Napoleon’s reforms and the principles of the Revolution
By the late 1700s, the Directory was blamed for debasement and inefficiency, and lost prevalence because of the negligence of many foreign campaigns. Some citizens urged the return of the monarchy, however others demanded that radical policies established at the beginning of the revolution, needed to be implemented. There was a high chance civil war would break out, and Napoleon sought his opportunity to take over.
With the army’s aid he overthrew the Directory which became known as the Coup of 1799. This was the beginning of his reign and he would soon enact many reforms on France, which would not maintain the principles of the Revolution.
France wanted to make tracks in the opposite direction of the monarchy prior to the revolution. They wanted a voice based system, and to be heard by their legislature. However, Napoleon crowned himself emperor in 1804, and gave the people of France a false hope of a democracy with his plebiscites. They were fixed, and the plebiscites casting a ballot were agreeable to Napoleon and voted in favor of anything he desired. Napoleon also issued a secret police force which could arrest citizens without trial. This went against one of his reforms which was that trial by jury was guaranteed. These were all political signs he would not sustain one of the fundamental standards of the revolution; a democracy.
Similar to what King Louis did, but not sustaining the principles of the revolution, Napoleon attempted to censor the press, and control the newspapers. Also, free discourse was not impeded in the French Empire. Additionally, Napoleon created the Continental System. The British army was very powerful, and had a lot of strength. Napoleon was unable to defeat them, so he developed this system which eliminated trade between Great Britain and Europe, thinking it would weaken their nation. It did not affect their country though, because they created black markets. In 1806, Napoleon went on to write the Berlin Decree preventing any countries allied or dependent on France from trading with Great Britain. The following year, Napoleon issued the Milan Decree to reinforce the Berlin Decree. These reforms were socio-economic signs that he would not maintain the principles of the revolution.
Generally, Napoleon’s reforms did not keep up the standards of the revolution. A portion of his changes in Napoleonic Code however, did. It declared all people equal before the law; special privileges were abolished for the Churchmen, Nobles, and the wealthy. Also, feudal rights were ended, and trial by jury and religious freedom were both guaranteed. Napoleon furthermore changed the education system in France. He believed school was for everyone and set up four grades of school including primary, secondary, lycees, and technical schools. These reforms were very beneficial to the people and maintained the principles of the revolution.
The year 1775 was when John Murray organized a colonial military unit called the Ethiopian Regiment that had over 30,000 black slaves who leave their masters to join their organization. […]
What made the American Revolution, so revolutionary was the independence America gained after defeating Great Britain, and the disappearance of nobility thereafter. Because America had won the war, change had […]
Therefore in this paper, I am going to internally discuss the technicalities that involved the American Revolution on the religious and political perspective. We are going to how and why […]
According to Harriet Beecher Stowe, an American abolitionist Women are the architect of the society. Women played a key role in the construction of American society. However, the Declaration of […]
The American Revolution was caused by the French and Indian War, the Proclamation Line of 1763, Navigation acts, lack of colonial representation, and violent colonial resistance. Even though the French […]
The Revolutionary War America’s freedom did not come easily. Americans were neglected and troubled by Great Britain. Something had to change. Something sparked rebellion. They couldn’t stand it any longer: […]
The French Revolution and American Revolution do share some similarities, yet there are a number of differences between the two revolutions. One of the main differences was the overall context […]
Revolutions have changed the world as we know it today. In order for a revolution to occur, you need to unite a group of people around a common purpose for […]
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military leader and emperor who conquered a large portion of Europe in the early 19th century. While French Revolution, beginning in 1789 and ending in […]
By the late 1700s, the Directory was blamed for debasement and inefficiency, and lost prevalence because of the negligence of many foreign campaigns. Some citizens urged the return of the […]