Socrates a revolutionary thinker
Socrates was known as the father of western philosophy. His new ways of thinking had brought a revolutionary change in ancient Greece; His studies had transformed people view of philosophy. Socrates radical ways of thinking had made him both popular and unpopular among the citizens of Athens.
After his death, philosophers debated if Socrates theory were ever the act of a wise man spreading logic and reason or was he a madman spreading false wisdom. According to the article Twilight of idols Fredrich Nietzsche, he criticizes Socrates traditional philosophy. Friedrich Nietzsche was a 19th-century German philosopher who throughout his career, he has published numerous works of philosophy including the two principal articles” Twilight of Idols” and “Thus Spoke Zarathustra.” Nietzsche tries to attempt to reveal the motives that underlie traditional western philosophy in the twilight of idols. He uses Twilight of idols to debates Socrates last words, comparing his ideal of health to Plato/Socrates, and his critique of metaphysics.
Nietzsche Twilight of idols to debates Socrates last words. Before Socrates death, he said: to livethat means to be sick a long time: I owe Asclepius the Savior a rooster (Socrates 1). Asclepius is the god of healing and one pays with the rooster after being cure of illness. In his last words, Socrates implies that life is a disease only cured by death. Socrates concluded that he was tormented by sickness of living. However, Nietzsche argues that such a perspective on life is only revealing different kind of life but not life itself. He believed that Socrates sickness played a factor in his search for the value of life as opposition to give value to his life. Nietzsche states we should give value to our lives based on our passions compared to an objectively set standard for the need good is what we should go for since Nietzsche explains value of life cannot be estimated(Socrates 2). He also claims that objective judgement that concern life made by Socrates are false accusations influenced by symptoms of his condemned life. According to Nietzsche, Socrates has lived a life of such decadent. A corrupt leader who instinct of decadent was a natural impulse. That is to say it would be better to live a life not worth living such as the one Socrates had lived . Overall Nietzsche views Socrates as a sick unhappy man that wished for death.
In Twilight of idols Nietzsche criticizes his perspective of health versus Socrates/Plato of health. Socrates last words defined his idea of the health and virtue of the human soul. According to Socrates to contain the health of the soul, one must fight against all bodily pleasures and urges. So, when Socrates stated that to live means to be sick a long time (Socrates 2) he was implying that throughout his life he had to fight consistently for the purification of his soul until death. Socrates believed that the soul was immortal, so he explained that death is not the end of the soul existence, but soul separating from the body. Throughout the centuries many philosophers have debated Socrates theory on purification of the soul. For instance, following in his teacher’s footsteps, Plato fully believed in the soul being immortal and argued the importance of keeping the soul pure. He believed that we would be reward not only in life but reward after death if we followed purification of the soul. Plato also argue how our bodily pleasures taints the purification of our soul. However, some philosophers like Nietzsche would disagree with Socrates theory about the health of the human soul. Philosopher Nietzsche claims Socrates to be a sick man who went against the instinct of life. He states Socrates as a sick corrupt leader that tries to estimate the value of life by labeling it good. Nietzsche also concluded that all philosophers who say life is useless shows a sickness that has clouded their judgment (Socrates 2). He believes that we cannot estimate the value of life; therefore, we cannot judge the value of life for it is meaningless. So, while Plato and Socrates agree to keep the soul healthy one must spend their life resisting their bodily urges until cured by death. Nietzsche disagrees with both philosophers saying Socrates theory of the soul will only spread sickness among philosophers and is foolish.
Nietzsche’s uses the article Twilight of Idols to express his critique of metaphysics. Nitezch’s claim that Socrates last dying words were based more on reason oppose to instinct. He believed that through the power of reason he could gain control over his body .Socrates belief in the authority of reason came from his idea of being. This idea of being came from the belief in the metaphysical world versus the physical world. Metaphysical world is the invisible world of mind and ideas compare to the physical world that is a visible world of sight and things seen. Metaphysicians made a moral judgment against these two different. They believed the metaphysical world to be good and immortal because of its goodness. But metaphysicians judge the visible world to be evil and flawed. Nietzsche’s question why the physical world should be degraded compared to the metaphysical world. He stated the metaphysical world was thought to be permanent and stable enteral reality with no change. Compared to the physical world which was constantly changing and transforming known as the becoming. Nietzsche concluded that since the metaphysical world was stable and permanent reality that it was consider good because the physical world was always changing it was considered to be consider evil. Nietzsche only believed there to be physical world that is true and logical compare to Metaphysical world that is just an illusion. He believes the invisible world was created for one to secret escaped from the pain and suffering of visible world.
Socrates was a revolutionary thinker that had changed the ways of common beliefs in western philosophy. Socrates philosophy has caused many philosophy to debate over his theories. Philosopher Fredrich Nietzsche used this article Twilight of the Idols to debate Socrates traditional western philosophy. Based on his last words, Nietzsche believed Socrates was a sick man who truly believed that life was a disease only cured by death. Socrates last word also indicate his idea of the virtue and health of the human soul. He believed that fighting his instincts would keep his soul healthy and pure. However, Nietzsche argues that fighting our instinct goes against our human nature, therefore, making it an unhealthy belief. Besides criticizes the health of the human soul, Nietzsche also points out that the metaphysical world is an illusion for people like Socrates to escape reality because the physical world is only the actual real world.
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