Psychological Observation of Arthur Miller and His Work
Introduction And Data Analysis
Arthur is a 12-year-old adolescent who was referred by his parents at the request of his teacher to determine his current cognitive and emotional status. Arthur is described as having a recent history of poor school performance, a decline in organizational skills, increased fatigue, difficulty focusing, and a decrease in grades. As per the American Psychological Association guidelines, because Arthur is under the age of 18, consent was obtained from his mother before collecting information from his school and their background information. Through verbal disclosure and a Parent Response Form-Adolescent (RFA), it was reported that Arthur averages 6 hours of sleep nightly, and he suffered a severe head injury with in the last year. Arthur’s mother noted instability within the parent-child structure resulting in mood changes, arguments, and behaviors. Arthur’s teacher provided a reported through the form of Teacher Response Form-Adolescent (TRFA). She states he displays consistent inattentiveness, overactivity, impulsivity, anxiousness, and uncooperative behaviors during class. His teacher identified that he demonstrates difficulty with peer relationships, comprehension of class material, and being able to complete homework accordingly.
Arthur is the only child living in the home with both biological parents. Arthurs’ birth is described as normal. However, his mother reported that he received a severe head concussion around age eleven. Also, she stated that he continually stays awake until after midnight. She also says that she was a stay at home mom until approximately a year ago when she returned to fulltime work outside the home. The past year is when his Arthurs teachers and parents reported an increase in behaviors, and he began struggling with his academic performance and proper social functioning. Arthur’s parents say that they have tried everything, and with no avail, their relationship with him consistently remains strained, and he is often the most confrontational with his father.
To determine if Arthur’s situation is due to mental health, medical injury, or possibly both, there will be further evaluations, intervention, and then a re-evaluation. This process will be completed using the dynamic assessment model. (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Once there are more conclusive results, Arthur and his parents will be provided with the results and treatment plan. (American Psychological Association, 2019). A meeting with Arthur and his parents will the first step in this evaluation. While substantial issues are being reported during school, it is also essential for Arthur to have a stable support system at home. The primary focus will be repairing the family relationship and developing coping skills for both parents and Arthur. At this point, his parents will be made aware of the APA code of ethics, in addition to being reassured that their family’s privacy and confidentiality is of the utmost importance. His parents will have an opportunity to sign a Release of Information (ROI). This document is permitting his test results to be provided to the individual’s named on the ROI.
Avoidance was observed during achievement testing; Arthur avoided spelling words by using the reasoning that it would take too long to write them out. This behavior confirms the low-test scores during his written and oral examination. Arthurs testing conditions were not the best to receive accurate results. Arthur came to test, appearing fatigued, anxiousness, and with the mindset that he was always in trouble, so he was being tested to see if he was crazy. This coupled with the BASC2 (used for ages 2 ½ -18), the Parents Response form completed by one parent, not both and returned results of impulsiveness, uncontrollable behaviors, disruptiveness resulting in possible hyperactivity disorder, however, he is in the normal range for age-appropriate conduct and anger. The Teachers Response form completed by Mrs. Math revealed that there was a consistent need for the excessive amount of time to start assignments, continual distraction towards peers, leaving the classroom without permission, and high disregard for the rules. These reports compared to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (Text Revision) (DSMIV-TR). This diagnostic manual suggested that Arthur may fall in higher than the normal range for the general population for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
The observations received from outside sources included the JW-III Classroom Behavior Observation, a three-part form, the BASC2 Behavior Assessment Rating Scales, a two-part form, and the WISC-IV Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth addition. In addition, the WIAT-II Wechsler Achievement Test second addition, the Statistical Manual Text Revision, and a Parent Response questioner were incorporated into Arthur’s results. The recommendation came from Arthur’s teacher for evaluation; however, her substitute teacher Ms. E. completed the JW-III form. The instructions for the JW-III are to record tasks every 30 seconds, observe and record situations, and classroom behaviors. Ms. E marked that the test recording was taken during the part of the day that Arthur was most commonly noted as being disruptive in class; these situations are most widely noted around 1:00 pm. In the short time given for the observation, fifteen minutes, the teacher did document Arthur displaying moments of inattentiveness, impulsiveness, overactive, and being off-task. However, this assessment does not show consistent documentation of every thirty seconds, along with no consistent situations, behaviors, or task documented. Arthurs scores showed an average of double in comparison to normal classroom behavior.
The addition to the JW-III, Parents Background Information, Parent Response Form for Adolescents, and the Teacher Response form for Adolescents, the WIAT-II, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th Edition (WISC-IV) provided results for Arthur of above-average at a 112 in Verbal Communication. He received an average score of 82 for his Written Language and an 82 for his Oral Language. Arthur is reading results were below average with a score of 75. Mathematics was in the average range at 96. The area of Applied Problem Solving and Sentence Writing and Fluency he placed at an average to above average with a score of 108 and 114. There is a breakdown of each individual area that was tested, including the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ-IV), the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement 3rd Edition (KTEA-III), and the Behavior Assessment Rating Scales for Children 2nd Edition (BASC2)if need to get his cumulative results. (Southern New Hampshire University, 2019)
The test provided scores that ranged from 90 to 109 for an average range. The WIAT-II and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—4th Edition (WISC-IV) with results showing Arthur having scored a 112 for Verbal Comprehension with low to average scores of 82 for Written Language and 82 for Oral Language. He scored low in reading at a 75. Mathematics was average with a 96. In the areas of Applied Problem and Sentence Writing, Fluency, he scored a 108 and a 114. There are additional test scores to evaluate from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ-IV) provide Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement—3rd Edition (KTEA-III; selected subtest), Behavior Assessment Rating Scales for Children—2nd Edition (BASC-2). (Southern New Hampshire University, 2019) The guide provided to determine what level Arthur was at was based on the testing standard of a score between 90 and 109 is average for adolescents.
Benefits And Limitations
The BASC-2 is designed to provide assessments of Adaptive and Maladaptive behaviors. It is used for disorders that become apparent in children and as a tool to evaluate behavioral and emotional statues. This tool is often used to develop Individual Education Programs (IEPs) for children who require additional help during daily activities such as bussing, academics, and social interactions. The BASC-2 is used to differentiate emotional disturbances such as anger, control, social disorders, depression, learning, and attention problems. While parents and teachers are the two primary contacts that spend most of every day with the child, they can unintentionally make a child feel as if they are inadequate in their abilities. When a child is comfortable with a person, they tend to stop worrying about getting in trouble and act naturally. When a child is introduced to a new person (evaluator), they tend to be nervous and alert to their new surroundings. The parent and teacher portion of the testing is of the utmost importance; however, it may also have caused Arthur to have not tried his best during testing. With a preconceived notion, this can hold a person back, producing inaccurate test results. In Arthur’s case, he was aware he was going in to be tested and had a preconceived notion as to what his diagnoses would be.
Arthur was referred to as the testing process by his parents and his teacher. There was a deep concern for his ability to learn based on his inability to maintain during home and school settings. Arthur is a 12-year-old adolescent who resides with both biological parents and has no siblings. He had suffered a severe head injury with in the last year, and currently, Arthur averages 6 hours of sleep nightly. His parents disclosed instability within the parent-child structure resulting in mood changes and arguments. Arthur has a recent history of poor school performance, a decline in organizational skills, increased fatigue, difficulty focusing, and a decrease in grades. (Southern New Hampshire University, 2019)
Arthur received a varied of assessments, including BASC2, WIATT-II, DSM-TR, WISC-IV, and the JW-III. The evaluations that provided results for his written/oral language, mathematics, reading, and reasoning/thinking skill levels he scored at or above age appropriateness. For the assessments that tested his skill on individual results for reading written, oral, and mathematics skills, he scored below average. Arthur dismissed his written and verbal skills when asked to perform them in a task. Arthur’s teacher and parents provided assessments directed towards his emotional, attentiveness, and behavioral wellbeing daily. The results of these assessments were compared against the DSM-TR and resulted in a need for further testing and observation for a possible Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. The information compared to the DSM-TR was provided by Arthurs mother and teacher and the results that rated him in the average to high-risk categories of conduct, hyperactivity, working well with others, study skills, learning problems, functional communication. (Southern New Hampshire University., 2019)
During the initial meeting, Arthur appeared to have a preset mind that he was being thought of as crazy, and these tests were to prove it. This seemed to hinder his ability to provide his full attentiveness when testing. I recommend that Arthur’s age be a consideration, and he is to receive a detailed description as to what the test is for and what the results would mean. Arthur’s environmental comfortableness should be considered when he is given the tests again. Children can appear to be comfortable in a situation, and internally they are struggling to keep up an appearance. Arthur will need to provide a self-assessment and then the results along with psychologist test results, so he can feel more aware of why decisions are being made on his behalf. Most importantly, Artur is 12 years old, and he can self-advocate for what he feels is happening and what he would like help to overcome. Children often are aware of their actions, and they are just not able to verbalize their needs. I recommend beginning this process by addressing his parent’s concerns as a family and recommend a sleep study so they could move to alleviate his sleeping issues. Then as a family, work on avenues to regulate his emotional, behavioral, and social functioning effectively.
Throughout this psychological report, there have been significant observations, assessments, and tests provided. There are multiple situations, environments, and various people that supplied these results. They are all very similarities regarding academics and behaviors, and this information is a great starting point to branch out from to be able to provide a potential diagnosis. There is a need to obtain further information from Arthurs farther and all his teachers before completing a definite diagnosis. Throughout the process, I have learned that there are many steps to achieving a diagnosis. I have also learned that people’s frustration can start the steps in what is possibly a helpful situation later; however, providing accurate documentation during these times of frustration can lead to a missed diagnosis.
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Introduction And Data Analysis Arthur is a 12-year-old adolescent who was referred by his parents at the request of his teacher to determine his current cognitive and emotional status. Arthur […]