Good Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Literature Reviews
Literature Review – Analysis of
study of young teenagers
The increased attention to bullying taking place among adolescents because of the destructive attributes assigned to this antisocial behaviour affecting the emotional well-being of adolescents offers review of limited studies on the subject as is the focus of the following review of the literature provided by Bond, Carlin, Thomas, Rubin, and Patton (2001). The intention of the following systematic literature review aligns to the specific characteristics of the focus determining the relevancy of the research. The review also acknowledges the statistical data reporting of the findings as part of determining their validity. The findings align to plausible and proactive interventions to diminish bullying among young adolescents thus minimizing such emotional issues developing including anxiety and depression as victims of the anti-social behaviour of others. The findings are compared with another literature assessment on the subject provides a clearer look at the controversy that continues surrounding this social and medical issue due to the need for more research.
Literature Review – Analysis of
study of young teenagers
A review and analysis of literature in an academic learning exercise uses specific strategies for assessing and critiquing scientific papers in the field of medicine. The following exemplifies this process of a scientific cohort study of outcomes determining whether bullying cause emotional problems among young teenagers. The process of a systematic literature review and evaluation of for the purpose of this academic exercise is a combination of quantitative statistical reporting with a subjective summary and analysis of observational data. . In doing so, the discourse begins with a succinct summary of the study results. Other applications for analysis of the primary paper provide pertinent information as ascribed by the instructional guidelines for this learning assignment.
Findings of a two-year cohort study of the target population of secondary school population of 2680 among 13 year-old students surveyed once each year per the 2-year duration of the study revealed a pervasiveness of perceived victimization according to the participant responses. The primary findings measured self-reported symptoms of both anxiety and depression assessed using a computerized revised version according to the application of the clinical interview design. The results of the study allow predicting in particular among females the negative effect of bullying causing future emotional problems during adolescence. Consequently, according to the researchers, “being victimized has a significant impact on the future emotional wellbeing of young adolescent girls independent of their social relations but does not for boys (Bond et al, 2001, p. 483).”
Respectively P value for the victimization 0.440 (female) and symptomatic depression <0.001 (female) and the self-reported bullying in year one report 0.015 at one time 8.4 percent and both years 0.013 at 9.3 percent. The symptomatic depression in the first year was one time with 0.510 with 21.4 percent and .0791 for both years at 0.4 to 5. 6 percent totals for both genders combined (Bond et al, 2001).
Significance of Comparison to Previous Studies
The significance of the findings with 30 percent of the entire participating target group showing symptoms of depression directly related to reporting victimized by bullying with 16 percent of the self-reporting of both anxiety and depression remain consistent with previous research findings that young adolescent secondary school female students show the strongest prevalence for developing these symptoms (Bond et al, 2001). Further, “These findings have implications for how seriously the occurrence of victimisation is treated and for the focus of interventions aimed at addressing mental health issues in adolescents (p. 483).”
The Significance of the Study
Review and assessment of the dynamics of the findings of this study clearly shows it significantly adding to the existing body of work on the negative outcomes of bullying disrupting emotional health among humans. Refocus on the significance of the data attributing the most negative causal factor of bullying victimizing girls has a set of implications in regard to the male respondents emerging with less emotional issues directly related to their bullying experiences.
Another Research Perspective on Gender
Comparison of findings of their literature review of the subject provide Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) that gender differences associated to victimization from bullying and depression remain contradictory. They found an increase in victimization and the risk of depression aligned to boys with the risk factor of depression occurring later among victimization occurring in girls. They concur some research suggests the relation between victimization and subsequent depression that may include self-harm occurring only or more strongly among adolescent girls. This may emerge as depression existing as an antecedent of later victimization particular to boys.
Further to the point of view of their analysis of the literature Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) found the suggestion the occurrence of bullying causing victimization more likely results in adolescent girls developing low self-esteem rather than boys. They suggest this occurs because of the possibility adolescent girls may base self-esteem as aligned more to social relationships they have or do not have, than boys. Their findings also interpret that boys focus on instrumental goals more than girls as exemplified by participating in athletics. Nonetheless, Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) admit the contradictory nature of their assessment of the literature findings means there are like to exist several pathways explaining this topic.
Reported in the findings:
The results of bullying as defined by the researchers in this study classified as victimization signified specific to depression combined with the lesser incidence of anxiety is the identified gauge of the emotional issue resulting from this anti-social behaviour towards others. According to Bond et al (2008) the prevalence of adolescent bullying remains a common experience for teens. While symptoms of bullying include loneliness, anxiety, and general self-esteem issues this are to a lesser extent considered the issue of victimization arising from the depression caused by the bullying. At the same time a contrary hypothesis emerges connected to adolescents’ having emotional health issues this inviting victimization or how this is representative of cycle lacks support according to the data findings of this study
Further, this study identified that participants of the target group sampling with previous or recurrent emotional issues played no significant relationship to them being victimized in the future. Additionally, with the findings determining two thirds of the participants reporting in the first year of the studying experiencing bullying and causing them depression/anxiety also reported a recurrence in the second year of the study. As a result, the finding firmly established a strong concurrent relation between self-reported emotional symptoms and victimization aligned to anxiety or depression as previously reported (Bond et al, 2001).
Referencing questions about assessing this study considers the sample size as justified in terms of the research focus on determining the emotional outcomes of young adolescents’ victimized by bullying with the target group minimum age 13 years. The use of self-reporting and responses to specifically designed questionnaires in the design of the study were appropriate for the objective of the research as already stated above. The plethora of statistical reporting on the findings described allow comparison to past studies and contribute to the validation of the findings concurring in part with previous outcomes of the same subject.
Implications for Clinical Practice
Further, as described by Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011), they see the literature failing providing a clear association of adolescent depression with existing between victimization from bullying and clinical depression. While the populations’ depressive disorders resemble clinical samples, and literature findings describing self-reported depression in adolescence aligned to severe or even moderate cases relating well to clinically diagnosable depression nonetheless, Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (201) hold the assumption that to some extent, adolescent victimization due to bullying may predispose these patients to depressive disorders.
Further, according to Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) the relationship may also emerge vice versa. With depression in adolescents having a predisposition to victimization from bullying possibly also occur among adolescents diagnosed with depression are interpretable according to situations of non-hostile interactions registered as bullying. Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) provides significant interpretation of the body of research on this subject, the Bond et al (2001) study reports the limitations of their findings with their suggestion of the need for further research that looks to determine if reducing adolescent victimisation from bullying can reduce the onset of symptomatic anxiety and depression. They view the findings of their study indicating such a reduction substantially could impact the emotional wellbeing young adolescents. Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) determine structured studies with prospective population with diagnosis of depression or even reliable information about psychiatric treatment of depression potentially offers shedding light on the issue.
The above assessment of the Bond et al (2001) research findings on whether bullying causes depression and anxiety issues in young adolescents successfully addressed the systematic criteria of the research. Bond et al (2001) research strongly suggests that interventions by collaborative school and parent efforts to minimize bullying and understanding the emotional effects on victims provide understanding for clinical intervention treating adolescents developing depression and anxiety.
Bond, L. Carlin, J.B., Thomas, L. & Rubin, K. et al (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. British Medical Journal. Vol. 323.
Kaltiala-Heino, R., & Fröjd, S. (2011). Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics. Vol. 2, 37-44
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Literature Review – Analysis of study of young teenagers ABSTRACT The increased attention to bullying taking place among adolescents because of the destructive attributes assigned to this antisocial behaviour affecting […]