Explaining of Liberalism Essay
Definition of terms
Anarchy refers to the state of lawlessness in a given society. International relations refer to the relations between and among societies, management of relations, and regulations governing the relations.
International relations’ theories have been of great concern because of their impact in different societies.
Contrasting The Theories
The theories have different views of explaining liberalism with regard to peace.
Kenneth Oye’s game theory
In his theory, he wanted to understand the reasons why cooperation exists in some lawless societies at some instances and do not exist in others. In the attempt to find out the answers, he came up with two simpler questions which attempted to find out appropriate ways that the lawless societies may exploit in their attempts to enhance the existence of cooperation, and to establish the conditions that may enhance the existence of cooperation in societies.
The structure of payoff, the future of the shadows, and the players’ numbers are the factors that affect existence of cooperation in states that are afflicted by anarchy. He came up with strategies to address the three factors.
As regards the payoff structure, certain strategies to be employed included the harmonizing of ideas, perceptions, attitudes, and interests of the members of the society in a bid to have an appropriate structured payment and norms related to the payment.
In order to increase the future of the shadows, strategies created included the prior definition of cooperation, norms, and mechanisms that enhance cooperation. Concerning the number of players, the strategies integrated by Kenneth Oye included having an appropriate number of players, collective bargaining, and focusing on the common interests of the members.
Robert Keohane’s liberal institutionalism theory
The theory postulates that there is a dire need for the institutions to collaborate in order to enhance cooperation and maintain peace in a society. Keohane argued that cooperation may be enhanced through enhancing mutuality of interest, enhancing the shadow of the future, and having an appropriate number of players with similar strategies.
Keohane argues that peace, security, and cooperation in societies can be realized when institutions are considered as interdependent. He added that interdependence should be valued because states exist as chains of units of communities and societies that play a very important role in Industrial relations.
Michael Doyle’s liberal theory
He emphasized on Kant’s theory of perceptual peace which advances the concept that peace leads to quality and peaceful relations. He argued that peace among liberal democracies cannot be dismissed as a byproduct of strategic alliances. The theory acknowledges wishful thinking, collective bargaining, and cooperation which may be enhanced through promoting mutuality of interests, enhancing the shadow of the future, and having an appropriate number of players with similar strategies.
Comparison Of The Theories
The three theories have some similarities which include:
Emphasis on equity
These theories focus on the need for justice when implementing peace. The theories have norms and structures that are free from arbitrary decisions, discrimination, and favoritism. The norms secure mutual relations among the members of a society.
The theories state that there is need for effective communication to enhance the understanding of concepts by the members of the society. Effective communication enhances mutual understanding and eases resolution of conflicts.
Emphasis on peace
The theories focus on peace hence enhancing smooth settlement of disputes while harmonizing relationships. They address disputes related to dissatisfaction, salaries, wages, working hours, and other benefits like bonuses. They resolve the disputes by peacefully addressing all the issues that can bring disputes.
Respect and trust
The theories value trust and respect. Members recognize that there are areas of commonalities and areas of differences amongst themselves in the society. They respect each other’s interests in their perceptions, ideologies, and any other contributions.
Members of a society have a dire right to participate fully in the decisions that affect them. All members must be heard in the decision making process.
All the theories are very important for peaceful coexistence of people in any society. Members of every society should attempt to understand the theories and implement them appropriately.
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