the neighboring countries but also globally.
When he took over the presidency, he did it with the aim to cause an effect to other countries. For instant, he had an aim of replacing Egypt as leader of Arab world and gain hegemony over the gulf of Persian. He also launched war against Iran and Kuwait in 1980-88 and 1990-91 respectively. “Fear for him spread throughout the world due to his production of weapons of mass destruction” (Renfrew, p.53).
Saddam was one man who never believed in the spirit of “now I give up” his consecutively failed mission never deterred him from moving forward. For instant, his fail in invasion to the Islamic Republic in 1980 in Kuwait I 1990 among other only made him more hard-core.
According to Renfrew (32), “Saddam became vice president of Iraq in1968 following the seizure of power in a military coup and only after a decade of eliminating civilian officials and military officers ruthlessly, he forced out his predecessor and benefactor, Gen. Ahmad Hassan al- and became president in July 1997”.
He killed his opponents, among them thousands of Iraq’s Kurdish minority, (whom he had instituted a brutal dictatorship and directed intensive campaign against the) which either rebelled or supported Iran during the Iraq-Iran war which ended in 1988. He was a man with a reputation for ruthless suppression of opposition.
The country’s economic strength, constituted by growing oil wealth enabled him to support the development public work and to massively purchase arm. In spite of this, Iraq was nearly bankrupt with loans of $80 billion from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. His tendency of taking calculated risk pushed him to bullying Kuwait into bailing him out as well as invading emirate. (Renfrew p.37)
Saddam’s dictatorship rule and threat he posed to the whole world, led to invasion of the U.S. Government on Iraq. He was captured on 13th December 2003 and on 5th Nov 2006 after several trials, was convicted of crime against human rights and given capital punishment sentence.
Despite his request to be shot, the execution was carried out on the first day of Eid ul-Adha, 30 December 2006 at camp justice, an Iraq army in Kadhimiya northern Baghdad (Aburish p. 187). He has portrayed himself as a brutal dictator, whose goals are (to him) more important than the means of obtaining them, making him quick to slice throat to gain.
Born in Austria, in Braunau –am-inn village on 20th April 1889, Hitler grew up in a very low tone a profile. His early age was met by many blocks and misfortunes which included losing his father and two siblings. His attempt to gain formal education was also unfruitful as his school records were poor and he was forced to leave school before completing his tuition.
In spite of this, he seemed to have a heart of determination, and he tried to become an artist but was rejected by the institution of fine art. He lived a penniless life with no formal education till 19th birthday when he moved to Vienna after his father’s death. By then, he had gained a passion in political matters and historical studies.
He took occasional menial jobs there for sustenance at the time the First World War was beginning, in 1914 when he was recruited for work in the Germans armed forces. His humbleness determination commitment enabled him to move up ladder smoothly. His talent and interest in war was noted and was promoted to corporal. (Toland p.12).
However, the war was not always giving in into him since by 1918, when the armistice was being announced he was hospitalized from a temporally blindness caused by gas explosion in war. As a phenomenon of preparation of his later leadership, he took different role like; prisoner-of- war camp, part of local army organization, spy on certain local political groups and, his tirade impressed the founder of the party, Anion Drexler who asked him to join his organization in 1919.
He gradually started attracting people through his publicity and propaganda in various organized meetings. He was discharged from army on February but he determiningly strengthened his party which was changed to the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi).
It is at this point when he started giving out warning on whom he really is when he began forming private groups of thug to create disorders in other meetings. By 1921 he had secured total control of the Nazi party, which he was determined to maintain by all mean, for instant he threatened to resign when he learned member were not in good term with him.
His thirst for leadership pushed him to attempt to take over the local Bavarian Government though the coup was unsuccessful. He was arrested and sentenced for five year and after only six month in prison he was released. He ran for presidential post several but defeated by Hindenburg and became chancellor in 1932-33. (Kershaw p. 63).
Hitler gained complete control over the destiny of Germany and when Hindernburh died on august 1934 Hitler took control over Germany as a “Fuehrer and Reich Chance” and the title president was abolished. He strengthened his force and started testing his power by intimidating France and Britain.
He gradually invaded Poland, Britain and France whom on September, 1, 1939 declared war on Germany which lead to death of thousands of people. “On April 29th, he married Eva Bruam, and eventually on April 30th they committed suicide in an underground bunker of the chancellery building having ordered their bodies to be burned” (Leeson p. 101).
In comparison Hitler and Saddam had commonalities as well as differences. Whereas Saddam used force and blood spill to attain power, Hitler was elected and promoted. In dealing with opposition, Hitler did not brutally kill his people as Saddam did. While Saddam was an international threat, Hitler was a threat to his neighboring countries.
On other hand, both Hitler and Saddam were dictators and they led to mass killing which were brutally done. In addition, they also both exercised coup against their presidents and were seen as a threat to both citizen of their country and other nations. Simply put both Hitler and Saddam are people who will always be remembered for their inhuman role in their regime.
Aburish, Said . The politics of revenge. London: Bloomsbury,2000. Print
Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: A Bibliography. New York: W. W. Norton& Com., 2008. Print
Toland, John. Adolph Hitler. Waterloo: Military History Series. Frankfurt: Wordsworth military library, 1997. Print
Leeson, Waite & Robert, George. The psychopathic god: Adolph Hitler. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 1999. Print.
Renfrew, Nita. Saddam Hussein. Chelsea; Chelsea House, 1992. Print.
German Resistance to Hitler Research Paper
On September 1, 1939, aggressive Nazi forces, under the command of Adolf Hitler, marched into Poland in an attack named Operation White. By the end of the month, Nazi forces had outdone Polish military resistance and the whole of Poland fell under Nazi command.
This act of aggression marked the onset of the Second World War and signaled Hitler’s intention to occupy the rest of Europe. Following Poland’s invasion, Britain and France joined the war in an attempt to stop Nazi’s move across Europe. By 1940, the war had led to the invasion of Denmark and Norway in an attempt to secure iron ore shipments from Sweden (William, 1990).
The Germans further advanced to France, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg with Netherlands and Belgium offering little resistance while France initially put up a stronger resistance before finally succumbing following Italy’s reinforcement of German forces. Following France’s defeat, Hitler’s forces traded their guns on Britain with a series of air bombardments but Britain, under Winston Churchill as Prime Minister, prevented the attacks and German occupation.
Later in 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan formed a tripartite pact (known as the axis) that was later expanded by the inclusion of Hungary, Slovakia and Romania (Roberts, 2006).
The aim of the pact was to protect each other against any military attack and at the same time attack other countries such as Greece by the Italians, Libya by the Germans, Indo-china by the Japanese and the Soviet Union by the combined axis forces in an attack code named Barbarossa in 1941.
The United State was left in the war following Japan’s attack on American fleets at Pearl Harbor in December 1941. The United States and her allies responded by declaring war on the affiliation members who in turn, declared war on the United States.
The war had gone global and was not to end till 1945. Throughout the war, several countries resisted the Nazi’s advance across Europe. Some resistance came from German nationals who wanted to see an end to the war. Resistance was in the form of civil disobedience, formation of resistance movements, sabotage, coup attempts against the Nazi advances and assassination attempts on Hitler. This paper explores German and European resistance to Hitler.
German resistance to Hitler’s ideology and military advance across Europe consisted of small militant groups that had their roots in German opposition political parties. The groups were made up of movements such as the Social Democrats, the Communist Party, the Anarcho – Syndicalist Union, The Freie Arbeite Union and the Red Orchestra Group (Ian, 2000).
All these groups had organized resistance and concerted their efforts by distributing anti-Hitler propaganda and assisting Jews to flee Germany. Their efforts were supported by the German Catholic Church which challenged the Nazi ideology through church sermons although it did not take part in any physical confrontations against the regime.
The Anarcho-Syndicalist Union was made up of wage workers united by a goal of opposing and abolishing the industrial system in Germany. The industrial system favored the industrialists at the expense of the wage earners.
The social democratic party (SDP) which was Germany’s oldest political party, adopted social equality leading to their opposition to Hitler’s anti Semitism. The Communist Party’s resistance was motivated by elimination of its leaders following Hitler’s ascent to power. Consequently, most of its leaders fled to the Soviet Union from where they continued to formulate resistance against the Nazi regime.
The Freie Arbeite Union was a Trade Union that had been banned by the Nazi regime prior to the war. However, it continued to engage in political warfare against the Nazi. The Red Orchestra group was a communist-based group that specialized in acts of sabotage against the regime.
These groups operated through underground networks and recruited their members from industrial wage-earners. The wage-earners were opposed to the stringent industrial conditions set by the Nazi regime (Ian, 2000).
They organized industrial strikes in an attempt to stultify Germany’s industrial sector which was significant to the success of Hitler’s advance across Europe. However, Hitler’s informants infiltrated most of these groups leading to the subsequent arrests and sometimes executions of its leaders and members. This resulted to weakening of the groups’ activities.
The fact that Hitler had considerable public support among Germans, made it risky for the concealed groups to execute their activities in public and subvert Hitler’s authority. These groups found support in the unlikely form of dissenting intelligence service officers notably, Colonel Hans Oster.
He was the Chief Intelligence Officer in Hitler’s regime who offered intelligence to the resistance groups and secured escape from the Nazi regime for other dissenting military and intelligence officers. Other dissenting officers were in the foreign office and together they offered considerable support to the resistance groups.
Besides the organized groups, there were other smaller groups and individuals who also played a significant role in offering resistance to Hitler’s forces. This was done by hiding Jews in their houses and exercising other acts of defiance against the regime in an attempt to sabotage the ruling advances. At some point, German youths refused to be engaged in the Nazi Youth League which was a transitory progress towards serving in the Nazi army.
The 1939 coup attempt
In August 1938, General Ludwig Beck who was Hitler’s well-regarded Chief of Staff, resigned from his position. His replacement was General Franz Halder who, together General Beck and Colonel Hans Oster, staged a military coup against Hitler.
The conspirators settled on General Halder to take charge of the coup plot and recruit other conspirators. They found support in Hitler’s army commander, General Walther von Brauchitsch, who failed to inform Hitler of the plan despite the fact that he was a cognizant of the coup plot.
The conspirators’ plot was thrown in disarray in September 1939, when the then British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, announced plans to hold talks with Hitler and defuse the imminent Czechoslovakia attack.
Chamberlain’s talks with Hitler failed and the coup plans were revived. However, support for the coup had waned significantly and General Halder became ambivalent as to whether they would succeed.
This was coupled by Britain’s and France’s inflexibility in offering support to the dissenters whole heartedly, but instead preferring a military confrontation with Hitler over Czechoslovakia. Hitler’s subsequent attack on Czechoslovakia and the breakout of the war made the coup plans unsustainable. However, the coup attempt acted as a precursor for another daring attempt that was named as Operation Valkyrie.
In June 1944, Hitler appointed Claus von Stauffenberg as the chief staff of the reserve army. Stauffenberg was not supportive of Hitler’s ambitions and was among a group of dissenters in Hitler’s inner circle. Stauffenberg, together with other dissenters including the commander of the reserve army General Fromm, staged a plan to assassinate Hitler and take control of Germany.
Stauffenberg had the task of placing a bomb inside a room during one of Hitler’s briefings which Stauffenberg used to attend while General Fromm was chosen to take charge of Germany following Hitler’s planned assassination.
On July 20, 1944, Stauffenberg attended a military briefing that was held at Hitler’s headquarters in East Prussia carrying a briefcase that contained a bomb.
The plan was to detonate the bomb during the briefing and fly back to Berlin to join the rest of the dissenters, during which General Fromm was to mobilize the reserve army and take command of key installments in Berlin and the rest of Germany.
The timed bomb went off as planned after Stauffenberg had left the briefing room killing several officers. Convinced that Hitler had not survived the blast, Stauffenberg flew back to Berlin, as planned, and informed the plotters that Hitler was dead.
Despite conflicting from East Prussia, this indicated that he had survived the blast apparently because one of the officers had moved the briefcase containing the bomb away from him (Ian, 2000). Despite the confusion, the coup was carried out by officers who believed that Hitler was dead. They subsequently arrested several Nazi officers and Hitler’s loyalists.
The confusion regarding Hitler’s survival was finally put to an end when he made a national radio address stating that he was alive. This divided the coup plotters with some, including Stauffenberg, calling on the coup to continue and others like General Fromm called on his co-conspirators to surrender. Hitler’s loyalists eventually rounded up the coup plotters who were court marshaled and sentenced to death by firing squad. That marked the end of Operation Valkyrie.
Other assassination attempts
Besides Operation Valkyrie, other attempts had been made on Hitler’s life. One of the key attempts was the one by George Elser in 1939 that planned to assassinate Hitler by detonating a bomb during an event Hitler was attending.
The powerful bomb went off as planned killing eight people excluding Hitler who had left earlier. Another assassination attempt was staged in 1942 by Colonel Henning von Tresckow and General Friedrich Olbricht who were opponents of the Nazi ideology.
The plot was to conceal a bomb in Hitler’s plane and detonate it mid air. The bomb was to be concealed inside two wine bottles. The bomb detonator went off but the bomb failed to explode apparently because the mechanism of the bomb’s chemical detonator became faulty mid air (Hamerow, 1997). The explosives were retrieved by one of the conspirators and the plot was not immediately unearthed.
Resistance across Europe
In his quest to spread his ideology across Europe, Hitler invaded several countries notably Albania, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Yugoslavia, Russia, Finland, Holland and most of the Balkan states. Most of these countries offered armed resistance to the invasion while some offered covert assistance to the allies by destroying Nazi communication links and aiding Nazi Prisoners of War to escape. Two cases of resistance and collaboration with the allies are mentioned below.
The Warsaw Uprising
Under the support of General Tadeusz ‘Bor’ Komorowski, Poland mobilized the polish Underground Home Army (UHA) in an attempt to repulse the Germans out of Poland. They co-opted Russian forces who attacked the Germans from the East with the Polish army advancing from the West in the cities of Vilnyus, Lublin and Lvov.
The joint Polish-Russian assault successfully repulsed German forces from these cities and they subsequently trained their sights on the capital Warsaw. However, things did not go well in Warsaw as it had been in the three cities. The Polish Home Army consisted of 40,000 troops but were lacking in weapons with only 2,500 weapons at their disposal and ammunition to last only seven days.
The German troops, on the other hand, consisted of 15,000 troops in Warsaw and 30,000 troops in nearby cities and adequately backed by an armory of weapons (Stephen, 2004). The Germans had marked Warsaw as a strategic city (due to the presence of River Vistula that was a crucial communication channel) that had to be defended at all costs hence the heavy military presence (Stephen, 2004).
The confrontation ensued with Russian forces battling German forces to the east of River Vistula with Polish fighters advancing from the East with the intention of consolidating forces with Polish nationals in Warsaw. The Polish assault was initially successful due to the nature of the attack and they consequently captured several German weapons. However, they were handicapped by lack of adequate weapons and ammunition as well as the superiority of German weapons. Moreover, the head of the German forces in Warsaw was Commander Bach Zalewski who was an expert in suppressing uprisings (Stephen, 2004).
German air raids on Warsaw led to death of civilians whom the home army was counting on to help with the resistance. The Russian Red Army had made considerable progress by driving away German troops on the banks of River Vistula. However, the Germans reinforced their positions by sending in extra troops who ruthlessly contained the Home Army and the Polish nationals in Warsaw. A ceasefire was negotiated by the Polish Red Cross leading to the surrender of the home troops.
The Norwegian Heavy Water Sabotage
In 1934, the Norwegians built a plant capable of producing Heavy Water (Deuterium Oxide) that was used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. During the war and prior to Norway’s invasion by Germany, the allies moved what was left of the heavy water to France where it was to be destroyed. Germany subsequently invaded Norway and the allies became concerned that the Germans would use the facility to make Heavy Water and manufacture nuclear weapons. The plant had to be destroyed to prevent this from happening.
In a series of attacks, allied bombings destroyed the plant to prevent production. In one such attack named Operation Grouse, an advance team of four Norwegians were sent to the area surrounding the plant on a reconnaissance mission to guide subsequent attacks. In 1942, the allies launched an air raid on the plant that ended unsuccessfully with the crashing of the bombers.
In 1943, another team of Norwegian troops successfully infiltrated the plant and strategically placed bombs all over the plant, effectively destroying it, an act hailed as the most successive sabotage during the war (Thomas, 2002). The Germans tried to transport the remaining heavy water that was salvaged from the plant out of Norway but the ferry transporting the cargo was sank by Norwegian saboteurs on its way to Germany.
Hitler’s oppressive holocaust campaign targeted Jews who, even though could not match Hitler’s military might, offered some resistance in the form of armed confrontations, acts of defiance and civil disobedience. In May 1943, Jewish youth in Warsaw engaged in a physical confrontation with the German forces protesting the imminent supplanting from their homes to a Concentration Camp. The confrontation was quelled by the German forces that eventually moved the Jews to the Concentration Camp (Gilbert, 1986).
In “ The Holocaust: A Jewish Tragedy”, Gilbert (1986) gives an account on how Jews at the Treblinka Concentration Camp obtained weapons and revolted against the Nazi oppressors in August 1943.
Several German guards were killed, warehouses burned and weapons stolen. The Germans responded by shooting 1,500 Polish inmates. Gilbert gives another account on how in October 1943 at the Sobibor Concentration Camp, polish prisoners revolted and killed several guards, an attack that forced the Nazis to close the camp.
Another revolt occurred in Auschwitz in October 1944. Jews in Germany took part in the resistance through various acts of sabotage and by supporting allied forces. However, their resistance was not limited to covert practices. For instance, the Baum Group that was made up of mostly Jewish youth took part in various demonstrations and other acts of aggression (Gilbert, 1986).
End of the war
In February 1945, allied troops crossed the Rhine River and landed in Germany and by April, Red Army troops had taken over Berlin from German control. In other parts of Europe, German forces were overrun by allied troops and subsequently surrendered. Japanese forces, still oblivious to the change in tide, continued their war against the allies. The United States responded by dropping two atomic bombs on two Japanese cities with devastating effects. The Japanese finally surrendered in August 1945. The war had effectively ended.
The allies’ success in defeating German forces in the Second World War was aided by resistance movements, not only in Germany, but in other countries that had been invaded by German troops. Resistance was in the form of armed confrontation like the Warsaw uprising, sabotages, civil disobedience, coup attempts on Hitler and perhaps more significantly, through resistance by Hitler’s own commanders such as Stauffenberg. The allies’ victory was also aided by individuals such as Raoul Wallenberg who offered Jews an escape route out of Germany. All these actors collectively contributed to victory by offering resistance to Hitler’s ruthless and oppressive regime.
Gilbert, Martin. 1986. “The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy”. Journal of History and Political Economy 55: 67-79. https://academic.oup.com/jhmas.
Hamerow, Theodore. 1997. “On the Road to the Wolf’s Lair: German Resistance to Hitler.” Political Psychology 22: 213-233.
Ian, Kershaw. 2000. “The Nazi Dictatorship Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation.” Historical Journal 19:188–189.
Roberts, Geoffrey. 2006. “Stalin’s Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953.” Political Quarterly 47: 787-818.
Stephen, Budiansky. 2004. “Air Power : The Men, Machines, and Ideas that Revolutionized War, fro Kitty Hawk to Gulf War II”. Web.
Thomas, Gallagher. 2002. “Assault in Norway: Sabotaging the Nazi Nuclear Program.” The Journal of Politics 37: 889-991.
William, Jackson. 1990. “The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany.” American Historical Review 23: 668–712.
Adolf Hitler and Nationalism Research Paper
“The Great War was without precedent … never had so many nations taken up arms at a single time. Never had the battlefield been so vast… never had the fighting been so gruesome…”
Historical records impute World War I to the first global catastrophe of the 20th century, which lasted from 1914 to 1918 and caused the approximate number of 9 million casualties. “It would turn out to be a long war in which soldiers died by the millions. An entire generation of young men would be wiped out. The war would also bring the downfall of the old European culture of kings and noblemen and their codes of honor.”
However, neither the number of casualties at the battlefields could reflect the actual devastation reigning in the world hereafter, nor could the massive downfall of the imperial regimes. The economic dislocation and total disruption of values spread depression and fear among the countries that appeared to be the first in the victims’ rate.
The Germany’s irresistible enthusiasm of the Spirit of 1914 was buried under ashes, damages, and the first genocide of the 20th century. Nevertheless, it remained throughout the war and destruction as the leitmotif in the Adolf Hitler’s activity. The perspective young leader, having bravely withstood the battles of the Great War, even more bravely started to defend the rights of German workers, slowly, but convincingly acquiring the audience of support.
Hitler was persistent and industrious in approaching the wheel of Germany’s government. Finally, on becoming the chief of the state, Hitler has almost completely changed the vector of his policy and became the dictator of the German nation. However, the fact of being severely criticized and regarded as a hypocrite, racist, and insane did not hinder the existence of the belief that Hitler appeared to be the one to lead Germany to renaissance, both economic and spiritual.
Hitler fostered the idea of nationalism through forcing the population of Germany to work above norm for the sake of the country. This inducement was reasonably spiced with the talks about Aryan nation, uniqueness, and leadership, which altogether brought to the common belief in collective force, and, despite the resistance, impelled the Germans to work qualitatively and quantitatively.
The chief of the state encouraged collective consciousness, for, in comparison with individualism, this was the simplest way to control and direct the national mood. He infused German people with hope and dignity, with desire to enormous work for the common good and prosperity of own country. Indeed, what would be called ‘nationalism’, if not this?
Born in the 1800’s, Adolf Hitler spent most of his childhood dreaming of becoming a great artist. However, the pointless efforts had brought him to the depression, which added up to his hysteric nature greatly. “The utter misery of his poverty also deeply influenced Hitler. He adopted a harsh, survivalist mentality, which left little room for consideration of kindness and compassion – an attitude that would stay with him until the end.”
Indeed, later, when Adolf Hitler joined the Bavarian Regiment for participation in the Great War, his colleagues admitted the traits of devoted and thorough person. “For me, as for every German, there now began the greatest and most unforgettable time of my earthly existence.
Compared to the events of this gigantic struggle, everything past receded to shallow nothingness,” Hitler said in Mein Kampf. Hitler was completely absorbed in the ideology of war and potential victory, which was the cause for further deep disillusion and depression. Hitler was prone to hysteric accusations of the alternative betrayers, most likely the objects of Hitler’s anti-Semitic character, Jews.
“He had a curious but academically untrained mind and examined the complex philosophical works of Nietzsche, Hegel, Fichte, Treitschke and the Englishman, Houston Stewart Chamberlain. Hitler picked up bits and pieces of philosophy and ideas from them and wound up with a hodgepodge of racist, nationalistic, anti-Semitic attitudes that over time became a die-hard philosophy, later to be described in his book, Mein Kampf.”
After the war ended, Hitler returned home and joined the workers association known as the National Social German. As an active member, he was incredibly instrumental in fighting for the rights of workers and spearheading for change.
Meanwhile, the consequences of the Great War manifested themselves in Versailles Treaty, which constituted the Armistice signed in November, 1918. The Treaty was extremely disadvantageous for Germany, which could be outlined in terms of territory, financial coverage, and military forces.
The conclusions of the document cultivated anger and disillusion among the population of Germany, for, in addition to the economy downfall due to loss of profitable regions, Germany has admitted its responsibility for the war damages. Hence, according to this acknowledgement, Germany was obliged to provide financing of all the war-caused damages of European countries.
In 1920, Hitler came up with a controversial 25-point program, a detailed demands list given to the government for immediate action. However, the government never took any action on this matter, and, overwhelmed by anger and frustrations, Hitler staged a coup to overthrow the government. This resulted in his imprisonment, whereby he served nine months of his five-year term. However, while in prison, he took advantage of his free time to design his manifesto.
Free time contemplations gave birth to ‘Mein Kampf’, which is partly autobiographical and partly political work by Adolf Hitler. The book encloses the formation of the writer’s outlook through the lenses of events happening to him starting up from early childhood. The author relates the premises to Jew despise and smoothly switches to the discussion of the forms of government, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of different ones. The book acquired popularity short after Hitler got the position at the governing structures.
Hitler and World War II
After the sudden death of Hindenburg, Adolf Hitler became president and Chancellor of Germany. This marked the beginning of his dictatorial term in office. He began implementing his policies, which included the elimination of trade unions, racism against the Jews and curtailing freedom of speech.
By Hitler, the collective consciousness could foster nationalism through “homogenous ethnicity, cultural similarity and common purpose is the glue to the German society. Thus when a state is composed of a singular ethnic population, the natural inertia of such a population will hold the institution together and maintain its existence through thick and thin in a longer period. Even if the government had been badly managed and continuous maladministration, as long as the same population built it upon it will continue to work.”
On observing the destruction of the country in the post-war period, which spread depression and disillusion among the society, Hitler’s preconceptions on nationalism became even more radical. He aspired to raise the social force, suppressed by the Versailles Treaty, in order to withstand the shock of the period together, feel the sense of community and belonging.
Hitler’s concept of nationalism considered either the idea of anti-Semitism, due to Hiller’s belief in complete fault of Jews concerning the collapse of German Empire. Consequently, Hitler proclaimed the supremacy of Aryans, dismantling the existence of the representatives of other nations, especially Jews. Hitler believed in breeding of people and more specifically the Aryan race; he highly discouraged interracial marriages, because he termed them as degrading the Aryan race.
He believed that there was no other human race, superior to the Aryans. He even discouraged any form of sexual relationships between the Aryans and any other race, especially the Jews. The belief in Aryan’s superiority was the main motive guiding Hitler to invade the territories of other countries to expand own territories, which has, actually, been one of the main reasons to the outburst of the World War II.
On stating that nation’s restoration and revival cannot occur without total devotion of its representatives, Hitler developed the ideology of Nazism, the radical embodiment of nationalism. “Our Nation is not just an idea in which you have no part; you yourself support the nation; to it you belong; you cannot separate yourself from it.”
Indeed, with his own example Hitler has shown his inextricable link with his country and devotion to ideology. His speeches were based on the constant reminding that sense of life of the Germans is their country. “Nazism was based on the belief that one should be deeply devoted, loyal and faithful to one’s nation”. Hitler has proved the words of the national anthem and practically applied the idea implied there.
Indeed, the Germans felt strength and incredible endurance to restore the country at first and to dedicate everything for the nation’s sake and to feel this mythical ‘oneness’ in identification of oneself with the country. The thoroughly fostered idea of superiority and justice in treatment lead the German nation to committing the crime of infringing upon other territories and inducing the Word War II. Hence, Hitler is considered to be among the prime causes of the Second World War, when he decided to invade Poland, in 1939.
Nevertheless, Hitler has developed a powerful ‘identity campaign’ and has become a symbol not only in the Germany’s history of his reign, but in the history of all times. He remained a scar on the world’s face, which has the form of wide-known swastika. Adolf Hitler has become the symbol of totalitarianism and dictatorship. He has performed radical forms of government and brought German nation to obedience through rough qualities.
“Brutality is respected. Brutality and physical strength. The people need wholesome fear. Why babble about brutality and be indignant about tortures? The masses want that. They need something that will give them a thrill of horror. Terror is the most effective political instrument.” – Adolf Hitler.
The reference managed by Adolf’s friend August Kubizek proves that personal characteristics corresponded to the potential ideological fulfillment:
“The most outstanding trait in my friend’s character was…the unparalleled consistency in everything that he had said and did. There was in his nature something firm, inflexible, immovable, obstinately rigid, which manifested itself in his profound seriousness and was at the bottom of all his other characteristics.”
The traits listed above were the perfect environment for the points of ideology to be realized with certainty and dedication. Hence, Hitler is known as the ever known severest leader, for the name of his is blemished with the blood of millions of people either killed in was or repressed for the reason of some personal Hitler’s preferences and concepts.
The posture of Adolf Hitler, nevertheless associates with the perfect leaderships skills and the outstanding oratory capacity, which is still being studied and followed at the modern times. The knowledge of how to govern the society so that it becomes obedient involves the requirement of a range of characteristics, such as being a psychologist and strategist.
However, one may not state that Adolf Hitler was manipulating the German society. Generally, he was manipulated by the ideology, which caused the chain effect of willingness to lead the whole country under the banner of Nazism.
It was vital for Hitler to focus on the people because he believed that, by ruling the people, he would also gain control over the industries and financial institutions. This way he would lead the country better than when he imposed rules and regulations on industries and financial institutions.
He knew that, in the end, he was the final person, when it came to making essential decisions. Hitler had an excellent manifesto, where he regarded all citizens equal regardless of their background. He further believed that the interests of an individual should never be in contradiction with the interests of the people. Individuals worked for the good of the whole community by putting their differences aside.
Before Adolf Hitler came into power, the German government stood for international reliance. However, Hitler sharply opposed this idea; he wanted economic independence for Germany. Hitler aimed at bringing equality in consumption and production of commodities. He also managed to shun corruption, which was so eminent throughout the government.
Thus, being the symbol of a centralized power, Adolf Hitler has performed the excellent leadership skills, which include enthusiasm, professionalism, and, despite the firm emotionless nature, the passionate belief in the ideology of the Nazi party.
Exactly the Hitler’s passionate belief has served the impetus for the German nation to revive throughout the enormous damages of the Great War, the dreadful obligations according to the Versailles Treaty, the moods of anger and depression reigning in the consciousness of society. This was Adolf Hitler to raise the latter from its knees and, through outstanding diligence, withstand the period of destruction with dignity.
As a result, before the World War II Germany became one of the most developed countries of the world, where all of spheres of human activity advanced in investigations and even outperformed the countries, which were the least to suffer from the consequences of the Great War. Hence, one may consider that, together with the constant assertion of the supremacy of Aryans, Hitler has steeled the German nation so that it was able to face any conditions for the sake of country’s development.
Many individuals, however, viewed Hitler as a hypocrite, since he frequently did not keep his word. After he got into power, he disregarded some of the 25-point program policies and decided to act on his own way of thinking. Hitler could be either viewed a nationalist at some point, since some of the principles he stood for. For instance, he hated rich capitalist who accumulated a lot of wealth from the people.
The Nazi party of Adolf Hitler did not support exploitation of the common person. Instead, it shunned capitalism and blamed the government for all the oppression of the people. Adolf Hitler fought for the rights of the workers before he became president. He gained accreditation in his efforts of being against capitalism and oppression of the workers, and kept this position throughout his life.
However, the last events of the World War II cut the assuredness in the ideology of the Nazi party. The final battle in Berlin would appear the one to end military operations. This was the first time Adolf Hitler admitted defeat, analyzing realistically the situation of the state. However, Hitler has blamed this defeat majorly on the generals. Being aware of potential capture, Hitler decided on committing suicide through gun shooting and purchasing poison.
Adolf Hitler is a controversial personality and his ‘legacy’ is quite ambiguous. His posture is known all over the world and he is frequently accepted through the prism of national stereotypes the society establishes. The historical records show only the figures and factual information and the critical thinker is the one to analyze the activity of the German Fuehrer.
There is a wide variety of aspects, according to which it is possible to conduct an investigation into the premises and consequences of Hitler’s actions. This paper considers the interconnection between the ideology of nationalism and the activities of Adolf Hitler. This work is dedicated to analyzing the responsibility of the German leader in spreading nationalistic conceptions on the post-war and during the World War II stages.
Generally, Adolf Hitler succeeded in renovation of the devastated German society in the period after the Great War. Through diligence and dedication he performed an excellent example of a leader, who rescued the country from the extremely complicated position, and bred dignity and unity in the masses of German society.
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Adolf Hitler Psychotic State Research Paper
Brief history and family background of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was certainly a disharmonious and destructive personality and, in order to define the main underpinnings and causes of his psychological disorders, family background and history information should be carefully considered. Born to an ordinary family of a customs official, Adolf accepted Catholicism and entered baptism (Zalampas, 1990 p. 4).
The future dictator made enormous effort to conceal his origins. He resisted to the NSDAP directives and rejected to provide records about his descent because any interruption in his private life was considered unacceptable. Therefore, the cases reveal that Hitler waxed indignant over the interview with Patrick Hitler, his half-brother Alois’s son (Zalampas, 1990 p. 4).
Hitler’s reluctance to discuss the facts from his family background was also explained by his fear to revealing the Jewish ancestors. However, even thorough investigation withdrawing the assumption did not make Hitler reveal the details of his genealogy (Zalampas, 1990 p. 5). The facts from the lineage also suggest that Alois and Klara, Adolf’s parents, were official cousins. Investigations assume that Johann Nepomuk Huttler was, in fact, Alois’s great-grandfather, and Klara’s grandfather.
According to the above-consideration, it can be assumed that Hitler’s fear of uncovering his lineage was due to his fear of disclosing his inferiority. Because of ambiguousness presented in his family ties, Hitler could not feel himself as a full-fledged personality. He desperately wanted to detach himself from the family background because his origins prevented him from becoming a legitimate and commendable leader for German people.
While considering general psychological aspect, the name of the dictator has always been associated with a mentally abnormal person who guided Nazi concentration camps and put fear in Jewish people’s hearts. Judging from historical events and facts linked to the personality, including Holocaust and the World War II, Hitler was, indeed, inexplicably evil. In social interaction with people, Adolf was revealed as a reserved and serious person (Zalampas, 1990 p. 6).
Judging from the above psychological and social conditions, the hypothesis is that Hitler suffered from posttraumatic disorder and schizophrenia revealed at the first Axis of DMS-IV.
Assessment and Methodology Tools
Due to the fact that the analysis and diagnosing of the patient is carried out posthumously, the clinical interview is certainly impossible. In this respect, more emphasis is placed on historical records revealing face-to-face psychological testing, clinical interviews, and self-report techniques. The research studies of people who directly interacted with Adolf Hitler will also be included to present the accurate conclusions.
As a result, posthumous DSM analysis can be presented with the help of informant ratings. Using the method of Coolidge Axis II Inventory, the research will be able to fit the criteria of DSM-IV (Coolidge, 1995). The models will not be used as the basis for the analysis, but some references will be made to identify the extent of the disorders. The core assessment of Hitler’s disorders will be performed with the help of DSM-IV coding.
The given study will also be based on the scholar’s published articles and books disclosing Hitler’s life and psychological portrait with regard to the identified DSM-IV diagnosis. Studies dedicated to the analysis of similar mental disorders are also included to better comprehend possible causes of psychological deviations.
Preview of Deviations as Presented by Coolidge Axis II Inventory
The main scope of the model consists in measuring all scales of measuring psychological and neuropsychological dysfunction (Coolidge, 1995). Hence, the scales are also aimed at defining the deficits, including decision-making problems, task completion difficulties and planning barriers.
Hostility scales should also be highlighted to measure dangerousness, anger, aggression, and impulsiveness. Personality assessment is subjected to such aspects as apathy, paranoia, and liability. According to these results, Hitler had difficulties in adjusting to new and changing environments (Payne, 2001).
DSM-IV Differential Diagnoses Analysis
Examination of the first scale reveals that the deviations are closely connected with posttraumatic stress disorder (code 309.81) and schizophrenia (paranoid type, code 295.3). Hence, the first deviation is justified with regard to such symptoms as chronic, acute reactions to traumatic events and recurrence of flashback distressing memories (Summerfield, 2001, p. 95). In our case, the trauma is strongly associated with military combat and assault.
Displays of schizophrenia were revealed through the analysis of Hitler’s psychological behavior that was accompanied by delusions and hallucinations. This type of schizophrenia is marked by the presence of grandiosity, delusions, and suspiciousness (Murray, 1943). According to Murray’s (1943) report, “[Hitler] has exhibited … all of the classical symptom of paranoid schizophrenia: hypersensitivity, panics of anxiety, irrational jealousy, delusions of persecution, delusions of omnipotence and messiahship” (p. 14).
The overview of personality disorders has revealed the emergence of paranoid, antisocial, sadistic, and narcissistic deviations. Based on the research conducted by Renato et al. (1998), Hitler’s personality has been diagnosed with histrionic and paranoid personality disorders.
At this point, Hitler was defined as “enfeebled self that lacked any capacity for self-worth or self-regard; …he felt that the German people after World War I suffered this same collective defect in self…” (p. 65). Judging from the above records, the personality disorders include antisocial personality disorder (301.7), histrionic personality disorder (301.50), and narcissistic personality disorder (301.81). All these psychiatric deviations referred to dramatic and emotional instabilities.
It is documented that Hitler had serious somatic problems, although no evidence was found to believe that he had neuropsychological dysfunction (somatic and grandiose subtype of delusional disorder, 297.1) (Murray, 1943, p. 15). The disorder is premised on the physical impairment and emotional instabilities (Renato et al., 1998). In addition, it is purposeful to state that memory execution functions deficiency was also present due to the difficulties in decision-making.
Because Hitler had significant problems with adjusting to a changing social environment, it can be assumed that this was one of the main stressors of the disorders diagnosed in Axis I. According to Murray (1943), Hitler’s resistance to opposition was the motivation for living.
The stronger the opposition was, the more frustrated reaction was reveled through emotional outbursts, displays of inertia, and melancholy. Frustration caused by failure to gain victory while struggling with Russia was followed by collapse, which means that Hitler did not have natural mechanism for defense.
With regard to the above-presented symptoms, GAF amounts to 50 at admission (before the World War II) and about 30 at discharge (after the World War II). The last period of his life proved that psychological and social conditions were aggravated and Hitler failed to explain his actions (Munson, 2001, p. 75).
Etiology: Theoretical Perspectives
Because most of the symptoms presented above refer to a psychoanalytic theoretical perspective, the related frameworks should be discussed to understand the causes and underpinnings of Hitler’s psychological disorders.
According to Welham et al. (2010), “subtle impairments on neurocognitive measures during childhood or adolescence are associated with an increased risk of non-affective psychosis in young adult males”. In this respect, cognitive deficit can be considered the core reasons of schizophrenia emergence. The presented analysis also explains mood and emotional abnormalities observed in Hitler’s behavior.
Psychoanalysis presented by Gaylin (2004) also underscores the above-discussed idea. Specifically, the researcher states that the main trait of the paranoid character include negativism, suspicion, chronic anger, self-referential attitude, and narcissism (Gaylin, 2004, p. 114). All these features are presented in Hitler’s personality.
To enlarge on this point, the dictator often displayed negativism when his life position was not approved by others. He never expected positive outcomes and always anticipated that each occasion was accompanied with danger. Finally, he always expressed indignation and anger on each possible occasion.
Types of Treatment
If Hitler had not committed suicide, the following treatment and therapeutic techniques should have been introduced. It would have been purposeful to present a complex approach to reducing the original causes of Hitler’s disorders.
Before analyzing the cases and possible treatment, it should be stressed that personality disorders are difficult to treat because people with such psychological deviations do not recognize those as a serious disease that should be intervened (Gaylin, 2004). The only decision that could have been made in this situation was to encourage the individual in his actions and make him persuade that all his decisions and beliefs were highly appreciated.
Because Hitler had significant family problems and because he did not want to recognize the ambiguousness and inferiority of his family lineage, the dictator strived to compensate it with other actions augmenting his feeling of superiority. Emotional outburst displayed as a result of family problems took place. These instabilities, however, could have been treated with the help of holding therapy embracing emotionally driven principles and intensified therapeutic interventions.
Notably, using a purely psychological approach would not have been effective because of Hitler’s inability to recognize his mistakes and make the right decisions based on previous experience. Most of his problems, therefore, were premised on the failure to accept the world as is it, which made it impossible for Hitler to adjust to new treatments (Murray, 1943). In this respect, mere acceptance of the rules and orders presented by Hitler was the only way out to minimize the psychotic effects.
Regarding somatic disorders treatment, it should be noted that somatic disorders treatment should have relied heavily to non-psychiatric interventions due to the fact that the depression often appeared as a result of physical impairments and dysfunction. In this respect, specific attention should have beeen paid to Hitler’s problems with physical health.
Hypothetical Prognosis and Limitations
While predicting Hitler’s behavior, it is rational to refer to Murray’s (1943) report discussing behavioral patterns of the patient before committing the suicide. Specifically, the scholar asserts that Hitler’s “neurotic spells with increase in frequency and duration and his effectiveness as a leader will diminish” (Murray 1943, p. 29). The dictator could have been seized by the military arms; in this situation, the patient’s reaction would have been worse because the possibilities of being deprived of the hero title would have been disastrous.
One of the predictions happened was that of committing suicide in case Hitler’s plans and decisions were not affected. Because Hitler did not have defense mechanisms, life termination was the only solution to the problem. Importantly, Hitler was ready to resort to all means to remain a hero in the hearts of the German people.
Murray (1943) notes that there was a possibility of Hitler’s going insane because “paranoid schizophrenia…with the mounting load of frustration and failure may yield his will to the turbulent forces of the unconscious” (p. 31). Finally, the scholar admits the possibility Hitler dying of natural reasons due to this inability to adjust to a social environment.
A thorough analysis of DSM-IV scales for paranoid type of schizophrenia has approved the diagnoses. The criteria support symptoms related to the exaggerated feelings of persecution, suspicion, negativism, and presence of delusions. Associated traits also include anger, aggression, anxiety, and apathy.
In addition, the presented DSM-IV assessment argues that persecutory displays can predispose paranoid individuals to committing suicide. Grandiose delusions and emotional outbursts also presuppose the individual’s increase predisposition to violence. Consequently, the presence of cognitive impairment and superior behavior accompanied with intense interpersonal interaction can serve a logical explanation of Hitler psychotic state.
As to personality disorders, the clinical assessment has discovered antisocial, paranoid, and sadistic deviations. These findings are sufficiently supported by reports provided by Murray (1943), Gaylin (2004), and Summerfield (2001). Specifically, life descriptions and explanations of psychological disorders are relevant because theoretical underpinnings have managed to define how Hitler’s lifestyle and position can be interpreted with regard to existing psychoanalytical frameworks.
Coolidge, F. L., Burns, E. M., & Mooney, J. A. (1995). Reliability of observer ratings in the assessment of personality disorders: A preliminary study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 22-28.
Gaylin, W. (2004). Hatred: The Psychological Descent into Violence. US: Public Affairs.
Munson, C. E. (2001). The mental health diagnostic desk reference: visual guides and more for learning to use the Diagnostic and statistical manual. NY: Routledge.
Murray, H. A. (1943). Analysis of the personality of Adolf Hitler with predictions of his future behavior and suggestions for dealing with him now and after Germany’s surrender. US: Harvard Psychological Clinic.
Payne, K. B. (2001). The fallacies of Cold War deterrence and a new direction. Kentucky, US: University Press of Kentucky.
Renato, D. A., Foulks, E. F., and Vakkur, M. (1998). Personality Disorders and Culture. New Jersey.
Summerfield, D. (2001). The Invention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders and the Social Usefulness of a Psychiatric Category. BMJ. 322(7278). 95-98.
Welham, J., Scott, J., Williams, G., Najman, J., Bor, W., O’Callaghan, M., & Mcgrath, J. (2010). The Antecedents Of Non-Affective Psychosis In A Birth-Cohort, With A Focus On Measures Related To Cognitive Ability, Attentional Dysfunction And Speech Problems. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(4), 273-279.
Zalampas, S. O. (1990). Adolf Hitler: A Psychological Interpretation of his views on architecture, art, and music. US: Popular Press.
The burden of Hitler’s legacy Essay (Book Review)
Alfons Heck was born around 1927 in Rhineland near the Morsel River Region. He was brought up by his grandmother and a number of uncles and aunts. His parents and twin brother occasionally paid him visits in the farm where he lived. Hitler ascended to power when Alfons Heck was just six years old; that was in the year 1933. His teacher at that time was a full blown follower of the Nazi (Heck 2).
Even at his young age, Alfons somewhat had a sense of admiration for his teacher and the ideals he stood for. Hitler’s regime had successfully turned him into a fanatic who was willing to lay down his life for a cause he believed was both just and achievable. For the following five or so years, Alfons attended school normally like other children and served as an altar boy in his local church.
Germany had remained in turmoil in the years following World War 1 and this offered an ideal setting for the emergence of firebrand political leadership who would establish and enforce extremist ideologies (Heck 6).
At this time in Germany’s history, citizens were under immense pressure to make payments to the victors of war and the country was grappling with a serious economic crisis. This was when Adolf Hitler came to be known since he offered easy explanations to the problems that the people were facing and he went ahead to offer quick fix solutions.
In his opinion, the Jews were to be blamed for Germany’s downfall in World War 1 and the subsequent peace treaty that was a source of embarrassment to the nation. The Nazis cunningly capitalized on the political and economic distrust of the middle class and made up lies about the Jews (Heck 11).The party enjoyed a significant rise in popularity and this saw Hitler ascend to the post of Chancellor in the year 1933. Some people thought he could have been instrumental in dealing with communists proponents.
Hitler began forming structures of the Nazi State that were based on authoritarian principles and racism. Individuals’ rights and freedoms were revoked while rights entrenched in the Weimar Constitution were renounced. Jews suffered persecution and discrimination, and in the year 1933, they were expelled from the civil service.
This year also saw the abolishing of all trade unions. All elements of government were ‘harmonized’ to completely fit into Nazi control while all other political parties were outlawed. Germans were made to believe that their destiny was to grow and enlarge a superior population that would rule the Soviet Union. A policy was put in place to encourage the bearing of racially pure Aryan children (Heck 12). Other groups of people like Gypsies and the Jews were classified as racially inferior and were set to be eliminated.
In that year, Nazi groups started the indiscriminate killing, molesting and maiming of Jews. Their businesses were forcefully shut while others were destroyed. Those that remained open were boycotted by the larger German population. More racist decrees and laws were formulated and enforced.
The Jews were accused by the Nazis of being responsible for socialism, communism and revolutions and their positions both economically and politically placed them strategically for involvement in conspiracy theories. Thousands of Jews were confined in concentration camps while their property and synagogues were torched (Heck 13).
In schools, the Nazi regime ensured that messages against Jews were relayed to children as little as four years old. This was a deliberate step by the Nazi to ensure that from a tender age, the children would be programmed to believe that Jews and other minority groups were a threat to them and that they were criminal and inferior to them(Heck 15).
The teachers were instructed to ensure that their pupils forever remained to be enemies of minority groups. This indoctrination went a long way in molding the thinking and actions of Alfons Heck plus a huge number of boys who were later recruited into Nazi groups. A majority of the teachers were also ardent believers in the cause of the Nazi regime and worked to ensure they influenced their students to identify with the Nazi ideology.
The author was just a young boy at the time the war commenced, but by the time it came to an end, he was an officer who was highly ranked in the group known as the Hitler Youth. The recruitment of Alfons and very many people into this group was done through carefully executed brainwashing of citizens by the flash and power of Adolf Hitler and his numerous promises for a new world order in Germany(Heck 28).
He was an eager participant in a number of youth rallies that took place all over Germany and was chosen to be the leader of a large group of young boys who had been recruited to join in fighting the war.
As the forces in the war began facing depletion, Hitler started depending more and more on this group (the Hitler youth). At the tender age of fifteen, Alfons had risen to become a high ranking glider pilot. When he was sixteen years old, he had already become a Bannfuhrer which is an equivalent to the present day’s rank of a Major General in the United States Army and was put in charge of more than sixty thousand troops.
He stayed in Luftawaffe for some time when a loss of the war started becoming imminent. After his short stint in Luftawaffe, he was transferred back to the war front; specifically to a wall that was along the western border post of Germany (Heck 32).It was there he got to personally meet and talk to Adolf Hitler. Hitler conveyed a sense of interest in Alfons and honored him with the Iron Cross for his exemplary service.
When the war ended, the Allied Troops arrived to his town and since he could not communicate in fluent English and the soldiers were not conversant with German, they used him to capture all the Nazis who had now gone into hiding. When his identity was discovered, he was thrown in jail together with others. By the time the war drew to a close, the author had lost almost all his friends and the town where he was born had been reduced to mere rubble (Heck 48).
While in jail, there were times when he thought that he would be executed. This was because during the war, the death of one German was avenged by killing thirty French soldiers. He was among those who sought the French soldiers that were used for the revenge missions. After spending some time in confinement, quite a number of inmates still defended the cause of the Nazis and saw nothing wrong with what they had done. Until Alfons saw the ruins that had become of Germany, he had not begun to question their fanaticism of the Nazi.
During his trial, it was revealed that by December 1939, it had become compulsory for every German child above the age of ten years to join one of the two factions of the Hitler Youth group. He used this as one of his lines of defense. However, this did not aid in clearing his name at the tribunal since it was argued that with the passing of time, he had become an adult and was fully accountable for his words and actions.
Amnesty did not also help acquit him because at the time he stood before the tribunal, he was already an adult. Up to this time, some of his fellow inmates still did not understand why they were being imprisoned while all they had done is serve their country and obey the orders they had received from their superiors. In prison, life was harsh due to the hard labor the inmates were subjected to and starvation (Heck 70).
They were once given a task to dig up mass graves of French prisoners who had succumbed to injuries they got in a fighter bomber assault. After seven months in jail, he was permitted to return to school and go home during the nights. It was after going back to school and seeing his wrecked home that Alfons truly began to brood about his life under Hitler’s reign. The promises that had been made had turned to a nightmare.
This period in time was marked by a serious economic crisis with large numbers of German women turning to prostitution as a means to earn money while most men were in captivity. People had given up their dignity in search for food and basic items; this was a great contradiction to what had been expected to be the ‘new Germany’.
When the author saw the destruction and suffering of the Germans, it dawned on him that he had done his utmost best fighting for the wrong cause (Heck 82). It is worth noting that even though a majority of teachers and civil servants had been quick to embrace the new ideology, there was still a number that resisted the pressure, clung on to their principles and refused to be members of the Nazi.
The Allied troops sometimes acted unjustly as in the case where Alfons’ twin brother came to visit him and his grandmother and was seized by the troops, locked up, sodomized, then released. Within the confines of the school, a new crop of Germans was emerging; one that was fed up with threats from the French. They threw out books that were written in French without fear of the consequences had they been caught.
An intervention by the principal helped quiet the boys and got them to cooperate with the teachers including those who had originated from France. Seven months after Alfons had faced the tribunal, he sought permission from the liaison officer for matters concerning education from the French Military Government to visit Nuremburg. The trial was coming to an end and he wanted to catch a glimpse of the proceedings. He was granted a two week pass and allowed to travel (Heck 102).
Nuremberg was a significant place because it had witnessed many domestic triumphs by Hitler and the Nazi. It was a place that synonymous with the Nazi regime however, to many German Jews and minority groups it was a place of terror and fear. It was from there that the Nazi regime made public the Racial Laws in the year 1935 that automatically revoked the citizenship of Jews.
Due to brainwashing, most Germans had applauded that move and thought it would work towards enhancing the country. The mainstream churches did not do much to oppose this violation of civil rights probably due to fear of reproach from a regime that had dealt ruthlessly with opposition.
At the beginning of the twenty one trials, most Germans viewed the proceedings with complete indifference. They interpreted the trials as their victor’s way of exerting revenge upon them. There was no sign that the nation was prepared to come to terms with the real events or dealing with their feelings of guilt.
Alfons was able to listen to the trials via some loud speakers that had been placed outside the trial chambers and heard the entire evidence of the charges that were leveled against the Nazi leadership. There were confessions by a number of the leaders including the man who was in charge of training the young boys who were members of Hitler Youth.
He was found guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced to a jail term of not less than twenty years. This was a major turning point for Alfons Heck who now fully realized that the men he had adored and served under had betrayed him and other Germans (Heck 108).
That was the moment he discovered the scale of murder, child abuse and the countless atrocities that had been unleashed on innocent people. That was when he started to dissociate himself with the Nazi ideology he had once revered. He began his long journey of ‘rehabilitation’ that took many years. Like Alfons, so many young Germans had been duped into believing that they were doing their country great service by joining these groups.
The way in which the Nuremberg trials were carried out elicited criticism since some argued that it imposed ex post- facto kind of justice which means; that the rules were created after the crimes were committed. Some said that it served as a catharsis for those who ‘won’ the war and needed to put people on trial to quench their hatred.
Despite the limitations of the process, the trials achieved some significant objectives which included; preventing a blood bath which would have been witnessed had the Nazis been tried in courts that would have afforded them very able defenses (Heck 262).
The accused parties were given more justice than they would have given if the tables were to be turned. The concept of individual accountability and personal responsibility was introduced and it helped dispel the notion that orders from superiors were to be followed at all costs (Heck 270).
After the trials, waging aggressive war was criminalized and a declaration of human rights was drafted and adopted. Despite a number of confusing sentences and acquittals, it could be concluded that justice was served. The messages that had been relayed through the media about certain groups of people being inferior to others had been rubbished. In comparison to the heavier sentences of those tried by the tribunal in Nuremberg, Alfons’ sentence looked like a slap on the wrist even though a chunk of his youth had been used negatively.
Heck, Alfons. The burden of Hitler’s legacy.New York: American Travellers Press, 1988.print.