How Did Alexander the Great’s Conquest Impact the Greek People?
- 1 Introduction
- 1.1 Alexander Great’s Conquest
- 1.2 Political Impacts
- 1.3 The Economic impact of Alexander among Greek people.
- 1.4 Alexander’s great on the Social Impact on Greece People.
- 2 Conclusion
- 3 Bibliographies
Alexander, The Great was son of king called Philip II of Macedonia. He was born around 356 BC on 20th July. He was an extraordinary person who enjoyed to recite Homeric poetry.
He was born at the place called Pella Macedonia. He was learned and trained by Greek philosopher by the name Aristotle. He spends his young hood watching his father changing Macedonia into a great military power where he acquired leadership and military skills. He is one of the most famous figures in the history of the realm. His conquests and activities echoed at bringing out new eras and views to the realm[footnoteRef:1]. He earned his place in the history of the world and his title, “The Great” is worthy because of, his military skill, idealism as well as his legacy. Thereby conquering the most of the world and left individuals with a reliable style of military campaigning. The paper will describe Alexander the great’s conquest and show how the conquest impacts the Greek people. [1: Bosworth, Albert Brian.? Conquest and Empire: the reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press, 1993.]
Alexander Great’s Conquest
During his life, Alexander fought and won many battles, conquering several kings and warlords. In a period of twelve years, Alexander the great had defeated several territories whereby he took control of the land starting from the river Nile towards the east of Indus. He also took control of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and most part of the Mid East as well as the many other territories in the world[footnoteRef:2]. Alexander most of time neglected pieces of advice from his advisors and his leaders since most of were used to cautioning him. However, he launched fast heavy attacks so as to conquer them by trauma of heavy combat and shock tactics. Towns that stood up well like Thebes were evenly destroyed[footnoteRef:3], their people were sold as slaves or killed. In addition, Greek battle of the past typically paid no attention to slaying citizens in cold blood or else vending losers into captivity. Conquests of Alexander throughout Greece as well as Asia could inundate the area with blood. Any town, states or tribe that opposed him faced complete destruction. [2: Austin, Michel M.? The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: a selection of ancient sources in translation. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ] [3: Bowman, Alan K.? Egypt after the Pharaohs, 332 BC-AD 642: from Alexander to the Arab conquest. Univ of California Press, 1996.] After the father of the Alexander was murdered, Alexander was made to be the new king of Macedonia at an age of twenty years. Alexander had been taught when he young and given authority over the significant battle of Chaeronea. This was a war against combined troops of Greek states. Alexander instructed the cavalry. He then commanded the frontiers and conquered the rebellion of the Greek and then concentered with the other parts of the world. Within a period of two years, Alexander through his efforts managed to restore back the intermitted power of the Macedonians in Greek as well as the break of Thracian tribes. Moreover, at the battle of Issus, the troops of Alexander outnumbered Persians troops. However, the major advantage of the Persians had, did not actually matter since the war field was very narrow, making Alexander succeed for Macedonia. Immediately, he headed to the south where he took control of Egypt, Palestine as well as Syria. Here, he took the moral title of the pharaoh and started to constructs towns and cities named after his name. He also introduced Greek culture in Egypt territories. Alexander then moved to Mesopotamia. His troops fought with Persians at the battle of Gaugamela and continued to Persian capitals of Susa where he got Persian treasuries and hug amount as well as silver. Here Darius III was deceived and killed by one of his personal troop men. He faced this king using his three epic battles. This made Alexander to have great titles and office of the famous king of Persia. Since he was not satisfied with Persian Empire, he chose to go to India where his troop triumphed the merciless fought war of Hydaspes in India. He requested his troops to go ahead, but they denied because they were tired of fighting. They had faced a lot of challenges like lack of water, harsh climate and they were frequently attacked by diseases and hustle animals. Alexander the Great conquest impacted the Greek people in various ways. He designed logistics as well as the siege crafts capabilities that set the standard for the people of Greek. He made the Greece be superior to any other state. Two, the Alexander conquests build chances for Greek people like merchants, soldiers to attend political unity according to the guidelines of the monarchy. This because his followers were using force in order to come up with military monarchies which controlled the world. Three, he developed the language of Greek people through his cultural legacy. In addition, art, architecture, as well as literature, developed because of his cultural legacy. His cultural legacy was to spread the culture along the lands in Mediterranean. Alexander conquest made him combine knowledge which resulted in science. His encouragement leads to the development of science, mathematics, and discoveries that helped Greek people. Also, the Greek temples, threaten and gymnasia were constructed in lands where the Alexander had conquered thus promoting the Greek culture. There were also both political and economic impacts.
In a span of his reign, which lasted for twelve years, alexander the great had made the biggest empire known as Macedonia that stretched from Greece to the current Pakistan. In his time, he was able to conquer great Persian Empire and many other empires that were relatively smaller. The building of the vast Empire was one of the Alexander’s great achievements because it brought many Greeks together from different political and cultural views[footnoteRef:4]. Before his leadership, his father Philip was the king of Macedonia a city that was not so well developed compared to the other Greek cities. King Philip was later assassinated before he even stated his conquest. The Persian Empire attracted much attention to many kings of that time, this was due to its vastness and a desirably good quantity of resources[footnoteRef:5]. This prompted alexander the great to cross into Persia and stage a war to oust king Darrius. After defeating the Persian king, alexander continued to conquer other kingdoms until his army forced him to turn back. [4: Flower, Michael A. “Not Great Man History: Reconceptualizing A Course On Alexander The Great”.? Classical World? 100, no. 4 (2007): 419. [5: Gutas, Dimitri. “The Historical And Ideological Dimensions Of Graeco-Arabic Studies: The Conquest Of Knowledge From Alexander The Great To Me???med The Conqueror”.? Intellectual History of the Islamicate World? 3, no. 1-2 (2015): 348] Through the many empires he conquered, he imposed his own political, religious and cultural practices on them. With his culture and systems in place, it made it easier to rule. This changed the cultures of the people on those aspects above. Alexander the great was able to name the cities that he conquered after himself. During his time, he destroyed major world cities and later build a new one with his own means and style. His Persian style of ruling was widely adopted through all kingdoms. And due to this the Greek culture was spread across the kingdom and far. During the conquest, especially with Persia, many Greeks were killed and injured as a result of the war. The literature of the Greeks did not suffer a lot during that time, and much of the Greek works of art and culture was not touched. This can be proved by the fact that many of the stories told in the original dialect, which included the Trojan horse, the love story of cupid and psyche, were all found in Indian ivory. Alexandria became a learning place, after a big library was built under his name. Apart from this, the Greek acquired many enemies in the process of the conquest, many of whom were from the nations and kingdoms that they conquered or failed to conquer. The influence of other cultures that come from outside Greek had an influence on the locals. The introduction of other Christian religions from other parts of the kingdoms changed the way many Greeks worshiped. Arts and libraries for books were set up in the cities, which in turn gave different fields of history. Drawing and sculpture shifted from mere drawing to the emotive arts. There were plans to build more cities using the modernized sculptures, this in turn brought urbanization as and after alexander the great’s reign, there was massive spread of civilization across the Greek Empire. At first Greek became the major language that was used as a medium of communication across the empire and beyond. There was a business boom during the time of alexander the great due to his approach to life and the social aspects of the with many centers and With Greek becoming the language of communication across the empire, business was enhanced from the Indian border to the French city of Marseille. Trade was seen to blossom during Alexandria’s time, the Hellenistic world had its capital city at Alexandria was made the center of importations and manufacturing too. Egypt through its Phoenicians produced cotton, silk, paper and glass. Other items included jewelry, cosmetics, salt, wine and beer[footnoteRef:6]. In Asia, they manufactured woolen, carpets, perfumes and pain relieving drugs. The Greek kingdom was able to expand after resources were brought in from the conquered cities, and this was made possible by alexander’s ambitions. During and after alexander’s conquest that the knowledge of many was greatly influenced, great other minds as alexander come up like Eratosthenes made the map of the current world, through the knowledge gathered from the arctic sea. One of the narrative that is yet to gain ground is that the adventures and ambitions to conquer the world by Alexander the great made a great contribution to the western civilization. The artworks that were invented during his time are the ones being used in today’s designs of the buildings. This were the works of hippodamus of mellitus who was proficient in the use of geometry. The bible section of the New Testament was written and spread by the Greek Jews. The other effects brought about by the persistent conquest of alexander were that the resources of the Greek were depleted by being used in the battles. Alexander dreamt of cultural unity, and through the influence over the regions he politically controlled, they created the Hellenistic period[footnoteRef:7]. This referred to the time when the Greeks enjoined their common cultures and practices with the other populations that moved in. [6: MacCoull, L. S. B. “The Paschal Letter Of Alexander II, Patriarch Of Alexandria: A Greek Defense Of Coptic Theology Under Arab Rule”.? Dumbarton Oaks Papers? 44 (1990): 27.] [7: O’Neil, James L. “Political Trials Under Alexander The Great And His Successors”.? Antichthon? 33 (1999): 34.]
The Economic impact of Alexander among Greek people.
Alexander the great enhanced trade between him and other international bodies in the world. The trade led to supply of the goods and services to the empire. After conquering the territories Alexander was involved in trading activities which improved the living standards among the Greek people[footnoteRef:8]. Alexander the great also, founded new cities and improved communication systems. After conquering the robbers and semi-savage tribes in one of the regions of Persia Alexander improved communication systems and build up new cities and towns. The concerned tribes had menace lives where they did not come up with the development projects. Some the cities that were found were the foundation cities. The building of the foundation cities was at the junction of the important roads[footnoteRef:9]. The cities and roads were used to assist the transit of the merchandise. Foundation cities or towns were planned according to the pattern of the Greece. The towns contained marketplace square, shops, schools, offices, theater, exercise room, and temples. The development of the towns led to trading activities taking place at the fountain cities hence leading to the economic growth among the Greece people. The building of the offices enhanced administrative activities in fountain towns in Greece which led to development. The churches used to be attended by the Greece people. All those infrastructural facilities led to creation of the market of the products. Where merchants were able to sell their products. The trade led to more profits where tax was paid to the government. The tax was used for further development activities leading to economic growth in Greece. [8: Atkinson, Juliette. “”Alexander The Great”: Dumas’S Conquest Of Early-Victorian England”.? The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America? 106, no. 4 (2012): 426] [9: Fraser, P. M. “Inscriptions Relating To Alexander A. J. Heisserer: Alexander The Great And The Greeks: The Epigraphic Evidence. Pp. Xxvii + 252; 28 Plates (+ Frontispiece), 7 Figures In Text, And 3 Maps. Norman, Oklahoma: University Of Oklahoma Press, 1980. $29.95.”.? The Classical Review? 32, no. 02 (1982): 242.] Alexander the great introduced the modern agricultural method in the conquered states, the Greek soldiers under the headship of Alexander came up with Macedonian farming and farming methods to tribes at the mountain. This led to the production of the adequate food among the Greek people in the Greece. The food supply reduced the number of resources that were used to acquire food among the Greek people. This meant that most of the resources were used in productive and development activities leading to economic growth among the Greek people. Again, Alexander initiated vast building project in Greece. His ability to build projects started at early days in Egypt. In the twentieth century, alexander had built towns along the coast where trade between Egypt and western Mediterranean took place. After acquiring territories in the Greece, Alexander started to find the sea route where the trade between India and Babylon would take place. Before his death, he had longed to explore the Arabian shore so that to enhance trade between Babylon with the Alexandria. The finding of the trade routes by the Alexander led to an improvement of the trade along the coasts. The trade led to the supply of the products among different countries leading to economic growth in Greece. This led to raising standards of living among Greek community. Moreover, Alexander solved unemployment problems during the period of financial crisis in Greece. He was in a position to initiate development projects in the Greece like farming in Macedonia. This led to the creation of the employment among the Greek people. He also, build up fountain cities which acted as a center of the trade for trade merchandise. This created employment of those who involved in the trade since they were involved in money generating activities. Lastly, by improving communication systems more people were involved in the commercial activities which enhanced employment of the Greek people during the crisis. Alexander the great enhanced urbanization in Greece. There was a development of towns due to trade between eastern and western countries. The towns were created where trading activities took place. The towns grew to big cities leading to urbanization. Example, at the cost where trade took place, the towns developed rapidly leading to urbanization in Greek. Alexander collected tax from all the territories that he conquered. Most of the finance and tax remained in the Macedonians’ hands. The tax revenue was collected together under the leadership of the Alexander the great. The tax was used in development activities in Greece. This enhanced the growth of the economy in Greece where transport and communication means were improved[footnoteRef:10]. The transport and communication system enhanced business activities which led to improved living standards among the people of Greece. [10: Montiglio, Silvia. “Wandering Greeks. The Ancient Greek Diaspora From The Age Of Homer To Alexander The Great By Robert Garland”.? Classical World? 108, no. 4 (2015): 569.] Alexander the great adopted Greek as the common language of his territory. He also came up with the common currency for exchange. The use of the Greek as common language reduced the baffling mistakes which happened when commercial and monetary transactions were being done under the intermediate of the translators. The use of the common language led to the simplification of the trade and exchange concepts. The people were taught the Greek language which implied the trading activities. This led to the involvement of the more people in business activities. This in turn enhanced improvement of living standards among the Greek people. The use of the common currency made it possible for the exchange of the finance and business transactions without the need for interpreters.
Alexander’s great on the Social Impact on Greece People.
The military expedition made many Greeks and Macedonians move to the east through the Persian Empire and then into India. They met with many territories whom they conquered and were placed in charge. This led to acquiring the western culture. Due the interaction, western cultures was mixed with eastern culture forming the new culture in the Alexander Empire. This affected Greek culture. Due to trade, contact and travel between eastern and western culture a mixed culture was formed[footnoteRef:11]. After Alexander conquered the new territories they were assimilated with intention of forming cultural syncretism. [11: Ulf, Christoph. “Robert Garland, Wandering Greeks. The Ancient Greek Diaspora From The Age Of Homer To The Death Of Alexander The Great. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press 2014”.? Historische Zeitschrift? 302, no. 1 (2016): 329] The customs of the Greeks and Macedonians dominated eastern. The interaction of the Greeks and western customs like religion and education led to a mixture of customs which affected the Greek people’s culture. Due to a need of having the common language in trade, the Greek language spread over all the conquered states which led to using the Greek language as a universal form of language. The use of Greece language made the Greek people to be recognized in the whole empire. This made them to have prestige in their social status.
From the above discussion, it is clear that the legacy of Alexander lives up to date and have a profound influence on present-day historian. A Macedonians saw an unparalleled gage of union and increase during his decree. Through a series of conquest, Greek people benefited a lot. This is because he expanded the territories to extend of reaching Asia. He also spread the culture of Greek in the rest of world. The conquest of Alexander also lead to development of Greek language. Therefore, alexander the great conquest plays a major role into culture and lives of Greek people.
Atkinson, Juliette. “”Alexander The Great”: Dumas’S Conquest Of Early-Victorian England”.? The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America? 106, no. 4 (2012): 426. Austin, Michel M.? The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: a selection of ancient sources in translation. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Bosworth, Albert Brian.? Conquest and Empire: the reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press, 1993. Bowman, Alan K.? Egypt after the Pharaohs, 332 BC-AD 642: from Alexander to the Arab conquest. Univ of California Press, 1996. Flower, Michael A. “Not Great Man History: Reconceptualizing A Course On Alexander The Great”.? Classical World? 100, no. 4 (2007): 419. Fraser, P. M. “Inscriptions Relating To Alexander A. J. Heisserer: Alexander The Great And The Greeks: The Epigraphic Evidence. Pp. Xxvii + 252; 28 Plates (+ Frontispiece), 7 Figures In Text, And 3 Maps. Norman, Oklahoma: University Of Oklahoma Press, 1980. $29.95.”.? The Classical Review? 32, no. 02 (1982): 242. Gutas, Dimitri. “The Historical And Ideological Dimensions Of Graeco-Arabic Studies: The Conquest Of Knowledge From Alexander The Great To Me???med The Conqueror”.? Intellectual History of the Islamicate World? 3, no. 1-2 (2015): 348. MacCoull, L. S. B. “The Paschal Letter Of Alexander II, Patriarch Of Alexandria: A Greek Defense Of Coptic Theology Under Arab Rule”.? Dumbarton Oaks Papers? 44 (1990): 27. Montiglio, Silvia. “Wandering Greeks. The Ancient Greek Diaspora From The Age Of Homer To Alexander The Great By Robert Garland”.? Classical World? 108, no. 4 (2015): 569. O’Neil, James L. “Political Trials Under Alexander The Great And His Successors”.? Antichthon? 33 (1999): 34. Ulf, Christoph. “Robert Garland, Wandering Greeks. The Ancient Greek Diaspora From The Age Of Homer To The Death Of Alexander The Great. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press 2014”.? Historische Zeitschrift? 302, no. 1 (2016): 329
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Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Alexander Great’s Conquest 1.2 Political Impacts 1.3 The Economic impact of Alexander among Greek people. 1.4 Alexander’s great on the Social Impact on Greece People. 2 […]