The Problem of Peace
The North didn’t know what to do with the confederate leaders. They were pardoned by President Johnson in 1868 but did not remove the remaining civilian disabilities. The South is ruined. Economy collapsed. Business and factories closed. Transportation system broken down. Labor system collapsed (slavery ended). Southerners still defied the North. Freedmen Define Freedom.
The emancipation of slavery didn’t end everywhere right away. Some free blacks ended up back in slavery. Many free slaves joined the union army. Eventually all masters were forced to set their slaves free. Now free many slaves…traveled hoping to find their families. Found work in in towns and cities. Church became focus of black community life.
Education, reading and writing
Congress created the Freedmen’s Bureau on March 3, 1865 to help and provide free slaves with food, clothing, medical care, and education. They were authorized to give blacks land but not many actually did. They got blacks labor contracts to work for their former masters. The South disliked the The Freedmen’s Bureau because it upset the racial dominance of whites.
Johnson: The Tailor President
Never went to school at 10 he became an apprentice to a tailor in North Carolina. He became involved in politics in Tennessee and was eventually elected to congress. He became Lincoln’s vice president in 1864. He was the wrong man for the job when Lincoln died and he became president.
In 1863 Lincoln proposed his 10% Reconstruction Plan. A state would be reintegrated into the union if 10% of its voters take an Oath of Allegiance to the USA and said they would abide by emancipation. In 1864 Congress proposed the Wade-Davis Bill which said 50% of voters needed to take the Oath of Allegiance to the USA and said they would abide by emancipation. Lincoln vetoed it.
The Baleful Black Codes
Southern states trying to maintain a labor force imposed these codes on blacks that jumped their labor contracts so they could catch them and they would forfeit their wages and come back to work. Codes sought to restore the pre-emancipation system of race relations.
Southern states represented themselves in the capital in December of 1865 to claim their seats. Republican of congress infuriated. Without the southern senators they have been freely passing legislation to their advantage. Southern might try to join northern democrats and take control of the senate.
Johnson Clashes with Congress
Johnson vetoed a bill that would’ve extended the Freedmen’s Bureau. Republicans responded with the Civil Rights Bill to confer on blacks the privilege of American citizenship. Johnson vetoed this but then congress overruled it They made it the 14th amendment of the constitution.
Swinging ‘Round the Circle with Johnson
Johnson dedicated a Chicago monument to Stephen Douglas. Johnson was very successful for congress because of his bad speeches and the Republicans won more than two-thirds of the vote.
Republicans Principles and Programs
The republicans now had full control of the Reconstruction policy. A rapid restoration of the south was opposed to keep them out as long as possible to allow for social and economic transformation.
Reconstruction by the Sword
Many race riots happening in southern cities and congress passed the reconstruction act of 1867South divided into 5 military districts, each commanded by a Union general, it also disenfranchised thousands of former confederates. The act stopped short of giving freed slaves land or education at a federal expense. In 1869 Congress passed the 15th amendment that gave black suffrage.
No Women Voters
Women and blacks both lacked basic civil rights. The Women’s loyal League had gotten 400,000 signature to petition. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South. Many hesitated even the radicals to give suffrage to the freedmen. Black men gained their suffrage and formed the Union League – a pro union organization based in the North.14 blacks entered congress between 1868 and 1876 and blacks served in state gov’ts as governors and representatives and in local gov’ts. Radicals were taking steps at public schools and tax systems in the south. Women got property rights.
The Ku Klux Klan
Southern whites who opposed the radicals. Whites who resented the ability of black legislators. They would scare blacks from the polls. Congress was infuriated and passed the Force Acts of 1870 and 1871 Had a goal of white supremacy. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank. Radicals trying to get him out of power. Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act in 1867, this required that the president need consent before he could remove his appointees once they have been approved. They wanted Edwin M. Stanton to stay in the cabinet. Johnson dismissed Stanton in 1868 and they immediately voted to impeach him, charging him with various violations
A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson
The House of Representatives conducted the prosecution. They had a hard time building a compelling case for impeachment. They failed to get the two-thirds majority and impeach him. The Purchase of Alaska. The Russians in 1867 wanted to give Alaska to America. They wanted to further strengthen America as a barrier against their enemy Britain. In 1867 Secretary of State William Seward signed a treaty with Russia that gave Alaska to the USA for $7.2 million. The Heritage of Reconstruction. The South didn’t like reconstruction because it upset their social and racial system. They didn’t like the empowerment of blacks and federal intervention. Republicans never tried to make freed slaves completely independent citizens and it helped the south preserve their system of racial dominance. The Old South was more resurrected than reconstructed.
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