Literature Review On Paper Title
Psychology Literature Review
While many children are born with a proverbial clean slate, this is obviously not the case for all children. When it comes to developmental psychology, there are many children that are born with some nasty genetic precursors or other issues innate to what is passed on from their parents and this leads to some challenges even in the best of circumstances. Such a situation calls for what Ellignsen, Baker, Blacher and Crnic (2014) refer to as “resilient parenting”. Indeed, they state right off the top that there are immense and immeasurable benefits to efficacious parenting and this is especially true in the earlier years of a child’s life. However, the authors go on to say that the benefits are even better and more robust when this good parenting occurs in the face of the genetic and other psychological and developmental challenges that are faced by some children and parents. To prove this assertion, the four authors did a study that looked at a total of 232 families with children that were between three and five years old. The authors referred to developmental and other problems that are faced as “risk domains”. The three risk domains that were looked at as part of the study were child developmental delay, child behavior problems and low family income. There were also three good factors and these were known as protective factors. The three factors chosen were mother’s education, health and optimism. The outcome that the four authors were looking at were the positive parenting results that were observable as coded from the interactions between the mother and the child. The overall results found revealed that positive parenting manifestations differ based on the levels of risk presented by each set of parents and the child involved. There was a notation of strong interaction between the positive factors and the bad ones. For example, education and optimism seemed to correlate strongly at both ages three and five. Health was a strong factor at five years old but not as much at three years old. There was also an interaction between risk in general and education at the age of three. One major finding of the study is that mothers with more education tend to fare much better overall than parents with less education. This is not to say that mothers with less education always did worse and people with higher education levels always did better. Rather, that was the trend more often than not and it was a noticeable trend (Ellignsen, Baker, Blacher & Crnic, 2014).
When it comes to education in particular, the work of Gardner and Wolfe (2015) is especially informative. Once again, the general patterns and trends that come with the development and education of normal developed children is widely known and implemented. However, the body of knowledge that exists when it comes to education and helping those children with development issues is much less robust but it is certainly coming along. Gardner and Wolfe covered the methods commonly used to teach students with development disabilities. Specifically, the looked at the teaching of daily life skills using “point of view modeling” along with video prompting and error correction methodology. The authors point out that the primary goal that exists when it comes to teaching students with developmental disabilities is to “enhance their future quality of life by promoting skill acquisition, which will enable them to live, function and participate in the community” (Gardner & Wolfe, 2015). As noted earlier in this paragraph, the use of video prompting has become one of the major ways to uphold and instill that ideal when it comes to students that are developmentally disabled. Indeed, it is important to teach them effectively and in a way that will make them socially independent as the enter adulthood. However, using conventional and standard methods as applied to non-disabled students simply does not work as much as it needs to. As such, novel and innovative methods that are more effective for the developmentally disabled can and should be used. The use of video prompting and error correction does not work in all situations as some developmental disabilities are more protracted and devastating than others. Even so, the use of video prompting and error correction has been seen as a very good way to assist and foster learning with adolescents that have mild to moderate developmental disorders. One skill that can be and has been taught via this method is dishwashing. Indeed, these methods can and should be applied to different tasks and aspects of life and that would seem to be what is advocated by the authors of the study reviewed for this literature review (Gardner & Wolfe, 2015).
The physical development/psychology article selected for this literature review pertains to the “identity crisis” that tends to occur in a lot of male adolescents as they reach and proceed through puberty. The work on this subject is not remotely new and goes back to people like Erikson in 1950. Indeed, Erickson contented that “the physical changes associated with puberty serve as a catalyst for adolescents to question childhood identifications and to consolidate these with current self-conceptions, personal ideologies, interpersonal values and future aspirations” (Jones, Dick, Coyl-Shepherd & Ogletree, 2014). Going a bit further, Erikson notes that the adolescent “identity crisis” is something that arises when the identity development process and movement within a male child’s mind becomes “salient” (Jones, Dick, Coyl-Shepherd & Ogletree, 2014). Of course, others have taken up the same work as Erikson and some newer conclusions and outcomes have been garnered. Jones and his cohorts did a review of the impact of age, grade, and physical development when it comes to the development of the male identity in male adolescents. The study assessed nearly two hundred boys ranging from sixth grade to twelfth grade. In other words, the children in question ranged from the end of elementary schooling to the end of high school. The boys in the study were asked to complete the Petersen Development Scale and the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, often referred to as the EOM-EIS. The survey was taken in the homes of the boys taking the examination. A statistical analysis of the results reveals that physical development was the main catalyst and showed the greatest amount of variability as there was a mark of twenty percent when it came to that measure. Age and grade were not insignificant but they were much lower, coming in at 8.3 percent and 4.2 percent respectively. Further, it was found that there was a much stronger correlation between physical development (as opposed to the other two measures) and both lower foreclosure scores as well as higher moratorium/achievement scores. Indeed, these findings are consistent with the work of Erikson from the 1950’s. Much has changed and been replaced when it comes to the realm of development psychology but it would seem that Erikson’s work on the subject has endured for the majority of a century up to this point (Jones, Dick, Coyl-Shepherd & Ogletree, 2014).
When it comes to cognitive development, there is plenty to read about and assess about the subject. The article selected for this topic was authored by Kafadar, Akinci and Cakir last year. When it comes to cognitive development and psychology, they focus on what is known as the Cognitive Development Method, or CDM. This method refers to the method that was designed to solve various cognitive issues and problems that may emerge in the daily life of otherwise healthy children. It is a cognitive training program that is designed to improve the cognitive processing of the children participating in the training and the method. To test the efficacy and results of this method, a study with 201 participants ranging in age from ten to twelve years old was conducted. There was both an experimental and control group as part of the study. Both groups were studied before and after the experimental manipulation was conducted. There was a series of neuropsychology tests that focused on cognitive methods such as memory, attention, general ability, solving of problems, working memory and so forth. The experimental group made up 131 of the 201 overall participants. The battery of training sessions consisted of a thirty day, five days a week regimen. Each session was forty-five minutes and occurred once a day. To get the best measure of what the Cognitive Development Method brings, the control group did not receive the training at all. This was done, obviously, to compare the difference between those getting the CDM and those not getting it without any other differences being present or detectable. The findings of the study revealed that those receiving the Cognitive Development Method scored higher than those in the control group. This was revealed through a statistical method known as analysis of variance, often referred to as ANOVA. Given the results, it was concluded that the use of the Cognitive Development Method affects students in a positive way and brings superior learning outcomes as compared to those that do not receive that method (Kadafar, Akinci & Cakir, 2015).
The final aspect and dimensions of developmental psychology that will be reviewed as part of this literature review is psychosocial development. The study picked for this subject did a review of psychosocial development in a group of young soccer players. To be more specific, the soccer players in question were using what is known the 5C intervention program. To give some context, the five C’s in question are commitment, communication, concentration, control and confidence. To assess the efficacy of this framework, five students and their parents participated in a single-case multiple-baseline study and each set of parents/children got multiple treatments as the study progressed. After the baselines for the people involved were established, the coach of the soccer players received sequential education in the principles surrounding each C of the 5C framework. The objective was for the coach to integrate new and different strategies and methods as the training wore on. During each of the five intervention phases, the players completed assessments regarding the behavior that they exhibited as it related to each of the C’s. This was triangulated with observation-based assessments by both the coach as well as the parents of the players. The results of these updates and progressions reveal that there were cumulative and sustained psychological improvements and positive psychosocial responses from the players that were the focus of the interventions. These good changes were corroborated by both the coach as well as the parents of the children in question. Results were further confirmed and ensconced through post-intervention social validation. The authors of the study assert that there were changes in player behavior that have serious and sustained implications for psychosocial practitioners (e.g. psychologists, etc.), coaches and parents, each in their own way. The study was longitudinal in nature although the sample size was a bit constricted. It would perhaps be wise to use a larger sample size or to repeat the process a series of times to see if the differentials and positive results are sustained or this particular study was an anomaly or outlier (Harwood, Anderson & Barker, 2015).
The first principle as offered by Baltes is that development is lifelong. Even so, the literature review above notes that the most important and pivotal years of development are those in the early and school-age years. Once those pathways and patterns are set, it can be extremely hard to break them. Even so, development is always happening even when it is not actively being sought by the person that is developing. Whether it be maturity, life habits and so on, there are always changes as the body ages, develops and then eventually starts to decay and fade away (MH Education, 2016).
This speaks to the idea that there are relative influences relating to biology and culture shift over the life span of a person. What is important to people, what impacts them, the biological happenings that occur and so forth shift and change over the lifespan of a person. Indeed, they are very active in the early years of a person but that does not change much as one gets older and this is especially true at the other end of life, that being the elderly years (MH Education, 2016).
This is the general assertion that the direction of a person’s development is modifiable and changeable. Of course, people that get on a certain track usually stay on that track. Children are much more malleable and changeable but children and adults alike can be changed with the proper methods and tactics. At the same time, it is important to do interventions and hone learning as early as possible so as to get people on the right track before habits get ingrained and firmly established (MH Education, 2016).
Another assertion made by the Baltes framework is that life is about gains and losses. While the development of a person is beset and infused with gains as new skills are learned and new developments are realized, there are also losses to endure over the years and the development that occurs throughout our life hopefully prepares us for these losses. One way to mitigate the damage that can be rendered from losses is to get educated. As explained in one of the sources earlier, the more education a person has, the better they seem to parent and otherwise deal with adversity. Indeed, it is called “resilient parenting” for a reason. Instilling these good values early on is a good thing and leads to a repetition of good habits and skills in future generations (MH Education, 2016).
Another assertion espoused by Baltes in his framework is that the context and history of a person shapes what they are and how they act. Indeed, the old adage “the apple does not usually fall from the tree” is precisely what Baltes probably meant. In other words, the environment, influences and so forth of a person have a profound effect on how that person develops. This is true of children and adults alike. Some people buck the trends and patterns that are exposed to them but many people end up conforming to them (MH Education, 2016).
Finally, we come to the realization that there is an ongoing allocation of resources and so forth when it comes to life. What is deemed to be needed and harvested will depend on the life stage or pattern that someone is in. For example, someone going to college will tend to act different than someone who is a career person with no interest in further schooling. At the same time, people go to college at different stages of life. Not all college students are 18-22 years old. Some people go in their 40’s, 50’s and 60’s. Even so, there are going to be shifts. It is just a matter of when they come and how they manifest. Regardless, resources will need to be assembled and wielded (MH Education, 2016).
In the end, it is clear that developmental psychology is still a developing and changing field. At the same time, there are some precepts and ideas that have stood the test of time and then some. People should bear in mind that developmental psychology pertains to children and adults alike and the literature review as well as the Baltes framework in particular proves that. Learning and development never really complete stop and this should be embraced rather than shunned.
Ellingsen, R., Baker, B. L., Blacher, J., & Crnic, K. (2014). Resilient parenting of preschool
children at developmental risk. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR, 58(7),
Gardner, S. J., & Wolfe, P. S. (2015). Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities Daily
Living Skills Using Point-of-View Modeling plus Video Prompting with Error
Correction. Focus On Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 30(4), 195-207.
Harwood, C. G., Anderson, R., & Barker, J. B. (2015). Psychosocial Development in Youth
Soccer Players: Assessing the Effectiveness of the 5C’s Intervention Program. Sport
Psychologist, 29(4), 319-334. doi:10.1123/tsp.2014-0161
Jones, R. M., Dick, A. J., Coyl-Shepherd, D. D., & Ogletree, M. (2014). Antecedents of the Male
Adolescent Identity Crisis: Age, Grade, and Physical Development. Youth &
Society, 46(4), 443-459.
Kafadar, H., Akıncı, Z., & Çakır, B. (2015). Effects of the Cognitive Development Method on
the Cognitive Development of 10- to 12-Year-old Children. International Online Journal
of Educational Sciences, 7(1), 65-78. doi:10.15345/iojes.2015.01.006
MH Education. (2016). The Study of Human Development. Highered.mheducation.com.
Retrieved 10 January 2016, from http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072820306/
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