The ‘Peopling’ Process of Australia since 1788 with Influence of Racism Essay
After the arrival of the British colony in 1788, there has been a significant increase in the size of immigrants to Australia. In this regard, the statement that racism has dominated the “peopling” process of Australia is fair. The fact that the European law stipulated that a founder could claim any unused land enhances this reasoning.
The British arrival led to an increase in the conflicts between the original inhabitants, aborigines, and immigrants. The aborigines’ families occupying the land had their own system of traditional governance that was contrary to the British law. With these forms of differences that resulted from the arrival of immigrants, racism arose in the manner of governance and resource distribution in the country (Vasta & Castles 1996, p. 142).
Since the British were more powerful, they obtained multiple privileges and favor compared to their counterparts and the original inhabitants. Over time, these conflicts have continued and led to multiple negotiations in the search for the adoption of the indigenous people law into the existing law. Through the process of inhabiting the country, the immigrants and aborigines have displayed racism, which has influenced many aspects of the government.
Initially, at the arrival of the British, the aborigines suffered displacement from the productive parts of the country to the non-productive regions. This occurred despite the fact that the aborigines were the natives. Due to the civilization exhibited by the white immigrants, they subdivided the regions according to their needs and engaged in various economic activities.
The aborigines remained in the non-productive regions to engage in the traditional culture. The whites did not disseminate their civilization so that they could influence the aborigines. On this note, the whites concentrated on capitalist development and the search for profits in all the aspects of economic activity.
The whites, as masters who had authority, gave directives and conditions to the aborigines regarding the working procedures (Low 2002, p. 48). Additionally, the aborigines suffered, as they had to work under non-conducive environments without any pay. In this regard, the indigenous people did not have access to multiple resources inclusive of the freedom of movement. This forced the aborigines to practice their traditional culture in order to survive.
As Australia became popular in most parts of the world, the immigrants from Asia, Africa and the pacific islanders increased. The whites used their superiority to exploit and oppress these other immigrants. They adopted these immigrants and used them as laborers in their economic institutions.
This further upheld their capitalist culture and promoted their superiority complex across the country. In this regard, they formulated policies, which ensured that they received maximum respect and loyalty from the non-whites. Additionally, considering the civilization standards and technological power, they surpass both the natives and their counterparts.
Due to the fear of excommunication or punishment directed to the non-whites, most people became submissive and obeyed all orders. This notion enhanced the superiority complex of the whites with regard to the access of multiple resources.
As time progressed, the aborigines endured more undermining through the displacement from the non-productive regions as they had valuable resources. On this note, the aborigines as well as the non-whites did not have the chance to settle. They suffered forceful working in the mining industries. The exploitation became prevalent and any incidence of upheaval was tackled to avoid any further attempts. During this period, the non-whites as well as the aborigines gained low wages and worked in considerably un-conducive environments.
The legal system of the country favored the rights of the whites while undermining the non-whites. As witnessed from the increase in the number of the immigrants and aborigines, the whites ensured that they received minimal levels of education as to warrant literacy. Similarly, from the low wages gained, they could not access multiple social amenities that would have improved their standards of living (Lyons & Russell, 2005, p. 98).
Furthermore, the fact they were limited to access urban areas promoted the need to confine them in reserves to prevent any access to information. On this note, the non-whites had to obtain authority from the whites in order to conduct any social or economical practice like marriage or the selling of property. This practice was considerably detrimental to the rights of the non-whites under oppression for capitalist sake.
In the event that half-cast children were born between the whites and the non-whites, they gained minimal privileges to obtain low levels of education that would enable them work as subordinates for the whites. Under this position, they obtained low wages and benefits. They were not equal to the whites.
In terms of the social amenities like the health care system, the non-whites lacked such chances and their infancy and senior’s mortality rates were considerably high. The need for such practices was to ensure they did not surpass the whites in terms of power and number.
Overtime, the new immigrants’ rights to obtain Australian citizenship was restricted. The adoption of the immigration act, which solely allowed the whites to become citizens, facilitated this cause. With this policy, the number of the immigrants from Asia, Africa and the pacific islands considerably declined.
This facilitated the prevention of the dissemination of knowledge, which would have lead to uprisings for the workers’ rights in terms of pay and working conditions (Welsh, 1996, p. 58). For those who had acquired citizenship, the concerned authorities prohibited the right to vote or participate in any crucial government activity. As a result, the whites could control the non-whites and receive maximum attention to warrant their capitalist development.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the whites realize the need to relax their stringent laws, which promoted racism provisions. Nevertheless, the complete elimination of racism was unsuccessful since the superiority complex among the whites was still rampant. The low access of the aborigines and non-whites to employment benefits demonstrated this scenario.
Moreover, all the other institutions lead by the whites still displayed the monoculture prevalent among the whites. For the non-whites, especially from Asia and the pacific islands, the whites’ mono- culture lead to minimal assimilation as witnessed from their retention of the original languages other than English.
After the end of the Second World War, the whites once again had to relaxed their policies and laws to reduce the level of oppression against the non-whites. The need for labor after the war in order to continue with the capitalist goals promoted this fact. In this regard, the government attempted to assimilate all the cultures to the white Australians’ culture to enhance equality and economic growth.
The promotion of the Australian nationalism among all the cultures in the country facilitated this cause (Berra & M 1998, p. 75). Nevertheless, the aborigines remained a marginalized community since they continued to stay in the reserves where they had little access to education and resources.
During this period, the working conditions improved and all Australians had similar access to employment benefits. For the aborigines, they still became victims of discriminations since their practices remained traditional and had not fully embraced the civilization initiated by the whites.
At the start of the 1960’s, the federal government identified the need for equality among all its citizens and restructured its policies and laws to accommodate various cultures in the country. Despite this effort, some states still became adamant to the changes and promoted inequality through discrimination against the aborigines.
The practices perpetuated by the leaders in power influenced government policies. Some of the rampant practices included the denial of employment benefits and access to other social amenities for the aborigines. Repeatedly, the aborigines had low access to education and this contributed to their vulnerability to such vices. Concerning the seniors, their employment benefits suffered reduction to limit their access to the most basic social necessities.
After all the states had adopted the federal government of equality for all, the aborigines remained the victims of circumstances since they have not been civilized fully. Most of the individuals in power are the whites who have considerable influence on any social changes that occur within the government.
Nevertheless, the assimilation of the aborigines to the white Australians, in most states, has remained immense. As a result, they have had influence on the government to the extent of realizing a coalition government, which address most of the inequalities. The coalition government, specifically the labor government, has aimed to resolve the aborigine problem and facilitate their assimilation among the people of the country (Berra & M 1998, p. 114).
Due to the negative attitude possessed by the whites in government towards the aborigines, any opportunity that presents to them exploits their rights while promoting the whites interests. In this regard, it shows the level of disparity that still exists towards the inferior group on matters of addressing capitalists interests.
For both the aborigines and the non-whites, the whites still blame them on matters of the government failure to address the nationwide issues. From the increase in job insecurity, low wages and poor working conditions for all Australians, the non-whites take this blame due to the competition they have created leading to further discriminations against them.
As indicated by the mortality rates of the aborigines held in custody unlike other citizens, it reveals the extent of discrimination attributed to them. Similarly, the aborigines are mainly the victims of crime due to the economic challenges that they suffer and the low literacy levels. Thus, poverty and suffering will invariably hinder their change towards better living standards.
Most of the individuals in the government not form the aborigines’ community continue to victimize the aborigines due the belief of their supremacy. This is depicted in the mortality rates of the aborigines who die 20 years younger than the other Australians (Low 2002, p. 98).Additionally, they are imprisoned 20 times more than the non-native Australians. In this regard, they receive minimal levels of education, which hamper their living standards.
Finally, considering the diversity of the Australian culture since 1788, people have continually changed and assimilated new cultures. Through this process, racism has been the main concern over the conformation to equality. However, the people have accepted the prevailing conditions and formed the new culture of white Australians.
Berra, T. M 1998, A natural history of Australia. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Low, T 2002, Feral future: the untold story of Australia’s exotic invaders, University of Chicago Press ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lyons, M., & Russell, P 2005, Australia’s history: themes and debates. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, NSW.
Vasta, E., & Castles, S 1996, The teeth are smiling: the persistence of racism in multicultural Australia. Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, NSW.
Welsh, F 1996, Australia: a new history of the great southern land. Overlook Press, Woodstock, NY.
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