Philosophy: “The Gay Science” by Friedrich Nietzsche Report (Assessment)
Analysis of Post-Darwinian / genealogical / Trans moral descriptive
Darwin gave the world his famous book On the Origin of Species, in which he tried to trace the genealogy of some species and which made a revolution in the world of science. Many people accepted his point of view. The science of evolution split into pre and post Darwinian, which shows the great influence of this work.
Analysis of romanticism
Romanticism was a cultural phenomenon that originated in Europe at the end of the 18th century. It influenced such spheres of culture as art, poetry, philosophy. It started its development after the industrial revolution and it added some new ideas to the world of culture. Emotions became the main source of gaining aesthetic experience.
Role/function for pain/evil
The philosopher underlines the preserving role of pain and evil for the further survival of humanity. He denies distinct differentiation between good and evil, stating the fact that evil and pain constantly influence peoples development, fomenting passion and struggle for consolidation and survival. It is an absolutely vital part of human life. “Double pain is easier to bear than single pain. Do you accept my dare?” (Nietzsche 49).
The nature of human consciousness
Nietzsche describes consciousness as the highest level of development of everything which is alive. He also calls it the main reason for all errors of humanity, which can even lead to its death, making people full. “Sharp and mild, rough and fine, strange and familiar impure and clean, a place where fool and sage convene: all this I am and wish to mean, dove as well as snake and swine.” (Nietzsche 45).
Individual and the movement of history
The author underlines the great influence of individuality on history. Nietzsche states, that it can appear only in the struggle as the highest result of it. However, he says that this individual is a result of some events in history, which formed this individuality. “Never ask. Why cry and shake? Please, I ask you, simply take!” (Nietzsche 47).
The nature of the organic
Nietzsche warns people of taking this world as a living being or as a machine. He stresses the chaotic character of the universe. He neglects the existence of laws of nature created by man, saying that just some necessity exists, which predetermines the development of organic and live in our world. “‘To all of nature true!’ – how does he plan? Would nature fit an image made by man?” (Nietzsche 65).
The problem of anthropomorphizing
The philosopher does not see any sense in giving some qualities of a living being to our world. He underlines the fact that the world does not obtain such qualities as wisdom, beauty, order, and form. They are just our attempt to anthropomorphize it. The world is chaotic and it is its main definition. “The smallest piece of world is infinite” (Nietzsche 65).
Difference between knowledge and the truth
Nietzsche differentiates these two notions, underlining the more universal character of knowledge. It does not depend on its degree of truth, it just exists. However, the notion of truth is very subjective, as one thing can be both true and false for different people. He even calls it the weakest form of knowledge. “Those who inflate themselves are cursed when pricked by a small pin to burst.” (Nietzsche 49).
How “errors” in consciousness preserve us
Errors in conscience are an inherent part of our thinking process. It is impossible to exist without making errors. Nietzsche underlines it, telling the reader that they are not dangerous for people and underlining their useful character. Being full of wrong judgments and thoughts, a man will struggle to obtain new ideas, which will preserve his survival. “Interpreting myself. I always read. Myself into my books. I clearly need some help. But all who climb on their own way carry my image, too, into the breaking day” (Nietzsche 47).
Why “truth” is the weakest form of knowledge
Nietzsche called truth the weakest form of knowledge because of its subjective character and temporality, while knowledge does not depend on somebodys opinion and it becomes only stronger with the flow of time. Truth can easily be changed with the introduction of some new information about some fact, that is why it is so weak in comparison with knowledge. “Do not stay in the field! Nor climb out of sight. The best view of the world is from a medium height”. (Nietzsche 46).
The “death” of God as metaphor and its implications
Nietzsche uses the image of a madman to introduce his famous aphorism about the death of God. From the words of that man, the reader can understand that there were we who killed God. Being historically true, this phrase has also metaphorical meaning. There were people who managed to destroy belief in their souls. “God loves us because we are made by him. ‘But man made God!’ say the refined.” (Nietzsche 47).
The will-to-power as will-to-life
Nietzsche underlines that the will to power can be realized in different and surprising ways. One of them is a desire to sacrifice something in order to obtain even more power over the object which takes the sacrifice. Philosopher underlines peoples desire to hurt someone close with the same matter. This will to power can also be taken as a will to live as person wants to become more important for this world and survive. “Yes, my joy wants to amuse, every joy wants to amuse. Would you like to pick my roses?” (Nietzsche 45).
Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Gay Science. 1882. Web.
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