Free Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Literature Reviews
English, as a medium of communication, is possibly the native language of human interface with computers. Thus, acquiring English language skills is the second nature to computers and information technology. There was a point in time when there was no other language available for communication using computers other than English. Even today, majority of engagements with computer as a medium happens predominantly through the usage of English language, eventually making it a very reliable and perhaps an ideal tool for English language skills.
Today, technology like Google is universally available, which could translate from English to any other language and even vice-e-versa, at a click of a button English being the native language for computers, has had the first-mover advantage and has possibly the largest tools like dictionaries and thesaurus, among others, that are available online as learning aides. This may not be available as extensively in any other language because the number of users could itself be limited.
Currently, computers are possibly one of the most extensively available tools for effective utilization as the medium for English language acquisition. There are a number of creative approaches through which computers can help students in their language acquisition. “For instance, the kinds of interactional conditions predicted to be useful for L2 acquisition by the Interaction Hypothesis (IH) and Vygotskyan Sociocultural Theory (SCT) seem to be, for at least some kinds of students, an almost natural result of using computer-mediated communication (CMC).”
This ability that CMC creates for children in helping them in second language acquisition, along with also using few other features of CMC, is regarded to be having a great hope in various Japanese Universities and their language classrooms.
According to Jorday and Teels , the technical specifications in the field of Instructional Technology along with the implementation of the concept of online classrooms had evolved in the year 1973 when the first Electronic Information and Exchange System was created by Murray Turoff. This was a system that Murray developed for enabling individuals from various parts of the world to communicate using computers as a medium of communication.
Contrary to this, for the purpose of language teaching, the first article to discuss in detail the use of Information Technology (IT) in the classrooms was one written by Chapelle and Jamieson that appeared in the 1986 TESOL Quarterly. This was possibly the most exhaustive study related to the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning (CALL), precisely called the CALL program that was incorporated into an ESL program.
The study proved that students who were not field independent (FI) displayed increased keenness for the use of CALL, despite their self-reported motivation levels did not have any kind of impact on the time they spent on learning language through CALL. However, the authors inferred that evaluation of the effectiveness of CALL would not be complete and rational in nature without studying a few other variables related to students, which have a correlation with language learning. A few such variables are attitude and perspectives towards computer usage for educational purposes, motivation levels, correlation that exists between CALL and field independent (FI) nature of the students. This observation is definitely true today with respect to CALL usage for language acquisition.
Beale, M. S. (2003). A technical review of mobile computational devices. Journal of Computer Assisted Learnign, 19, 392-395.
Hata, M. (2003). Using Computer-Meidated Communication in Second Language Classrooms. Osaka Keidai Rosnhu, 54(03), 115-125. doi:www.osaka-ue.ac.jp/file/general/5194
Jamieson, C. C. (1986). Computer-Assisted Learning as a Predictor of Success in Acquiring English as a Second Language. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 26-45.
Jill M. Aldridge, R. C. (2006). School-level environment and outcome-based educaiton in South Africa. Learning Environment Research, 9(123), 123-147. Retrieved January 17, 2016, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10984-006-9009-5#/page-1
R. Joiner, J. N. (2006). Designing educational experiences using ubiquitous technology. Computers in Human Behaviour, 22, 67-76.
S. Fallahkhair, L. P. (2007). Development of a cross-platform ubiquitous language learning service via mobile phone and interactive television. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 312-325.
Teels, J. J. (2003, May). Module I: Designing Online Learning. Retrieved from Simon Fraser University: http://www.webct.sfu.ca/SCRIPT/lidcdwebcert/scripts/serve_home
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Tool and symbol in child development. In V. J.-S. M. Cole, Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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