Mars Earbuds – the Future of Translation

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Rosaline Daniel’s claim of intentional infliction of emotional distress will most likely survive a motion to dismiss due to the content of the remarks made and Winston’s abuse of authority. A claim of intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED) must be likely to cause an average member of the public to exclaim “outrageous!” and satisfy some combination of the following three elements: the conduct must be deliberate or reckless (the wrongdoer knew or should have known that emotional distress could follow); the conduct must be outrageous (the wrongdoer exceeded all bounds of decency); the conduct must cause the emotional distress; and the emotional distress caused must be severe.

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Translating Medical Text: Why It’s Important to Understand Post-translation

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Notably, Arabic language is largely used by doctors and specialists, more especially those working in Arab countries. However, most of the medical texts and reports are written in English language. This means that translations from English to Arabic are required. However, this is tied up to several challenges such as lack of accuracy and inadequate knowledge of comprehending the ideas behind such terms. According to Aljlayl & Frieder (2001), most doctors and specialists working in the Arab world use English when writing medical texts or reports, even for prescriptions. Expressing terms requires accuracy, knowledge and understanding of ideas behind terms. It is important to acknowledge that, science and technology uses language characterised by complex terminologies. This makes it difficult in translating such terms.

As stated by Al-Ma’ni (2000), post-translation has played a major part in mitigating the effects of the barriers of communication and cultures. Translating scientific concepts and content can prove challenging for the reasons that, it calls for higher accuracy and understanding to decode the underlying message. The understanding of terms from text plays a major part in translating and expressing the terms, however, the targeted language is of equal importance. Still, scientific translation of text targets to achieve high level of precision of the words used found in “Target Language Text” (TLT) and “Source Language Text” (SLT). But, this must be achieved without losing the authenticity of the message.

Gass & Selinker, (2008) notes, the problem in maintaining the authenticity arises when translation equivalence (sameness or similarity) cannot be obtained. Most unfortunate, perfect translation equivalence is not possible. This is because each language is made up of various lexical, textual systems and different grammatical systems responsible for differentiating from one language to another (Gey, & Oard, 2001). The cultural challenges and the textual / semantic are the major challenges encountered in translating a text from English to Arabic. Still important to consider is that translator should understand the medical terms or texts from both languages. Therefore, this essay recommends that a translator should realise the need to understand the medical texts presented for post-translation. Such an understanding is required in both the source and target languages. Most important, the medical practitioners should be able to determine the sensitivity of the texts being translated

Semantic challenges

Montalt and Gonzalez (2007) states, “there exists a wide cultural differences between English-speaking world from that of Arabic world.” Some of these differences can be termed as purely semantic. Cultural difference translates into literally translating a term or terms or a text. In most cases, the English-Arabic literal translation of terms overlooks the accuracy of message. Therefore, the original meaning could be lost. Transliteration and arabizationfrom the SL (English) to TL (Arabic) in most cases leads to the loss of the accuracy of the original meaning. The use of transliteration and arabization allows the transfer or conveying of Latin letters into Arabic letters. However, it does not actually overcome the challenge presented by non-equivalence and neologism.

Montalt, V. and Gonzalez, M. (2007) also adds, “The semantic relationship present within the medical compound elements proves hard to work on.” This is because the choice of words to represent the accurate meaning is limited. In addition, real words translations cannot be found in bilingual dictionaries. Moreover, knowledge about medical terms in SL and TL is important. For instance, knowing what a suffix in a term from both languages can be paramount in achieving accuracy. This requires the translator to have vast understanding of the Latin and Greek languages. This would make it easier to know the meaning of the prefixes and suffixes used which in turn can help boost accuracy. Nevertheless, it is important to note that understanding the meaning of the prefixes and suffixes does not guarantee accuracy of post-translation.

Still, finding words that have equivalent meaning between English and Arabic is not always guaranteed. This is because there are terms or phrases that have more than one meaning, say in English, centrally to Arabic (Montgomery, 2000). Knowledge about the subject field of related texts is important in translation. Also, failure to recognise the textual level during the time of translation may undermine cohesion and attention. This is because the translator may end up ignoring the context of the message. Accurate and precision in translation of terms by the translator is very paramount as it plays a critical role in the structure and context of the subject text. Still, post-translation may require the translator carefully understand the meaning of the message before translating. In reality, context reliably provides guidelines in a for post-translation which can be used to determine the most applicable meaning as activated from the source code Gonzalez (2007). In addition, context will give an insight of the intended accurate meaning a text. Equally important to note is that there was generalisation of words during the translation. This did alter the meaning of the term to the target group. This is because of the availability of equivalent terms of words or phrases. The meaning of any medical text in Source Language (SL) automatically effects the way the text is translated in the Target Language (TL). This simply means that, lack of knowledge about the subject matter resulted in loss of accuracy in TL targets.

Cultural / Terminology Challenges

Cultural difference between English-speaking worlds from that of Arabic world creates translation obstacles. Determining the right medical phrase requires that the translator to have knowledge on both “Source Language” (English) and the “Target Language” (Arabic). The translator should clearly determine the choice of words of the target audience. That is, the post-translation should put into consideration of “who” will use the text being translated. For example, “alhimaq”, that is in Arabic, should be translated automatically to “Varicella”, that is in English. If the text was meant for the patient, the right choice of term, that is, “chickpox” should be used for the term. In most cases, where experience in translating medical texts is limited, a translator may interpret a drug name into what is referred as “Target Culture Equivalent” (TCI). However, the criteria may not function. This is simply because, while the text may be used to refer of name of the drug as it is known in English language, at other times the English language uses brand names.

In addition, culture differences have effects on linguistic competence. During translation, it is required that a translator should possess knowledge of principles and rules governing the structure of the source language and target language. More so, to achieve translation equivalence, comprehensive competence should be accounted for. This means that the translator should be able to extract information from the source language. This will enable the translator to analyse a text semantically and pragmatically. Accuracy in translation also is determined by the encyclopedic competence; the general knowledge of the translator on both languages. The translator’s interaction efficient of both languages is paramount. That is, the translator should be able to express what he understands a medical text into the “Target Language’ without losing the authenticity of the original message.

Nevertheless, cultural differences affect how competent a translator is during the translation. The translator should be able to reconstruct the meaning of the “Source Language” into a “Target Language” text without inconveniences. Understanding the textual and cultural features is vital in translation. Also, understanding the culture of the target language is a requisite to translation competence and accuracy. To address the translation competence, the translator should proceed to analyse the language structure, elements and language patterns of the target language.

According to Gass & Selinker (2008, p. 449), Lexical knowledge may as well be of great importance during the post-translation. In fact, this knowledge is regarded as the most important component in any translation stage. Of important here is that, the translator should be careful in their choice of words. There are some texts if directly or literally translated will distort the meaning. Translators ought to comprehend cultures choice of words before translating a message from source language to target language. Most of errors and problems experienced during post-translation are resultant of non-equivalence between the “Source Language” and the”Target Language.” Baker (1992.). The translator must identify areas of emphasis that must be translated from “Source Language” to the “Target Language.” The challenge is bigger when an emphasized word does not exist in the target group.

Challenges of State of Art

State of Art refers to different medical practices adopted by medical specialists and practitioners in health and medical domains. These practices vary because of what is referred to as diglossia. The term simply refers to sociolinguistic phenomena, whereby the language may be used differently for different social purposes. For instance, the Arabic dialect is not used for teaching pharmacy, medicine and other related programmes in all Arab countries. For this reason, it would prove difficult to try translating English dialect into Arabic for teaching health related programmes in Arab countries. It should be noted that, since most of the professional medical articles are written in English, it is hard to establish the dialect to be used. Dialect refers to the particular language that emerges following existence of certain social organization. The dialect may take considerable time to develop, simply because it is neither taught nor found in written text. This explains why it may take time to establish the dialect in Arabic language for teaching in Arab universities.


Generally, translating medical texts from source language to target language demands high level accuracy and consistency. Despite various challenges encountered in translation, some medical terms can be translated with ease. However, presence of complex structures and medical compound terms poses a challenge during translation. For example, terms such as hypergammaglobulinaemia, videofluoroscopy, etc. Translation of medical terms can be quite challenging more especially among the less experienced translators. Finding equivalent terms in translation from Source Language to Target Language may be affected by differences in culture and semantic problems among others.Translation of English-Arabic medical text has greatly contributed to evolution and development of the medical field, Montgomery (2000). As Schubet (1987) puts it, environment determines the accuracy and competence in translation. An interdisciplinary approached is paramount in solving non-equivalence translation related issues. Translators must train to deal with challenges involved in translating technical terms. Along this line; Sanchez (2010, p.186) recommends the need to equip all the medical translators with technical know-how required during translations. The rationale of this is that, lack of technical translators is the major setback in the stage of post-translation.

Translators should have knowledge on the structure and culture of the target language. In absence of an equivalent term, the translator should consult medical specialists to obtain the knowledge of the medical text and its meaning in English before translating it into Arabic. In addition, translators need to validate the information before translating the medical text. However, translators experience difficulties in coping up with challenges involved during the exercise of translation. Ambiguous and new terms from source language lack equivalent terms in target language.

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Mr. Nobody – Jaco Van Dormael’s Film Translation

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Writing Project 2: “Mr. Nobody”: Film to Movie Trailer

I decided to translate the philosophical film “Mr. Nobody”, into my target text, a film story board meant for a television trailer commercial. I was prompted to translate this film, primarily because I was curious as to what it would take to properly translate a two-hour philosophical film into a film strip that could properly and accurately depict the film’s message and content, at the same time without giving away too much. In order to properly address this challenge, I made sure to analyze the exigence, motivation, as well as characterization and plot of the film. Also, since the narrative manipulates time and has a climax and open ending I had to be cautious as to how to subtly convey these ideas without confusing the audience. In order to successfully represent the film into a story board for a film trailer I had to take these film conventions and decide how to go about transforming them into a new medium that is both concise and entertaining.

Mr. Nobody, to put simply is a film about choice that takes a four-dimensionalists view of the nature and existence of life in the universe. The film starts out in the year 2092 where one hundred eighteen-year-old Nemo is made to recount his life story to a reporter. It is with this that Nemo immediately remembers how as he was a nine-year-old boy, he was thrust into a position where he had to make an impossible decision – to choose between his mother and father. Since he is unable to determine which will be the right choice he concludes that since “[He doesn’t] know the future, [he] cannot make a decision (Dormeal, 2009).” However, later on in the film when Nemo is able to know what his future will entail, he instinctively opts for another. In the film when Nemo is an old man he looks back upon his life and realizes that “before he was unable to make a choice because he didn’t know what would happen. Now that he knows what will happen, he is unable to make a choice (Dormeal, 2009).” Even with this mindset, Nemo acknowledges that every choice he makes is the correct one, especially when you try to choose what you think will make you happier.

Essentially, what needed to be done in order to properly translate the source text that has an initial medium as a film into the target text which has a medium as a film strip is an intersemiotic translation is to fully understand the content and intention that lies behind the source text. In order for me to have properly been able to translate the film into the film strip I used my previous knowledge gained from “How to Read like a Writer.” Dr. Bunn encourages people to read further in order to RLW and he talks about examining the things we read “to decide if you want to adopt similar (or the same) techniques in your writing (Bunn, 2011),” I decided to adopt the same principle of fastidious analysis towards translating the film. By analyzing the film closely and observing the director and actor’s choices I was able to better comprehend the true meaning of the film. By doing so I was then able to more accurately depict the intended message through my translation. I paid attention to the facial expressions, diction, and timing of every single action that took place within the film. I also observed semiotics, narrative structure, cultural context, and the arrangement of scenery and stage properties (mise en scene). Taking notes on all of these elements, I then carefully examined and evaluated the film in order to derive the overarching thematic qualities, so I could begin formulating ideas on how to arrange the film strip. In order to make sure my way of approaching this translation process was correct I examined several examples that I discovered online.

There are numerous published examples of translation between film and comics. For instance, Marvel produces copious amounts of films each of which have several trailers associated with the film. Their translation process is effective primarily because of how they use special effects, sound tracks, and focus more on emotion than plot points. Their trailers seem to fixate on capturing the mood of the movie through quick cut scenes of extreme emotion. What I learned from Marvel is that in order to properly translate the film into a comic strip I will need to be aware of how the audience will interpret my translation. I also need to take into consideration whether the viewers will they interpret things the way I see it, or if there will be room for their own analysis and interpretation. Also, after looking a other movie trailer examples I realized that some stories are lost in translation. Meaning, it appears that when these film strip creators and directors want to play a demographic they play up the story within the story. Additionally, if the story within the story does not exist, then they play up the characters. After making note of these translation methods I began to sketch out what I deemed to merit a place in the film strip.

The film strip is divided into twelve sections each of which consist of carefully depicted characters, quotations, and integral moments. The first section depicts an old Nemo Nobody being asked what he recalls from his life. Seeing as Nemo Nobody has the ability to recall several life paths, he begins with the first integral life moment, one that led to him to lead substantially differing lives. He recalls the moment where he is at the train station and must make a choice as to whether he will live the rest of his youth with either his mother or father. He appears to be sad in this section and thinks to himself “As long as you don’t choose, anything remains possible (Doermeal, 2009).” This thought is of significant importance primarily because he repeats it both when he is young as well as when he is old. It is even one of the main ideas that is expanded upon throughout the movie. Throughout the film there appears to be an eloquent interplay between philosophical lifestyle and what forges reality, that is epitomized by the constant change in story line, between young boy, adolescent man, and mature man. Since, only so much can be depicted within a twelve-panel film strip, I had to skip the scenes that led up to the point where he was at the train station with his parents, forced to make a decision. The next panel then depicts him choosing to live with his mother. The next few panels depict what his life ends up being like when he chose to be with his mother. Since he ends up living in a different city, he is surrounded by different people as well as a different environment, thus he will grow up to be a different person than when he lives with his father. The next few panels depict what his life is like when he chooses to live with his father and it is immensely different than when he lives with his mother. The panels that contain just white represent the time manipulations that exist within the plot of the film. I was careful to place them in such a way so that the audience would not be confused and so that not too much information would be given away.

The main authorial choices I made are associated with what specific content and emotions should be incorporated into the trailer. Looking at the Marvel trailer examples as well as other examples I made sure to focus more on emotion than on plot points. Additionally, by placing more focus on emotion than plot, the audience won’t be given too much information as to what the film pertains about, thus they can still watch the film and find it entertaining. I was more focused on the functional aspect rather than the structural aspect of translation because I just wanted the audience to notice the overarching themes rather than the minute details. There were also some other scenes that I initially placed into my film strip, however when I considered how long the trailer would be when the strip was actually created into a television trailer, I thought that the content would be too much, so I went from fourteen panels down to twelve panels. Even though I had less content in the film strip I was still able to more accurately depict the intentions the film and director wanted to portray within this genre of philosophical film.

The overarching genre of philosophical film, sometimes referred to as filmosophy, is better understood when people realize that film itself is the medium in which philosophical themes and concepts are portrayed. The genre of philosophical films can be considered as a resource, a source of examples and illustration, in order to elucidate philosophical ideas and questions. The primary discourse community is related to philosophy and its teachings. A major convention associated with the discourse community is that of over analysis. At times these communities tend to look at specific ideas and concepts that are present within the film and examine and scrutinize every aspect of the idea until at times they even begin to question the entirety of the idea. After reading numerous comments and critiques online form viewers all over the world from a wide age cohort, it can be deduced that there is no one solid way to interpret the film, thus my translation is just one way to depict what I believe the intention off the film to be. This ambiguity is also similar in the discourse comities associated with commercials as well as film strips. The ambiguity can also come from the fact that the television trailer based on the film strip can only have a certain time length, usually around thirty seconds to one minute, not enough content is covered, thus there is some ambiguity in the translation. Since this is a film strip that is supposed to later be created into a tv advertisement for the movie, I purposefully did not want to put too many details into the film strip and primarily just wanted to have a more of a big picture type of depiction instead.

A major convention associated with trailers is that of persuasion. The intention of a trailer is to persuade its audience into buying into whatever they are prompting. In this case, the trailer is promoting the philosophical film, Mr. Nobody and the film strip is essentially just a layout of what the trailer will consist of. In order to successfully capture the audience’s attention, the trailer should capture the mood of the movie, introduce several, but not all of the characters, and it should set up basic premise. All too often, trailers leave us with either too much information on the plot or not enough. Successful trailers find that sweet spot right in between. It tells us what we can expect to happen in the movie without giving away too much. Also, the trailer should focus on just focus on one or two characters that might get the audience excited instead of bombarding them with the whole ensemble. Within the film strip, there are only several characters that are introduced, and not all of the key plot points are mentioned, only enough to give a sense of what the movie will be about and enough to keep them intrigued.

The exigence that lied behind the creation of the film is associated with the desire to entertain the public, gain financial prosperity, and address several interesting philosophical questions regarding life as well as humanity. These motivations dictate how the money and effort will be spent towards the creation of the film. If the budget happens to be low, they might focus more on plot and less on special effects, scenery, and props, however in this case the budget for the film was quite high and the return was high as well which means the movie was a successful blockbuster. In order to have a successful blockbuster, you must have a captivating trailer and in order to create a trailer that will persuade people to actually go to the film, a film strip for the trailer must be created.

The film strips consist of elements of pathos, philosophy, as well as logos. The pathos comes in when Nemo Nobody has to make the decision to choose between his parents. This evokes an emotional response from the audience and makes them more committed to the story line, thus they have a desire to know more and actually go and watch the film. There are also elements of philosophy such as when Nemo says, “As long as you don’t choose, everything remains possible (Dormeal, 2009).” This line can also be considered as logos, because it stimulates a logical response from the audience. It should lead them to think to themselves and try to judge whether they agree with the rationale and logic of that statement or not.

Another concept that was integral to the translation of the film which I had to do background research in order to learn and acknowledge is that of lighting, set locations, and camera work. I also learned that it has to be taken into consideration that not too much information should be given away to the audience in terms of props such as advanced technology, and location. Since this movie takes place in the future and has numerous flashbacks into the past and back into the present, not too much information can be shown in the trailer, otherwise it will give away all of the plot line. Also, the fact that time is being manipulated could simply just end up confusing the audience rather than entertain and captivate their attention so that they actually want to go see the movie. Camera work should also be taken into careful consideration when making sure what scenes are worthy of making the cut into the trailer. Frequent use of close-ups can encourage the audience to identify with a character. Wide shots can emphasize the beauty of a scene or give a sense of emptiness. Also, different angles can make characters appear powerful and threatening or weak and frightened. In regard to lighting, soft and harsh lighting can manipulate the viewer’s attitude towards a setting or a character. The way light is used has the ability to make objects, people and environments look beautiful, artificial, or real. In the case of this film strip there is brighter light when the character appears too be happy, and the surrounding lighting appears to be more dim whenever Nemo Nobody encounters an unpleasant situation.

Translating this film into the film strip meant for television trailers was a difficult process however the reading “Discourse Communities and Communities of Practice: Membership, Conflict, and Diversity” by Johns allowed me to think critically about what the discourse community of film viewers as well as television trailer viewers desire and what they consider to be good content. The article helped me take into consideration as to what some of the forces are that end up making these specific communities both varied as well as intricate. Another reading that assisted me with my translation is that of “Navigating Genre” by Dirk. The lines “First, determine what action you are trying to accomplish”, and “Second, learn as much as you can about the situation for which you are writing” improved what I deemed to be integral and nonessential regarding the production of the film strip (Dirk, 2010). Unpacking the minute details within the film after asking myself the questions from these readings also provided me with a sense of freedom when I created the film strip. The sense of freedom primarily came from how I eventually became more comfortable with the source text and how I would go about translating it due to the extent in which I ended up analyzing and inspecting every element and aspect of the film.

The translation process may have been an enduring and lengthy process; however, the outcome makes it all worth it. By taking into consideration a multitude of questions from various sources, by attempting to break up the film into various manageable elements and using logic to figure out what merited a place in the film strip, the end result came together in a concise yet entertaining manner.

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Lu Zhai – Traditional Poem from the Tang Dynasty

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

A translation, not an adaptation

The poems from the Tang Dynasty have received widespread attention as they create unique, meaningful perspectives on nature without an emphasis of the human mind (Glaser). During this era, considered the peak of Chinese poetry, poets were interested in structure: most of the poems strictly contained 4 lines with 5 words in each line. One in particular, “Lu Zhai” by Wang Wei, has been translated in many ways with each version having its own merits and shortcomings. In order to truly convey the beauty of Wang Wei’s poem to modern English-language readers, the translator should not neglect the original form, meaning, and cultural ideals of the poem; thus, Wai-lim Yip’s almost trot translation, “Deer Enclosure” is a stronger translation than Chang Yin-Nan and Lewis C. Walmsley’s imitative translation, “Deer Forest Hermitage.”

Because it is evident that “Deer Enclosure” recognizes and respects the structural form of the traditional poems from the Tang Dynasty, this version is a stronger interpreted translation than “Deer Forest Hermitage.” A part of the beauty in “Lu Zhai” is the ability to convey a meaningful, alluring scene with only a few words – “Deer Enclosure” is simply crisp and concise. By translating it with a small amount of words, Yip is still able to convey the same meaning, keeping the concise impact of the original poem. Interestingly, the order of the words and the use of punctuation is also completely different for “Deer Forest Hermitage.” Since this translation only has one period throughout the entire piece, it makes the whole poem one blended concept, while the original, along with Yip’s attempt, has two periods almost as if it is reflecting upon two different ideas. The first sentence is about the quiet mountain while the second sentence is about the relationship between the moss and the sun’s reflection. Additionally, this particular version changes the couplets but it does not at all “improve the poem or the flow of imagery” (Weinberger 19). The original poem starts with a larger, general picture and then becomes specific with the reference of the moss and the diagonal light shining through. Before the Tang dynasty, poetic structure was not emphasized but because this Wang Wei poem was written in a time where structure became traditional, it is important that the translation at least attempts to keep the form, which is exactly what Yip attempts to do in his translation. “Deer Forest Hermitage” is simply not a translation, but rather an imitation of the Wang Wei’s poem.

Fidelity to the original title is critical: the terms “hermitage” and “forest” are not visible in the original Chinese characters from Wang Wei’s poem; therefore, the direct translation “Deer Enclosure” is a closer respectful version of the original. Hermitage is a place where a hermit—a social recluse—lives, or the term can also be defined as the “condition of a hermit” (“Hermitage”). Hence, the term “hermitage” almost contains a negative connotation in that someone or something excludes themselves from society. The part of the beauty in the poem is the inability to sense a human protagonist, yet being able to understand the subtle fascination of nature. I do not enjoy the title by Yin-Nan and Walmsley, for the utilization of “hermitage” in the title diminishes those beautiful aspects of the poem as it makes it seem like someone in the forest or the forest itself is a “hermit.” Notably, in short poems where every word makes a huge difference, the title is crucial in determining the emotional theme to the poem. In these poems, the title trickles down into the rest of the verses and creates a mood and can sometimes give a general theme for the reader. “Deer Enclosure” is practically a direct translation from Wang Wei’s original, and it even leaves room for more interpretation. “Deer Enclosure” is a stronger translation into English because it is concise and does not diverge from Wang Wei’s feel of nature that does not involve human beings.

Wang Wei chose specific words in his poem in order to depict certain imageries reflective of his ideals, thus by completely changing phrases or vocabulary in a way Yin-Nan and Walmsley do in their version, a translation loses the true sense of the masterpiece. In the original poem, the first line illustrates that the mountain does not have people in it. Yin-Nan and Walmsley translated that into a “lonely mountain,” giving the assumption that empty is equal to lonely. This is an unfavorable choice, for in Buddhism, there is a sense of peacefulness with the world and a beautiful calamity involved with the idea of emptiness. During the Tang Dynasty when this poem was written, Buddhist teachings were becoming increasingly taught and followed by people in China (Columbia University). Paul Rouzer, a professor of Chinese literature at Columbia University explains Buddhist quietism as “the idea of stilling the heart of passions when you live in reclusion.” As a Buddhist I know that the minimalism and emptiness of nature is beautiful and engaging in this religion. Wang Wei even labels his walks by himself “glorious moments all to myself” with nature (Ward). Postulating that empty is synonymous to lonely is a terrible translation and does not follow Wang Wei’s school of thought. A culturally important concept has been Americanized, as the translators in “Deer Forest Hermitage” looked over the ideological meanings each word has. Yip’s version honors the Buddhist ideals and because of his consideration in the poem, his translation is more loyal, and a more powerful translation than Yin-Nan and Walmsley’s version.

By adding new perspectives as a “translator” in a way Yin-Nan and Walmsley do, the imitation suggests different connotations and meanings compared to the original and is not reflective of what Wang Wei wanted to demonstrate poetically.“Deer Forest Hermitage” employs the phrase “motley patterns” which suggests that the mosses all look different and are unique of one another. However, there is no mention of such in the original and so it is not what Wang Wei wanted to convey in his poem. By including the word “motley,” Yin-Nan and Walmsley puts an unnecessary emphasis on the moss. There is a reason why Wang Wei did not write or even suggest “motley patterns” or “faint voices” in Chinese and it is not the translator’s position to change that. According to Vladimir Nabokov, the worst of the “three grades of evil” in the world of translation is when the masterpiece is modified, “beautified” by the translator (Nabokov). The “Deer Forest Hermitage” translation tampered with the artistic work in a way that does not work in his favor. Direct translations are never possible between languages; however, it is insulting to the authentic poem to change it and call it a “translation.”

Nonetheless, both versions of the poem include an aspect I appreciate in word choice, as they both incorporated a negation in the poem after the idea that there is no one to be seen on the mountain. In “Deer Enclosure” Yip chooses to insert “but” in the second line and Yin-Nan and Walmsley put this in the last line. Strategically, this makes sense as the original’s first character in the second line means “yet” or “but” (Glaser). I think this is a crucial part in the poem: the only exceptions to the evident nothingness are the human voices in the protagonist’s head or the forest air. Many of the translation versions did not do that and I believe that both “Deer Enclosure” and “Deer Forest Hermitage” did justice to that particular part in the poem.

“Deer Enclosure” is an admirable translation as it fulfills the role of allowing English readers to understand the concept of the poem without losing too much of the meaning or the structural clarity of the classical Chinese text. By incorporating the semi-colon in the first line, Yip is able to compose a concise line that develops an image that this particular mountain has seen no sign of humans. Furthermore, in Asian countries, the moisture in the air makes plants this blue-ish green—plants are thought to be so green in nature it was almost blue. The direct translation of blue may have confused an American audience, thus “Deer Enclosure” changed to adapt to the new readers, which seems to have worked. The purpose of translation is to be similar to the original while looking closely at the author’s style and original meaning. “Deer Enclosure” is the most similar in style, form, and meaning. Of course, for English speakers, Yip’s translation may appear choppy; however, I appreciate being able to see that this translation is in fact not the original version and I believe that the minor choppiness is only a small sacrifice in translating the poem with an appreciation to the author.

As a person who is trilingual, I understand the frustration that arises from the difficulty of translating specific words or phrases into other languages, for some expressions in a particular language simply do not exist in other languages. Linguistic differences are the outcome of cultural, societal differences, thus, languages are reflective of the population of those who speak the language. By evidently changing words and the form of the poem, a translation is no longer a translation as it takes away from the cultural significance the poem contains. “Deer Forest Hermitage” changes too many aspects of the poem while “Deer Enclosure” is a close, strong translation that makes phonetic sense grammatically, yet respects Wang Wei’s artistic words that built the poem. Perfection in translation is unattainable but Yip’s version comes close, as he directly translated the text, yet made sure it is still natural to read and also concise. Yip stayed true to the original in a way that respects Wang Wei. In doing so, English speakers now have the capability of experiencing the true beauty of “Deer Enclosure” the way the author intended it to be.

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The Origins of Translation as a Study and Its Further Evolution

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Translation as a study was shaped in the 1980s, as a fusion of literary study, history, linguistics, psychology, anthropology and economics, though reference to translators are available even in the Old Testament. Petrus Danielus Huetius defines translation as “a text written in a well-known language which refers to and represents a text in a language which is not as well known.” (Lefevere 1992: 1) “It has been denigrated as ‘uncommunicative’, ‘boring’, ‘pointless’, ‘difficult’, ‘irrelevant’, and the like, and has suffered from too close an association with its cousin, Grammar” (Duff 1991: 3). However, “two integrated activities, the comprehension of the original text and the production of the target text, frame the cognitive activity involved in translation” (Kiraly 1995: 64). The study of language was under the scrutiny of many scientists throughout history, including the famous linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. André Lefevere stated that translation is “a rewriting of an original text” (Lefevere 1992: xi), and since rewriting equals manipulation, it both helps “introduce new concepts, new genres, new devices” (ibidem), and also repress innovation.

The author tackles aspects like the ideological constraints that is risen by translating, “the position of a central text in a culture and of a central culture in a configuration of cultures” (Lefevere 1992: xiiv), its role in education as well as techniques, linking translation to rebellion and violence against its own nation. He places an equal sign between translation and power, translation and a window or a channel from whoever and whatever to anything in between. Stating that trust is more important than quality, he supports by examples different translations and translators, drawing a line between different types of readers and translators, without leaving behind the patron. “Translation needs to be studied in connection with power and patronage, ideology and poetics, with emphasis on the various attempts to shore up or undermine an existing ideology or an existing poetics” (idem 10). He groups the difficulties one may encounter into five groups: the nature of things and poems, allegories and fables, customs and features of heroic times, fictitious inventions and finally harmony of diction. Distinguishing between the challenges of translating prose versus poetry, the author defines good and bad translations: “bad translations render the letter without the spirit in a low and servile imitation; good translations keep the spirit without moving away from the letter; they are free and noble imitations that turn the familiar into something new”.

Peter Newmark identified four levels that for the process of translation: the textual, the referential, cohesive and naturalness levels. He stated that translation operates in three main areas such as science and technology; social, economic and/or political topics and institutions, which both provide a salary, and finally literary and philosophical works, only the latter being free-lance work. The author turned his idea of the dynamics of translation into a graphic form, shown in the picture, while operating with two basic concepts, that of a source language and a target language. His definition of translating is “rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text” (Newmark 1988: 5) Among the tensions anyone may face while translating, he identified oppositions between sound and sense, figurative and literal, semantic and pragmatic, concision and accuracy, word order and grammatical / lexical naturalness, neatness and comprehensiveness. He sees translation as equal to education, as means of communication as well as an instrument of transmitting culture. ”A satisfactory translation is always possible, but a good translator is never satisfied with it” (Newmark 1988: 6), because translation is a science, a skill, an art and a matter of taste, and has to have the equivalent effect.

Peter Newmark thinks that translation theory firstly identifies a translation problem, then indicates the factors involved, lists the possible translation procedures to finally recommend one. He also states that there are two purposes for reading a text. The first one is to understand it, using close or general reading and the second is to analyze it, determining its intension and the way it is written, to select a method for translation and to identify problems. Any text has a hidden point of view, so translators have to seek it in order to preserve it, no matter which of the four text styles it fits in: narrative, descriptive, dialogue or discussion. Manner is as important as the matter in the process of translation, which the author divided into three stages. Firstly one should choose a method of approach, secondly keep in mind the four levels: the source language text level, the referential one, cohesive, that unites comprehension with reproduction and finally naturalness. The third and last step is the procedure of revision. One may tackle translation by two approaches: sentence by sentence, trusting your intuition, or analyzing and reading it a few times before translating.

Donald Kiraly states that “there are three major sources of information available to the translator: knowledge stored in long-term memory, source text input, and external resources. […] Translation-related schemata include the translator’s understanding of translation norms and learned strategies, criteria for quality assessment, and potential sources of error when translating.” (Kiraly 1995: 102).

Eugene Nida in Contexts in translation states that contexts influence phonological aspect as well as grammatical, lexical aspects as well as historical aspects of each text (Nida 2001: 3). Professional translators should master technical terminology in modern fields such as merchandising, computer and environment. He also opposes translating to interpreting, since the first one is written, and the latter spoken, but however linked by the same purpose that is to produce the closest natural equivalent of the source text (2001: 9). Language is by far the identifying mark of a culture, as the sum of the opinions and dogma of a society (idem 13).

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Translation of American Film Titles into Chinese in Taiwan

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Hollywood movies have dominated film markets worldwide. Such domination is in clear evidence in Hong Kong and Taiwan1. In marketing these foreign-films for the consumption of the two Chinese communities, film distributors choose to translate the imported foreign film-titles into Chinese.

The translated film-titles are different in the two communities, with the Hong Kong ones being more descriptive, more colloquial and mostly rewritten or adapted, whereas the Taiwan ones are usually literally translated Although in both Chinese communities film-title translation is regarded as commercial translation, and although the act of translation is simply considered a marketing strategy adopted by local film distributors, the translators/distributors’ choice can, to some extent, reflect the taste of the local audience. If we take note of Venuti’s concept, the practice of film-title translation in Hong Kong is a good illustration of “domestication” in translation, where film-titles are translated into Chinese for the local audience by embedding local cultural elements or colloquial expressions in the translation. The Taiwan case is found closer to what Venuti calls “foreignization” in translation – that is to say, film-titles tend to be literally translated, preserving the tone and the diction of the original.

Regarding film-title translation as a commercial activity, the thesis seeks to examine the tendency toward foreignizing translation or domesticating translation through a comparative study of film-title translations in Hong Kong and Taiwan. The thesis also attempts to argue that, though Venuti praises foreignizing translation as an act to introduce foreign cultures and bring difference (i.e., to highlight linguistic and cultural difference carried in the foreign text) to the target culture, i.e., Anglo-American cultures, domesticating translation is perhaps the appropriate strategy to be adopted in the context of Hong Kong and Taiwan cultures to bring similar results, i.e., to introduce foreign cultures and to guarantee difference. This thesis makes no pretension to be comprehensive in its coverage. The material presented is restricted to the study of English-to-Chinese (E to C) translation, i.e., how foreign film-titles (mainly English titles) are translated into Chinese. Chinese-to-English (C to E) translation (i.e., the translation of the titles of the domestic Chinese films produced by Hong Kong and Taiwan filmmakers) is not included in my scope of research. If materials were available, a discussion of film-title translation in the PRC would be most interesting. My focus of examination in this thesis is on popular Hollywood feature films.

Examples of translated film-titles from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 1990 to 2002 will be offered as an illustration. It can be argued that the 1990s splits off as a decade of transition from literal translation to adaptation laced with colloquialism and even vulgarization. For this reason, foreign film-titles translated in this decade appear to best suit our purpose. The film-titles are culled from two publications on films, namely, Cinema in the Republic of China Year Book (Issue 1990 – 2000) and Hong Kong Films (1989-1990, 1992, 1994-5, 1998).

References will also be made to the two websites (Hong Kong) and (Taiwan), which are maintained by local film critics. 9.3 A Glimpse into the Future Since HK film distributors are convinced that domesticated film-titles dosed with colloquialisms or vulgarisms would help draw audience, such a practice will certainly prevail for as long as it is proven effective. Taiwan, on the other hand, has taken steps to become a code-mixing society starting from mid-1990s. With the government’s encouragement and the parents’ demand for English lessons for their children, Taiwan will soon become a bona fide bilingual society (English and Chinese) like Hong Kong.

Whether film-title translation will follow the precedent of Hong Kong remains to be seen. It is worth noting that, in view of the growing importation of foreign-films from places other than the US and United Kingdom (through International Film Festivals, VCDs and DVDs put out on the market, for example), the domesticating translation of foreign film-titles will continue to invite more audience to watch the films73, thus increasing the chance for the local audience to be exposed to foreign cultures other than the Anglo-American one. Also, with the use of the Internet, satellite TV74, the signing of the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA), the launch of individual travel scheme and more, the increase of commercial and cultural exchange among the three Chinese communities will be on the increase. It is also possible that the use of some form of Hong Kong Cantonese expressions will become fashionable in other Chinese communities. As a matter of fact, terms such as “老婆” (laopo), “老公” (laogong), “買單” (maidan), “好正” (haozheng), “正點” (zhengdian) are already gaining currency in parts of mainland China and Taiwan. Perhaps a time will come when the translation of foreign film-titles could be synchronized and accepted by the Chinese communities in mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.

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Vinay and Darbelnet: Direct and Oblique Translation

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet (1958/1995) identify two general translation strategies in their model; direct and oblique translation. They argue that translators in some cases may transpose the message of the ST element by element to the TT because of either a “structural parallelism” or a “metalinguistic parallelism” existing between the two languages. But translators may also encounter some gaps in the TL that require the use of “corresponding elements” so that the general effect is the same for the two messages. Further, because of structural or lexical differences between certain languages, some stylistic effects cannot be transposed without distorting the syntax or lexis of the TL. In such cases, more complex methods are to be used that Vinay and Darbelnet call “oblique translation methods” (Venuti, 2000, p.84).

Vinay and Darbelnet (1958/1995) suggest seven procedures that direct and oblique translation cover. The following three are considered to be direct:

  1. Borrowing: that is when a word in the ST is transferred directly to the TT.
  2. Calque: that is when an expression or structure in the ST is transferred directly to the TT.
  3. Literal translation: it is a word for word translation that Vinay and Darbelnet consider to be the most common between languages belonging to the same family and culture. The four oblique or indirect procedures of translation as suggested by Vinay and Darbelnet (1958/1995) are:
  4. Transposition: this is replacing a word class with another and without changing the meaning of the ST message.
  5. Modulation: it is a ‘variation of the form of the message’. The translator can resort to such a technique when other translations result in unsuitable or unidiomatic TT.
  6. Equivalence: this is different than Nida’s definition of the same term. To Vinay and Darbelnet, equivalence usually applies to the substation of proverbs and idioms in the TL. It is when languages describe the same situation but in different words.
  7. Adaptation: this is the ‘extreme limit of translation’, when the TL lacks the situation or cultural references described by the SL (Venuti, 2000, p.88-90).
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Manipulation of War Fiction

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

This chapter will begin with discussion of the results in section 5.1, and then it will continue with the explanation of conclusions of the study in section 5.2. After that, implications of the study will be introduced in section 5.3. The limitations of the study will be described in section 5.4. Finally, some suggestions for further study will be presented in section 5.5.


The aim of this study is concerned with the usage of manipulation strategies by translator in translation of Iranian war fiction in order to represent Iran as an uncivilized country. The findings revealed that, based on Zauberga’s (2004) model, translator used amplification, addition, substitution and deletion in order to have a desire effect on reader’s mind. In other words, according to Tymoczko (2003), the ideology of translation resides not only in the translated text, but also in the voicing and stance of the translator, and in its relevance to the receiving audience. In this regard the following paragraphs are examples of addition strategy extracted from Journey to Heading 270 Degrees.

It is cold out. I start bling openly and run back into the room , not waiting for Father to return. I ‘m not feeling well and go into other room. Mother

Carries a long pillow under her arm; she props my head with it. For a moment I imagine that she is carrying a corpse. The pillow’s dangling tassels are the body’s limbs. Without stooping she cannot bend her back. It seems she drops the pillow on the floor .It lands with a thud . I jump up. She looks at me and pretends to act normally. I stretch out on the cushion. Mother asks should I turn off the light or are you going to study ?

I say turn it off , will you ? Thanks.

I cover myself and the memories of the front come flooding back . I can not get the sound of tank treads oudt of my ear . I am on the battlefield (Journey to Heading 270 degree, translated by Sprachman,41)

After I receive my mobilization papers, my worries are over. I don’t return home by car. I feel a change in the weather. A chilly breeze blows, but it is not as cold as it has been these past days. The sky is blue, clear and crisp. I am not in town anymore; I ‘m in the war. I feel myself gliding from one front to another, as though my dreams have now taken the wings. Hey, you ass, have you lost your mind?

I come to, finding myself in the middle of the road with a car behind me hocking steadily. The driver has his head out of the window and is glaring at me. Drag that sorry corpse out of the way!

Someone takes me by the hand and pulls me away. The driver accelerates furiously and speeds past me. I go slowly to the edge of the road. Sewer water flows in the ditch which is stained with dried scum halfway up its banks. Hey, are you out of mind? I stand still, wanting to explode. I could strangle him with my own hands, whoever he may be. I turn around and say, Mister…You son of a….lously…!

Ali laughs. I rush toward him wanting to punch him in the face.

Bravo! So now my father has become a Mister? I embrace him and describe what just happened. He says, Let’s get something to drink . in this cold?

He takes my arm and leads me toward a cart with steaming hot beets.( Journey to Heading 270 degree, translated by Sprachman,43)

He removes the shirt with jerk of his hand. There is a stripping big lion tattooed in green on his chest, shinning in the sunlight. He picks up an RPG lying beside a corpse and runs out into the open. When I try to jump out of the foxhole, Rasool grabs my leg with his both hands. I look down at him. His head is tilted to one side as though he were keeling before some Hindu god begging it for something. He won’t let go of my leg. His face is the color of death. I push him aside, extract my leg and run out into plain. (Journey to Heading 270 degree, translated by Sprachman,208)

In example (1), (2) and (3) the words corpse, dust and death are repeated respectively in three paragraphs of translation. Generally speaking, repetition has great power in fiction. It can drive the reader away or draw him deeper into your imaginary events. Repetition can weave threads to hold your reader close or pound at your reader until he gets the unintended message therefore repetition of mentioned words construct the image of death in the mind of readers and also send the message that Iranian warrior will be killed finally. (Hill,2013).

In examples of (4) to (6) translators represented Iran as uncivilized country

The rows of houses pass by on both sides of the tracks. In the begging they are scattered here and there, but the further we go the denser they become, they crammed one next to the other. They seem like refugees from different places, shabbily dressed , their exteriors patched and stitched together made to stand in a reluctant formation.

We go by several children who have run from alleys to reach the rail siding. From the alleys farther on, some boys rush toward us with stones in their hands. Their arms rear back and they shout, perhaps to hurl at us both their stone and insults at the same time

Farther on, there is a petrified tree trunk lying on its side in dirt. A girl stands by it. her hair is long and blowing in the wind. She is wearing a red blouse with flowers. She devours us with her look. She raises her arm indecisively, stopping it abruptly in mid wave. Then all of a sudden she raises it fully and waves at us. As we pass by, we crane our necks to see her. She recedes into the distance but continues to wave at each window.

Shall we go? Ask Ali and then stands up. He retrieves his bag from mental rack above us. (Journey to Heading 270 degree, translated by Sprachman,49)

Both sides of avenue are lined with men and women in civilian clothes lying in blankets and looking toward the bridge. They have come over with names and addresses written on the scarps of paper. They give the scarps to anyone who passes, begging them to tell their loved ones that they are waiting on the other side of the bridge. Journey to Heading 270 degree, translated by Sprachman,54)

The bus crosses the bridge and enters Naderi Avenue, which is snarled with traffic. The sight of cars lined up from one end of avenue to the other is striking. They are not all drab and olive but a thousand colors and shapes peddlers have colonized the edge of sidewalks. A couple of beggar girls catch my attention. Their dresses are colorful, while they themselves are very brown. They are whispering to one another, focusing their attention on someone passing by man who seems relatively prosperous. As he approaches they dog their steps, which I had suspected they would. Their method is to latch onto someone and not abandon him until they have their money. (Journey to Heading 270 degree, translated by Sprachman,247)

In examples of (7), (8) and (9) the translator used hybrid language. According to Derida language acts as not only political instrument, but also as a cultural representation. Derrida is encouraging us to interpret language as a welcoming space, as a space reflecting our attitude towards the other, as a space for hospitality. However, The word hospitality has its own the cultural and political implications it carries with it to define the Other in terms of hospitality are many, and they lead to delicate subjects such as the question of strong and weak languages. In fact, hybrid language is put into practice whenever we consider the other to be a stranger, someone different.

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Manipulation in Translation

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

It is widely acknowledged that translation has played a major role in the dissemination of knowledge during the ages. Jianzhong (2005) mentions that scientific and technical translation includes all the practical fields but literary translation. Based on Williams and Chesterman (2002) scientific and technical translation covers the translation of many kinds of specialized texts in science and technology, and also in other disciplines such as economics and medicine. Considering the documentary (academic) nature of the source text included in this study, few attempts have been made so far to assess or evaluate the translations of such text and the study of manipulation of the translations in this genre have remained unnoticed. In addition, considering the significance of manipulation in the interpretation of the documentary texts and possible misunderstanding of the original message coded by the ST author, it seems necessary to study the strategies adopted by the translators of such documentary texts and see how these strategies have led to improvements or deficits in the TT. According to Byrne (2006) a very vivid description of the distinction between science and technology with regard to translation, stating that scientific translation relates to pure science in all of its theoretical, esoteric and cerebral glory while technical translation relates to how scientific knowledge is actually put into practical use, dirty fingernails and all.

Lefever (1992) has been one of the major theorists in the formation of the notion of re-writing in TS. As mentioned above, manipulation has close relations with re-writing, although Lefevere’s primary concern was poetics. His notions made it possible to study manipulation in literary texts. One of the very essential matters of literary translation has been style. The minimal unit of stylistic analysis can start from word style. It was commonly believed, especially in linguistic theories of TS, that a translation should keep a very close style to the ST, even at word level. However, Lefevere (1992) theory clarified that literary products are re-writings of the original and are finally influenced by the target language and translator’s personal style.

The impetus for an examination of the concept of equivalence in scientific and technical translation (STT) is both theoretically and practically motivated, since these two aspects are closely interrelated. The research findings are expected to develop translation studies in terms of quality assessment and the related analyses and depicting an image of the frequency of the strategies implemented by the translators as a norm of comparison via conducting a comprehensive translational analysis of the scientific (academic) text under the study. Accordingly the present study gains significance at analyzing the translation manipulation approach to shed more light in this domain of translation study in keeping with the latest developments in this area.

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A Corpus Based N-gram Hybrid Approach of Bengali to English Machine Translation

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


Machine translation means automatic translation which is performed by computer software. Although there are several approaches of machine translation, some of them require extensive linguistic knowledge while some oblige huge statistical calculations. Hence, this paper introduces a hybrid methodology integrating corpus based approach and statistical approach for translating Bengali sentences into English with the help of N-gram language model. The corpus based approach finds the corresponding target translation, selecting the best match text from the bilingual corpus to acquire knowledge while the n-gram model rearranges the sentence constituents to get accurate translation without employing any external linguistic rules. A variety of Bengali sentences of various structures and verb tenses are considered to be translated. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated in terms of WER, BLEU and F-measure, along with other conventional singleton approaches as well as Google Translate, a well-known machine translation service by Google. It has been found that experimental results of this work provide higher accuracy of 0.87 BLEU score over Google Translate and other methods.


Machine Translation, abbreviated as MT, pertains to the application of computers to automate some or all the processes of transforming text between any pairs natural human languages preserving the meaning and interpretation of both source and target languages [1]. It is a genesis of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Computational Linguistics (CL). Though numerous researches have conducted in this area, it is still a challenging job to produce a completely automated translation machine. Verily, human languages are complex in practical with versatile characteristics. The major barriers for translating human languages by computers are: Word order: different languages follow different order of sentence constituents; word sense ambiguity: same words and phrases have different meanings; syntactic complexity: sentences are often conducted by anomalous grammar rules; lexical variance: a word in one language is to be expressed by group of words in another; elliptical and ungrammatical construction of sentences. So far, researches are being conducted to overcome these shortcomings.

At present, different types of methods are used for machine translation, such as— direct, transfer, interlingua, corpus based, statistical approach etc. In this paper, a new approach has been proposed for Bengali to English automatic translation. The new method blends the idea of corpus based approach and n-gram language model of IBM.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II reviews some previous researches on this topic. Some core machine translation approaches are discussed in section III. Section IV describes the new proposed hybrid approach with complexity analysis and Section V illustrates the experimental result including the corpus and comparative study. Finally, Section VI concludes the paper with some future directions.

Related researches

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is the sixth most spoken language in the world by population. In approximate, 250 million speakers are there worldwide in this language. Unfortunately, quite a few research works have explored in developing machine translation software which uses Bengali as the source language and English as the target language. Most of the Bengali MT systems proceed towards English to Bengali translation. Several rule based and statistical approaches have been explored for English-Bengali translation. Moreover, researchers are more concerned about verb tenses rather than sentence types— simple, complex, compound. This research takes the fact into consideration and works on both sentence types and tense.

Reference introduces new parameters of statistical machine translation (SMT) along with the existing parameters to translate complex Bengali sentences. In , a rule based approach is initiated considering the influences of verb and case in Bengali assertive and interrogative sentences. Later on, reference develops a transfer based algorithm to correspond with meaning and context of Bengali sentences. A framework is designed using context sensitive grammar rules in. Another empirical framework is modeled in to translate imperative, optative and exclamatory Bengali texts. In the meantime, some researchers attempt to build systems for Bengali to other language translation except English. Reference presents an architecture integrating transfer method and statistical machine translation for Bengali to Hindi translation. A system to translate Bengali texts to Assamese is described in utilizing Moses (a tool for MT).

Core Machine Translation Approaches

The ideas and techniques of machine translation involve linguistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, automata theory, translation theory and statistics. Different approaches are applied to automate translation. Some of core methods are discussed in this section.

MT methods can be classified into two main categories: 1) Rule based and 2) Example based. Rule based MT strategies are basically knowledge based techniques. Linguistic knowledge in the form of rules is applied externally separating sentences into possible linguistic unit for both source and target language. RBMT methodologies require syntactic, semantic and morphological analysis in context of grammar and lexicon. These approaches are: i) Direct, ii) Transfer and iii) Interlingua approach. Example based approaches are mostly data driven and analogy based where a set of translated texts have already stored in a bilingual database. These methods attempt in the fashion of such kind of methods are: i) Corpus based and ii) Statistical machine translation.

Direct Approach

The most primitive MT method is direct translation which is implemented between pairs of languages and based on morphological analysis and glossaries. It relies too much on dictionary look-up. In the direct translation approach, the SL text is analyzed operationally based on morphology for both source and target language pair. Direct Approach has five steps to translate:

Source sentence: তারা ফুটবল খেলছে।

Morphological Analysis:

তারা ফুটবল খেলছে PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Constituent Identification:


Dictionary Look up:


They are playing football

Target sentence: They are playing football.

Transfer Approach

This approach performs translation task considering the structural differences between the source and target language. It requires to know syntactic structures of languages.

The transfer model involves three stages: i) Analysis, ii) Transfer and iii) Generation. In the first stage, the source sentence is parsed and the sentence structure and the constituents are identified. In the next stage, transformations are applied to the source language parse tree to convert the structure to that of the target language. Finally, the translation is done on the basis of morphology of target language. In other words, this method can be summarized as: first parse, then reorder, finally translate. Figure 1 shows an illustration of this approach.

Source sentence: আমরা ফুটবল খেলি।


Sentence—আমরা [SUB] + ফুটবল [OBJ] + খেলি [VERB]





Target sentence: We play football.

Step 1: Analysis Step 2: Transfer Step 3: Generation

Transfer approach.

Interlingua Approach

Interlingua approach investigates a language-neutral analysis of the text. In this approach, the translation task comprises of two phases. First, the Source Language (SL) is converted into an intermediary form called Interlingua (IL) and then IL invokes the generation of text for Target Language (TL). IL shares an independent underlying representation from which translations can be generated to different TLs.

Source sentence: আমরা কলম দিয়ে লেখি।


Interlingua (IL) Representation:


ACTION write

INSTRUMENT pen number: singular

TENSE present


We write (with) pen.

Target sentence: We write with pen.

Corpus based Approach

Corpus-based machine translation (CBMT) approach is characterized by the use of a bilingual corpus at run time instead of human encoded linguistic knowledge. Previously translated texts are stored in a parallel training corpus and new sentences to be translated are treated as test set. The idea of this translation approach mitigates the need of prior translation rules and inspires to reuse the examples to create knowledge.

The method, at first, decomposes source sentence into fragments, finds translation for each of those from parallel corpus and then recomposes them accordingly. The most amazing thing with CBMT is it can be applied to any language pairs that have a parallel corpus and the only linguistic thing is to know is how to split into sentences.

Source sentence: তারা বাগানে কাজ করছে।

Bilingual Corpus:

তারাপড়ছে — They arereading.

আমরাখামারেকাজ করছি — We arein the farmworking.

তুমিবাগানেখেলছ — You arein the gardenplaying.

Target sentence: They are working in the garden.

Statistical Machine Translation

Statistical machine translation (SMT) is a data-oriented empirical translation framework which is based on probability distribution function. It finds the most likely translation among all possible target sentences by calculating the highest probability using Eq.

t ̂_1^I=(arg max)┬(t_1^I )⁡〖 {Pr(t_1^J |s_1^I )}〗

e ̂_1^I=(arg max)┬(t_1^I )⁡〖 {Pr(t_1^I ).Pr(s_1^J |t_1^I )}〗 … (1)

Given, a source sentence s_1^J=s_1…s_J to be translated into a target sentence t_1^I=t_1…t_I, where J and I indicates the number of words in the source and target sentence, respectively. The argmax operation denotes the search to generate output sentence while Pr(t_1^I ) is the language model of the target language and Pr(s_1^J |t_1^I ) is the translation model. It is noted that translation model of SMT assigns higher probability to the corresponding translation using a bilingual corpus while language model consigns to fluent or grammatically correct sentence from a monolingual corpus. SMT also requires search techniques and alignments to get the output.

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