Sigmund Freud’s Theory Notes Essay
The Anatomy of Mental Personality
Generally, the ego is considered to be an objective issue. On the other hand, it is recognized to be the so-called control center of a persons’ mind. The super-ego it’s considered to be a special mechanism in a person’s mind which is mostly associated with an internal judge. The super-ego is over the ego and controls and punishes the objective issue with numerous unpleasant emotions.
There is also an opinion that it is the super-ego, which causes heightened self-esteem. Both subjects of discussion are unconscious, so, a person doesn’t notice the contents of his/her sense of self-esteem or self-importance. The id is considered to be the most primitive element of every human. A person is born with two basic instincts, which are divided into life instinct and the death instinct.
The first type is called eros, while the second one got the name Thanatos. Id can’t exist without both issues. The combination of the id, ego, and superego influences a person’s behavior in various situations. In other words, the three points play an important part in the development of the personality.
The mechanisms of defense are also rather important. Thus, repression is recognized to be one of the earliest stages of condemnation. In other words, entrance into the conscious is hindered. However, on the other hand, the instinctual person’s relation to the unconscious is not denied.
Repression-resistances separated an important objective issue from the id; although repression establishes more connections with other parts of the id. As far as the way of forming substitutes differs from repression formation, it is obvious, that the earliest stage of condemnation acts in different ways. A withdrawal of libido is considered to be a typical feature of repression.
Remembering, Repeating and Working Through
One of the most interesting psychological phenomena is the paradox of memory. Thus, childhood memories are often difficult to remember; while various unimportant memories are always in a person’s mind. They appear spontaneously and sometimes can be related to haunting memories.
However, one of the most important points which can be used to explain the screen memories is the contradiction between defense mechanisms of a person’s mind and the instinctual desires. For this reason, parapraxia is based on a person’s unsatisfied dreams. In other words, the products of the unconscious (errors, jokes, etc.) appear due to the work of the screen memory.
The actions which are based on such desires are indirectly related to the conscious, so, the conflict between the two issues is reduced. So, the creation of a compromise is recognized to be a key point, which is of great significance for the contrary feelings. The memories can be aggressive, erotic, etc., but they come from the depths of a person’s mind.
The repetition is considered to be the way of transference of the past. When a person is afraid of his/her pastor thinks that the past can be disclosed, he/she comprehends the morbid events as certain actions, i.e., a person repeats associations, but not the memories. In this case, repetition replaces remembering. The handling of the transference is one of the most reliable ways to influence a person’s memories.
A doctor shouldn’t show his/her resistance to a person as a process of treatment can become more difficult. The most important point is that a person needs time to study, analyze or investigate the resistance, to work through it, to use the basic rules of psychoanalysis to overcome the problem. The part of work causes the process of reexamination.
Civilization and the Individual
The principal aim of individual development is to get pleasure from various activities. In other words, the issue of happiness is considered to be one of the most important for a human being. However, there are altruistic and egoistic conceptions, which are the primary points a person is to consider to achieve his/her main aim.
For this reason, integration into a human community is a significant factor a person is to keep in mind. The principal aim of civilization development is to establish unity beyond the individual. Thus, the issue of happiness is considered to be the secondary aim of a developmental process. So, in other words, if one neglects the individual’s happiness, a community will flourish.
However, the important point is that civilization appeared due to a human. Each person looks for pain and pleasure. It means that a person’s inherent characteristic is egoism; thereby, civilization exists based on self-interest as the foundation of morality. Of course, the super-ego of both issues is similar. The cultural super-ego is also related to the development of the individual; however, there is an agreement between the two subjects, which states certain ideal demands.
The heading of ethics is the key point in interpersonal relations. People value ethics as they hope their expectations will be come up. On the other hand, there are changes in persons’ interactions, which are more important than various ethical principles.
Another important question is the interdependence between persons’ cultural development and their appetency to destroy the community they live in. On the other hand, the issue of self-destruction is still to be discussed.
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