Technology and Colonization: Columbus Discovers the ‘New World’ Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Christopher Columbus was a colonizer, explorer, and navigator. He was born in the republic of Italy (Gies & Gies, 1995).He was one of the greatest explorers of the 15th century from Europe. He managed to complete four journeys across the Atlantic Ocean. He is credited for having discovered the American continent.

The mission to the discovery of the new world was enhanced by the ruler of Spain in 1492. He was given three ships, 90 crewmen and all the supplies needed for him to succeed in his mission (Gies & Gies, 1995). Since he had all the requirements needed to succeed in his mission, he managed to sail across the Atlantic Ocean several times.

As much as he did not know where he had landed, he managed to reach the shores of Florida in 1492. He discovered the American continent and decided to develop a small colony in 14 93 (Gies & Gies, 1995). He is therefore known for highlighting the existence of Americas to the Europeans.

During this era of Columbus, several European nations were fully established. Most of these nations had embarked on increasing their spheres of influence through acquisition of new territories (Gies & Gies, 1995). Direct colonization was one of the ways through which the Europeans boosted their influence.

The spirit of colonization was enhanced by the struggle for supremacy and the increased technological advancements that were witnessed in the 15th century (Gies & Gies, 1995).

To begin with, the Europeans had advanced in the ship making skills. They had managed to develop huge ships that could carry many people on board. These ships were also able to cruise on the surface of water for quite a number of months (Gies & Gies, 1995). This is a major technological advancement that enabled the Europeans to reach distant lands.

Furthermore, the increased knowledge in navigation skills offered them a basis to advance their expeditions foreign nations. They had already understood the working principles of the compass. They also drew maps and trained many people in navigation skills (Gies & Gies, 1995). The availability of these resources and the personnel made it possible for the Europeans to increase their exploration and discovery of new lands.

The ships were also mounted with canons and other war artilleries (Gies & Gies, 1995). This increased the safety of sea voyage. International waters became safe since the ships could no longer be stolen by pirates.

The gun and gun powder were major technological advancements during the 15th century. These components made it easier for the Europeans to concur and colonize the inhabitants of the new lands that were discovered (Gies & Gies, 1995). During this time, gun technology had been adopted after several years of advancement. Guns were used by the Europeans to manage large crowds with small numbers of soldiers.

The canons were also advanced (Gies & Gies, 1995). The use of gun powered machines increased efficiency during attacks. The latter were treated as weapons of mass destruction. The sizes of the stone throwing tools were also significantly reduced. The stones were also replaced by the huge iron balls. This increased the mass and strength of the balls and thus this type of tool became a deadly weapon during this era.

The discovery of the explosive bombs that allowed clearance of large areas during the 14th century was also another technological advancement that enhanced colonization (Gies & Gies, 1995).

In conclusion, the agrarian revolution that resulted into large scale farming and mechanization of the farming practices pushed the Europeans to search for more lands for farming. Moreover, they needed additional more raw materials for their new industries.


Gies, F. & Gies, J. (1995). Cathedral, Forge and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.

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