Manners and Customs During Romance in England
During romance in England, the customs were meant more than just please and thank you; in the modern sense of the term, they have referred to their own manners rather than courtesy, the way people behave, their character, their expression and their sincere appeal. In late Romanticism, this notion of character and self-expression was at the heart of social interactions and was key to issues of rank and race. Towards the end of the period, the concepts of good education and kindness were extended to those who were born in the lower social classes, and this gentleness no longer meant gentleman. Jane Austen is interested in these changes and the meaning of morals, and in general ‘[her] novels are a fascinating collection of the mores of polite’ society ‘(Byrne 299). At the time of Austen, mores were increasingly a set of attributes that could be learned – and learned from The under layer, which created tension with the upper classes, considers the learning of mores as presumptuous and wishes to maintain the distinction between classes.
However, since morals could be learned, they could also be missing. In Pride and Prejudice and Emma, Austen explains how the lack of morals or the possession of false morals (lack of sincerity and denuded morals) instead of true, good reproduction and kindness could cost the class superior a full charge reported due to their location. Rank and class were still the most important criteria for demanding respectful treatment, and regardless of their sincerity and kindness, upper-class members were still regarded as the leaders of society. But Austria also shows how honest manners characterize such social leaders and bring them more than reluctant courtesy. This sincerity was the key to the mores of the lower and upper classes, because good manners could be learned by people of higher or lower classes who hoped to climb the social ranks. However, good manners always had a privileged relationship with the upper classes, because good manners were both an expectation and a quality that strengthened their social position. In Emma and Pride and Prejudice, Austen shows the growing tensions in the class of time, showing how everyone can learn or lacking good manners, and examines the idea that sincerity is the key to the true way, to what the superiors The classes have a particular importance in maintaining their social distinction.
Although the social hierarchy is still maintained, the boundaries between the Austen classes have begun to fade, raising both the anxiety of the upper classes and a reinforcement of the importance of morals as a means of maintaining the social order. Until now, the social and financial situation in which a person is born determines his or her life prospects. Keymer explains: ‘The rank attached to great importance for filiation, which implies that social status was more or less indispensable by birth and descent’ (387). However, this idea started to change in Austen’s time. Romanticism was a time of revolutions and nationalism, of questioning social, religious and political orders, and the end of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was a period of growing social mobility. However, there were still very differentiated classes, and this social mobility only aggravated the snobbery of the middle and upper classes and the cry that the underprivileged classes deserved to earn money and had the audacity to climb (White 58 ). Margetson writes that ‘the great aristocratic families … are born to rule and rule’ (10), while the lower classes are born to follow and the upper and middle classes find it difficult to maintain this hierarchy.
Way suddenly became more important in relationship. About this hierarchy: You have maintained and thwarted class structures. Manners considered class differences by ‘downgrading’ (Keymer 394) or by the refusal of the upper class to mingle with the lower class, but they also thwarted the hierarchy because of the lower class with ‘rising ambition ‘(Keymer 394). have learned ways to achieve higher social status. This ‘rising ambition’ is reflected in the gentleman’s change of concept: the classic ‘Country Gentleman’ of the last romanticism was determined in part by his manners and his good breeding (White 51). It was a change from the time when birth and social class were the only factors in defining a gentleman. This change marked the beginning of a fundamental change that occurred only during the Victorian era: the idea that a man of all births could educate himself, educate himself, learn manners and win the title of gentleman, as illustrated by Charles Dickens, Great Expectations (Umunc 13). In Austen’s works, stigmatization of these ‘ambitious’ men who thrived through trade without land ownership was still widespread in the upper and middle classes, but would decline in the coming decades ( Umunc 12, White 54). With these changes in social mobility and the potential for progression, higher class ways have become increasingly important to maintain their distinction.
With so many imitations of the lower layer and increasing importance for the maintenance of classes, an increasing distinction has been made between true and false ways, and the definition of ways has begun to change. At the end of the 1700s, manners could relate to ‘the character of the mind and the general way of life, morality, habits of solemn behavior, [or] studied courtesy’ (Byrne 297). More and more, manners referred more to the quality of the character and the address than to the respect of formalities. Good husbandry practices and manners were almost synonymous. Moore suggests that morals were ‘characteristic of good reproduction, a very necessary knowledge ‘because’ a lower part with the behavior of a gentleman was often better received than a reasonable man with the skill and manners of a clown ‘. (18) Moore wrote at the end of Eighteenth-century that in the time of Austen: a) manners and superiority did not necessarily go hand in hand, b) manners with respect of a person belonging to the upper classes and c) manners were a sign of good breeding and education., Austen’s portrayal of Mr. Darcy in Pride and Prejudice, an arrogant and wealthy man with ties to the aristocracy, illustrates these ideas well. the respect he would otherwise receive because of his high social status, his bad manners undermine his social status because he needs good manners to achieve this status completely.
By Mr. Bingley, less rich but friendlier companion d Mr. Darcy, Austen shows how a person with a lower birth could be treated with more respect, because of different ways. The character of Mr. Darcy alone testifies, because it changes his ways, showing that they can be learned, resulting in increased respect from Elizabeth and gardeners, Mr. Darcy’s transition from poorly educated to well educated shows how to learn good manners. She said that she did not expect much, and she did not do it – without giving her a chance, she labeled Robert Martin both under his advice and under Harriet’s advice. But saying that she hoped to bring it closer to sweetness, Emma suggests that even she recognizes sweetness as something that can be achieved by a farmer if it is not. With this new disturbing ability of the lower layers to reach a state of near-gentleness, the difference between true and false became more important in the period of late Romanticism. The formality and the true manners as well as the good and the very good breeding are characterized by the sincerity. Austen shows it through characters who hide cold or ambitious hearts with good manners in appearance, and through characters from the upper classes who, despite their good official breeding, lack good manners.
Emma enjoys the privilege of wealth and family names, making her one of the leading social figures in Highbury. Mr. Knightley tells him that the responsibility of the less fortunate is associated with this superiority. He blames Emma as severely as Elizabeth, blames Mr. Darcy, but he considers that Emma’s bad manners are a responsibility and that he is hard on her because she has no sympathy. Because Miss Bates can not follow Emma, Mr. Knightley regards the insult as so cruel: Miss Bates has lost what she has already had and must already suffer. In a sense, compassion is a luxury for the happy, and Emma has a responsibility to be compassionate because she is a leading social figure and her actions determine the actions of others. Instead, Emma acts with pride and lack of thought: her safety in her own position makes her dismiss the fate of Miss Bates. Mr. Knightley tries to make Emma feel the sincerity and compassion necessary for quality reproduction. As Lady Catherine and the Coles show, socioeconomic status was the most important factor of social status. So it was not necessary for someone from the upper class, like Emma, to check her rudeness, because she would be put off anyway. However, to truly be respected and fully realize their high status, it required good manners for the upper classes. Although Emma was publicly coarse with Miss Bates, only Mr. Knightley, ranked in the same rank, can criticize her and explain the importance of good manners, because others must prove her a superior personality whatever their actions. The importance of good manners for obtaining social status is demonstrated by the generally negative Elton woman.
Despite Mrs. Elton’s wealth, she is not well received in Highbury for her insolence and informal nature among respected families. Emma describes her indignantly as ‘a little outraged, vulgar’ (Austen, Emma 181): vulgar for her lack of ways that deprive her of the full realization of a position she held in this society. On the other hand, Mr. Weston, a friend of Emma, is famous for his reputation, although his family, like that of Mrs. Elton, is recently found and can easily be considered as belonging to those who had an ‘ambition’ demanding. ‘Warm heart and gentle temperament’ (Austen, Emma 8) allow her to recognize the position that Mrs. Elton can not reach. Moore writes that ‘a certain dignity of manners is absolutely necessary to respect or respect the most precious character of the world’ (149). Without these ways, although someone like Mrs. Elton can be respected by her subordinates for their money, there is little real sense behind recognition. A similar scenario occurs at the ball where Mr. Darcy is introduced for the first time. Before his bad manners are revealed, Mr. Darcy is treated with more admiration than Mr. Bingley, which shows that Mr. Darcy had the potential to gain greater respect among people in the dance and that he was his rudeness and pride that had prevented him from doing it to realize this potential.
This duty, this responsibility was both reciprocal and benevolent: a kindness to the less fortunate and to each other because the upper middle class received sincerity by taking the time to behave well that they showed the citizens a real respect and consolidated their position as social leaders. With Emma and Pride and Prejudice, Austen describes the mores and class concerns of late Romanticism, but uses the qualities of compassion and sincerity. It is the possession or the lack of sincerity that accompanies the references of courtesy that bring the characters of Austen closer or tear them apart. In these works, Darcy’s improvement shows affection that can be inspired by good manners, including that of Elizabeth, and that manners can be taught and learned; Robert Martin shows that even a peasant can become respectable by a true courtesy and that everyone can approach sweetness with his manners; Emma’s story shows the responsibility associated with social superiority and the opportunity to participate in the tacit agreement of sincerity for sincerity. Morals could make the lower classes respectable and allow them to mingle with their superiors in a context of fuzzy social boundaries, but for the upper classes, manners had a greater moral weight: they were signs of gentleness and compassion for the less affluent. Happiness and were something that the lower classes could recognize, appreciate and follow. A lack of good manners is what characters like Elizabeth and Darcy shared initially, and what made Mrs. Eltontoises began to be welcomed by Mr. Weston. It is the presence of true goodwill in the lyrics that has led to the social reference of popular characters such as Mr. Bingley, Mr. Knightley and, later, Mr. Darcy. Although she wrote at a time when wealth and filiation were still very important, Austen’s works show a lesson still learned today: the integrity of character, the virtue of the spirit, openness from the heart and sincerity in daily courtesy bridge the distances between people and create an equality of spirit.
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