Story Structure of Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien
When we look at the Hobbit, we can see that Tolkien tries to take reader’s especially children’s attention and teach some values to them by using some techniques in language of the novel such as binary opposition, rhyme, rhythm, description of main character. Also Tolkien describes the main character in order to shape his plot and it reflects message he would like to give to reader. So, it is said that, Tolkien influences to readers in a good way by giving main idea with good and remarkable use of language in the novel. When we analyse the plot, we tries to find out deep meaning under the plot and character.
As many important writers use, Tolkien uses binary opposition in his work of Hobbit because he tries to convey meaning with the help of opposition. Using the opposites makes the giving message more compensable. His main purpose is to make meaningful structure with the help of binary opposition because binary opposition complement each other so; he gives his messages to reader. Namely Tolkien uses good and evil as a binary opposition in Hobbit. Many characters in the hobbit show good and evil aspects. Bilbo Baggins and his friends fight to Goblin, big spider, elves, trolls and big dragon. All of them are evil character because they are against the good character. We can see example of good and evil in some of chapter. For example, Goblins are the main evil character in the novel. In chapter fourth, we see that Dwarves against Goblins. They are on the road but the way is not safety and full of difficulties and the come across Goblins and Goblins take all dwarves and Bilbo goblins prisoner. Great Goblin asks him why they are doing here but one of the dwarves tell a lie. After, Goblin does not believe and kills some of the dwarves. As far as we understand the chapter, Goblin is evil character. Another evil character is Smaug, who is giant dragon. The Giant dragon is against the good character in the novel. Another binary opposition in the book is hero against villain. We obviously understand that Bilbo demonstrates heroic qualities. He fight with spiders and he rescued his friends from them. He has some qualities and it makes him a hero. For example, The writer shows us Bilbo as a self sacrifice and brave character. Bilbo rescues his friends from danger and take some risk. So, Bilbo Baggins sacrifices his life and fights the big spider.
So, Bilbo as a hero fights the villains. Moreover, Bilbo Baggins have wisdom which helps to rescue his friends from villains. So, Bilbo is the brave, helpful and clever characteristic and against the villains in the novel and all these makes him hero. The novel focuses on the binary opposition on the characters such as; Villain vs. Hero, good vs. evil. So, we understand that a fight for good vs. evil, heroes vs. villains reflects the form of novel. As a conclusion, by using this binary opposition, he tries to make more understandable to novel, gives the main ideas like the world is full of good vs. evil, hero and villain and we learn aspects of good and evil characteristic so, it gives a form to novel. Tolkien uses the Bilbo Baggins character to express the meaning and gives good messages so; it finds out the structure of the hobbit. Tolkien did that with the help of contrast characteristic to main character Bilbo. ‘’The identity of each character is what makes each of them an individual and it determines who they are and who others in the story see them as. In the story of “The Hobbit”, each character takes on a specific characteristic. In each of these characters identity on the surface is decided more by their race, family and their past rather than anything else in the beginning of the story. By making definite choices each character comes to define their own fate and challenge their own destiny and the outcome of their adventure. ‘’ (Bennett, 2015)
At the beginning of the story, Bilbo shows domestic features. He is at home and has no adventure and he goes on life as comfy. Also he is timid character. He just does something at home. We see that he gives importance to ethical behaviours and respect. When somebody comes his home, he tries to do best. So, we know Bilbo with some feminine qualities. Bilbo’s thoughts, feelings and actions shape its plot so his characterizations change from beginning to ending. Bilbo is the perfect example to show that ordinary person can become a hero. When we read the book of Hobbit, Bilbo character grows through the book. His characterization is developing thanks to some valuable duty like being thief. While the story is progressing, Bilbo changes his characteristics but it is not intentionally. These chancing is not happen suddenly. At the beginning while he face to face Trolls, he would like to do his duty but he fear from them. Later, Bilbo fights against the villains and take some courage after beat them.
So, Bilbo converts to brave from coward. When Bilbo steals the cup from the dragon he does his duty and it shows he is brave and a true thief. When we analysis the Bilbo character in these examples, obviously we see that, Bilbo character changes from beginning to ending. One of the example of Bilbo’s character chancing is game of riddles. Bilbo solves the riddle and according to result of riddle Bilbo lives or dies. Thanks to Bilbo good at riddle and his intelligence he rescues. So, this example shows us Bilbo get more self confident. Namely, Bilbo’s characterization changes from lack of self confident to become self confident, so Bilbo’s chancing character changes the structure of novel at the same time. Bilbo’s characteristic of being brave and self sacrifice comes out when he fight the spiders and rescue the dwarves. Bilbo task is to save the dwarves and kill the spiders. Also, Bilbo’s warrior characteristics grow up when he fights and kills many spiders. Bilbo’s noticeable characteristic growth when he steals a cup from Smog. He becomes a perfect thief. We all considered, Tolkien identifies to Bilbo Baggins as dynamic, round and main character at the end of the story although he identifies as a static, flat and main character at the beginning. So, Bilbo’s characterization changes because the writer would like to point out the main idea and structure of novel gives us a message like everybody has a power inside them and they can find out accidentally. The characterization depicts the people in the society and some good, hidden qualities makes people change. We said that Tolkien tries to take attention, teach some values and give the main idea thanks to some techniques so; one of them is using rhyme and rhythms. In the beginning of the novel, thirteen dwarves comes to Bilbo’s home and they introduce themselves. Their names are like a riddle and consist some similar letter like; Dwalin, Balin, Kili, Fili, Dori, Nori, Ori, Oin, Gloin, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur and Thorin. These names show us Tolkien would like to take attention. For example, Bilbo feels strong and decides to save dwarves from spiders and Tolkien takes children attention to point out that goodness and good people will win by using a song with rhythms and rhymes. Bilbo starts to sing a song about spiders to make them follow him and save the dwarves from them. Dwarves get rid of spiders and Bilbo becomes hero. Firstly, Tolkien takes the children’s attention and provides that children focus on the story much more by using a song. Also writer gives importance to onomatopoeic sounds. For instance, Thorin and Gandalf ring the bell ‘ding-dong, a ling dong’. After that, Tolkien gives the story, the situation and children can realise goodness and its winnings. Namely, the writer gives the meaning with the help of language devices.
As a conclusion, when we analyse the structure of Hobbit, Tolkien’s main purpose is to create strong impact gives the messages so, some process which is binary opposition, rhyme, rhythm and identifying the main character in the novel gives form to the Hobbit. We see that Tolkien uses binary opposition such as good vs. evil, hero vs. villains and he gives the general meaning and teach us moral and values idea. Also we learn that how to treat good character or evil character so, the structure connects the meaning. Also, hero vs. villain in the story helps to understand the features of hero and villain and the reader realize the general structure of the novel. Tolkien also uses the main character, who is Bilbo Baggins, as a device to teach the importance of being brave, warrior and self confident so; the writer gives the main idea. The writer calls attention to reader by using rhyme and rhythm. Tolkien makes that children comprehend the story much more by using a song. Thus, Tolkien gives the story, the situation and children can realise goodness and its winnings. Shortly, Tolkien provides the main idea more stable and lasting with the structure of novel and he influences to reader deeply with the help of using language in the novel.
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