Important Characteristics for Effective Teaching Essay
Teaching is very vital in the learning process. The success of effective teaching is greatly dependent on the characteristics possessed by the person providing teaching services. This paper discusses characteristics of learning process and also provides statements of self-evaluation criteria for the characteristics.
Characteristics that you feel are most important for effective teaching
The first characteristic of effective learning is being able to establish parameters. The teachers define the tasks in a very clear manner and set high levels of anticipations and for students’ behavior and learning. The teachers should be able to set parameters within which students can achieve effective learning, meet set expectations and generate outcome.
The established parameters should be measurable; have the ability to be appraised. The self evaluation criteria are by way of measuring how students are performing within the teacher’s set teaching parameters; the performance of students are supposed to be evaluated through assignments and outcomes recorded and compared periodically (Adam & Pierce, 2010).
The second characteristic is that the teacher should be able to deal with required changes from a positive standpoint. In this case, essential learning requires hottest feedback that is presented in a positive manner. However, extremely negative feedbacks also need to be communicated, but with the sensitivity of the possible harm they are likely to cause.
Teachers should reward good performance by congratulating the performer and at the same time offer ways on which performance can be enhanced or improved. For self evaluation criteria, the teacher should monitor reactions of his or her students after communicating both positive and negative feedbacks to the students; the teacher should record such reactions and compare them over time (Adam & Pierce, 2010).
The third characteristic is that the teacher should use student-centered teaching method. This means that while the teacher engages in planning for his or her teaching sessions, he or she should incorporate ways and means through which the students will be fully engaged during the teaching or learning process.
This implies that the teachers or instructors should plan their teaching lessons with students in mind. This may involve taking into account the cultural, racial, and religious backgrounds of the students in his or her class. Besides, the instructors should be able to plan according to each student’s personal needs. The self evaluation criteria will be through gauging the level of student participation during lesson periods (Adam & Pierce, 2010).
Fourth characteristic is that the teacher should be able to come up with strategies to establish individual investments for each student and help them develop interest in learning. In other words the teacher should be able to cultivate the curiosity for knowledge within students. Some of the strategies may include giving rewards to highly performing students, students who are always active in class and even offering scholarships to outstanding performers.
While doing this, it is important for the teacher or instructor to ensure that the students are encouraged to maintain their high achievements and also be able to help low performers to improve their individual performance. The criteria for evaluation should be by looking at how the students are responding to strategies put in place to motivate the students (Adam &Pierce, 2010).
The last characteristic is enthusiasm. The teacher can only make students interested in learning when he or she has enthusiasm. The teacher should first show he or she is enthusiastic about the lessons and through contagion, the students too will develop interest and achieve effective learning. The evaluative criteria here should be monitoring how prepared students are for the lesson and how they participate in the learning process (Adam &Pierce, 2010).
The aforementioned characteristics are not exhaustive but are very vital part of effective learning. They include enthusiasm, student-centered learning, and establishing learning parameters, establishing individual based strategies and dealing with required changes.
Adam, C. & Pierce. (2010). Characteristics of Effective Teacher. Web.
The Importance of the Logical – Mathematical Intelligence in Mathematics Teaching Report
Howard Gardner provides a number of intelligence which can be exploited by a teacher in a teaching – learning environment. Gardner’s approach simply advocates for the adjustment of instructional techniques in order to cater for individual needs (Brualdi, 2001). While teaching mathematics, teachers should pay attention to logical – mathematical intelligence.
This kind of intelligence expresses the ability of a learner to identify a blueprint, form a reason to a specific mathematical answer, and ultimately employ logical thoughts in any kind of response (Brualdi, 2001).
Mathematical- logical intelligence is evident in young kids when they involve themselves in organizing and re-organizing things (Brualdi, 2001). As time goes by, children are able to do simple calculations without the aid objects. With progression of this kind of intelligence, some learners gain access to abstract world consequently recording a success in mathematics field.
This category of learners is systematic in reasoning complex and integrated mathematical procedures. They therefore form the backbone of a classroom where other learners can rely on for guidance. Moreover, students with abstract reasoning are fast in calculating mathematical questions. These features are evident early in a child’s life.
Math and science are co-related but also diverse in nature. While mathematics exploits the abstract world, science operates with realism. Scientist applies scientific tools and procedures in a bid to proof actuality. On the other hand, mathematicians are more concerned with patterns.
A teacher is under strict obligation to discover students with ability to form patterns and subsequently integrate them into groups with other kinds of students in order to achieve higher performance. This forms a reason for the development of mathematical – logical intelligence.
Integrated curriculum design is applicable to disciplines like mathematics because of the existence of its sub – units comprising of geometry, algebra, statistics, arithmetic, calculus, probability, and ordinary deferential equations. Other social sciences including sociology, geography and political science can also be integrated to form social studies.
The benefit attached to integrated curriculum is that knowledge and skill gained is more beneficial to a learner. Subsequently, a teacher can expand the choice of subject matter i.e. geometry or algebra (Webb, 2009). On a higher note, integrated curriculum allows integration of different areas of study like science and mathematics to form futuristic which is more beneficial to a learner.
Since a teacher prepares a student for future life’s challenges, there is need for a more diversified knowledge and skills. Integrated curriculum design is widely employed at a lower level of learning where a combination of subjects like art and music can be taught concurrently for a short period of time.
To further develop mathematical – logical intelligence at a higher learning level, subject – centered design is most appropriate since it distinguishes the importance of the subject in development of intellect. This also forms a reason for going through the education system. Webb (2009) states clearly that ‘Notwithstanding the fact that subject – centered curriculum has been in existence for centuries, it is supported by essentialist and perennialist educational theories’.
In this case, essentialist maintains that the curriculum must represent the knowledge and skills imperative in a society. This is why mathematics is presented from a subject – area curriculum design where a subject is taught so as to propagate the norms and values of a society. The design is employed at an advanced study level i.e. a university or any other institution of higher learning.
Brualdi, A. (2001, April 16). ‘‘Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Theory.’’ Eric Digest. V33 (4), P48-53.
Webb, D., Metha, A., & Jordan. F. (2009). Foundations of America Education. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Incorporating Environmental/Ecological Education Into Your Teaching Research Paper
As a part of an effective teaching process, it is important to integrate environmental factors so that learners can have a test of reality.
When constructing a plan of your lesson, it is relevant to take into consideration the problems affecting the local community and authenticity of the curriculum of the school you are teaching and traditional practices that might affect your teaching. As part of preparation, it is important to take into consideration intellectual and moral levels of learners. A lesson that is considered to be successful is one that attains the expectations of a given school curriculum.
It incorporates, critical and creative thinking, learners own inventions, cooperation in the learning process and encouraging questioning. In this lesson I am going to discuss about organizational networks that are working towards sustainability of the coastal region of Trinidad and Tobago.
Issues of environmental management in Trinidad and Tobago along the coastal regions have become a major concern among several organizations. The coastal strip is a big hub of economic activities that benefits the whole country as well as a home to diverse marine and terrestrial vegetation.
Fish processing companies, infrastructure developers, residents compete for the scarce resources along with birds, and aquatic animals. Rice farmers are invading farms along the conserved Navira mangrove swamps to expand their plantations. Land is being cleared for economic benefits that include tourism, real estate and industrial development. Therefore, this implies that the economy of Trinidad and Tobago depends on full utility of coastal resources.
In this lesson, we are going to propose ways through which individual, groups and institutions can do to ensure conservation of the environment. At this point of the lesson, students would be given a chance to participate in discussion about how these stakeholders can participate to conserve the environment.
The discussion is going to be open with no preconditions from resource management authorities and views are going to revolve around conserving the environment.
Government authorities concerned with environmental conservation are likely to succeed if they devolve their powers by enabling individuals and groups to participate in ecological preservation, which calls for wide participation and the need for organizations to expand their networks.
The success of environmental conservation would also be dependent on collaboration of several institutions at different levels. Research has revealed that, when several institutions combine their findings and resources, an inclusive approach would be realized.
Authorities concerned with environmental conservation should draw a plan to include participation of all stakeholders when drawing their framework. In the framework, roles of all stakeholders should be stated that include the local community, formal and non formal organizations and government regulation authorities.
In this approach, all stakeholders in the framework are interviewed to come up with solutions of environmental conservation. The participants to be interviewed include government authorities concerned with urban planning and development, industrial fish regulators and other agents through participation in seminars of ecological preservation.
Findings from the seminars are analyzed to find the best approach to tackle environmental degradation using an inclusive approach of all stakeholders. The benefit of this approach is to appreciate efforts of community institutions to facilitate implementation of practical solutions to resource management and environmental conservation.
The idea of collective responsibility seems to offer inclusive participation in environmental conservation along the coastal region. Practically, collective responsibility has proven to provide solutions to environmental and resource management which is achieved through setting up guidelines for attaining collective action.
Through this approach, some ideologies have arisen and have been agreed upon that include: The size of a group can determine the success of agreed actions, groups with few individuals are more likely to agree on issues than groups with more people, hence, smaller groups have a higher tendency to succeed.
Secondly, groups that are characterized with inequality are likely to make poor collective actions. Lastly, for group actions to succeed, alternative benefits ought to be introduced to ensure all the desires of members are met.
Another threatening factor to the environment along the coastal regions of Latin America is increasing levels of emission of carbon dioxide.
The global trend of emissions has been amazing and anticipated effects might be worse than expected. In spite of the fact that effects are felt globally, some areas are likely to be worst affected. Trinidad and Tobago is likely to be affected by carbon emissions because of instability of the nation in terms of national capital and depletion of climate sensitive ecosystems.
Thorhaugh (445) wrote that, “Authorities have been doing their best to ensure that adaptation measures are put in place to deal with sudden climatic conditions since mid nineties.” This program has focused on sensitive climate hotspots in the coastal region.
When carbon dioxide emissions increase in the atmosphere, it increases the of ocean chemistry which in turn impacts negatively to natural characteristics of the coastal ecosystem, thereby changing the environment. As a result, the nation is at risk of losing marine biodiversity and shore borders. When surface temperature of the sea increases, it poses a big danger to existence of coral reefs.
A combination of increased temperatures and carbon emissions increase the acidity of sea water converting them to weeds of rubble. Wetlands would be affected by climatic changes that come along affecting its natural duty of curbing floods, protecting storm, stopping erosion and acting as historical sites (Halpin, 10).
Wetlands are already facing danger due to invasion by land users who want to benefit themselves. Rampant deforestation and pollution has accelerated the effects of climatic distraction. Increasing use of land poses a danger to the ecosystems ability to sustain normal weather conditions thus worsening climate effects along the coast.
A rise in the sea level could threaten fresh water due to displacement, thereby posing a danger to fresh water habitats. Dependants of fresh water could be affected because of the effect associated with feeding. Business would go down among people who rely on fish because of adverse effects of the environment affecting fisheries.
Authorities along the coastal regions have come up with activities that would help resist climatic impacts that include the following: Instituting measures that make sure that people adapt to wetlands. Several human activities such as agriculture, industrialization are put on watch as a major threat to the coastal environment. Wetlands perform a critical role in the economy over a wide circumference hence, the need to protect it.
Changing direction of rivers would affect physical existence of the swamps, resulting to negative impacts of the economic activities. Due to the fact that coral reefs support most marine animals, authorities have proposed measures for adaptation of climatic impacts along the coast (Hallock, 360).
According to Gascon (790), “Nariva Ramsar is the biggest wetland in Trinidad and Tobago with a variety of features that characterize all types of swamps. It is home to many species of birds and trees.” Based on the importance of this area, the government has offered protection to this area as one of the most important ecosystems in Trinidad and Tobago.
The protected area is almost sixteen thousand hectares though the real wetland covers around seven thousand hectares. The remaining cover serves to protect the inner wetland. Gascon (792) wrote that, “Nariva has varied vegetation that includes a normal forest and swampy forest.”
Navira is the sole protected marine area in Trinidad and Tobago. It is situated at the centre of growing tourism industry, with almost forty thousand tourists visiting the area each year to view the beauty of the reefs. At the moment, the only threat is sewerage and pollution from farming activities.
The government and World Bank support initiatives that are geared towards conservation of Nariva by recognizing the benefits it offers as a carbon sinker and a unique ecosystem. Restoration would come with more benefits like reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and conservation of unique species of birds and plants.
Total restoration would lead to reduced effects of thunderstorm, because of the nature of wetlands to arrest them. As we move on with our daily activities, there is need to step up measures to protect coastal environment and its image in order to protect the marine and avoid adverse effects of climate change (Spieler, 1014).
There is need to combine traditional methods of conservation of environment and modern systems such as carbon sinking. Integration of these methods would provide practical approaches of environmental conservation and awareness.
Gascon, Miller. Space utilization in a community of temperate reef fishes inhabiting small experimental artificial reefs. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 60:798-806. 1982.
Hallock, Peter. Coral Reef Decline: Research Exploration 9(3):358-378. 1993. Print.
Halpin, Treml. Spatial Ecology of coral reefs. California: ESRI Press. 2002: p 11-23
Spieler, Rene. Artificial substrate and coral reef restoration: What do we need to know to know what we need? Bulletin of Marine Science 69(2):1013-1030. 2001. Print.
Thorhaugh, Anders. Large scale sea grass restoration in a damaged estuary. Marine pollution Buleltin. 18(8): 442-446. 1987. Print.
Teaching in Schools and Creativity of Students Essay
While we appreciate the major strides made in the growth and development of educational standards in United States, there seems to be a glaring disparity between theoretical and practical work that students learn in both public and private schools.
One important area of concern is the teaching of art subjects that definitely demand more practical lessons than theory. The education system has resorted to value creation in academic tests and scores with impressive GPA in total disregard of the creativity potential of learners.
Needless to say, creativity among students can only be nurtured in an environment where both theory and practical work are fairly integrated in the course of learning. This essay explores how full time teaching has suffocated the creativity of students in learning institutions.
As it is common with all scientific related subjects, most intriguing problems are usually solved practically in laboratories through rigorous experiments. It is also appreciated that science related subjects may not be fully understood whenever practical sessions that enhance creativity are not made part and parcel of the learning objectives (Craft 147-148).
Indeed, students in various grades of schooling tend to develop affinity and interest whenever they are exposed to realistic learning environments where they can exercise their free will, ability to think and make decisions independently as well as the liberty to experiment with nature and possibly make ‘mistakes’.
Should this be anything to go by, then it implies that too much feeding of theory based content to students is a clear recipe for gagging an individual’s ability to think and act without external influence.
Worse still, the fact that learners are overfed with old academic content means it will be cumbersome to harness the development of creative and thoughtful ideas from young minds. Unfortunately, this is a common trend in the teaching and delivery of art-based subjects that do not require well set up laboratories for performing experiments and deducing results.
Moreover, students taking art subjects have been compelled to either do too much of referring other pieces of literature from other secondary sources or turn to their tutors for consultations. In fact, the most aptly way of describing this learning scenario is that students have developed dependency syndrome in acquiring requisite knowledge. The major concern among teachers and students is merely how to obtain better GPA scores as well as quick fix strategies on how to excel through the SAT Critical Reading part.
Whether this has been helpful or not in nurturing creativity among learners remains to be debatable. Nonetheless, it is common knowledge for students to resort to hit-and run strategies when their focus is all about attaining higher academic standards. It is also not unusual to come across cases of graduate students from various levels of learning who cannot prevail in deductive thinking and problem solving, largely due to lack of creativity.
The standardized tests offered to American students at the end of each academic year are indeed plausible. Nevertheless, if teachers concentrate more on theory than creativity in the learning process, then we should be rest assured that the eyes of the American education will continue to darken unless urgent and more pragmatic measures are taken to reverse the situation (Jeffrey & Woods 68).
It is also disheartening to note that our school systems may be running like corporations or business enterprises that have vested interests in profits per se. The reality in our education system today is clear; that students are admitted to learning institutions after meeting certain basic requirements such as academic merit and payment of academic dues and levies.
After the process of enrolment, promoting creativity and talent seems not to be a major objective of learning. As much as students gain theoretical knowledge while at school, they can hardly go beyond regurgitating what they have learnt in class.
Definitely, this is apparently a wrong step in the right path of education. Perhaps, what the policy makers in the education sector have not realized is that the natural ability of students is not concentrated in the brain alone. There are children who may not be exceptionally bright academically but they are altogether talented in other areas of life.
Consequently, pumping excessive theory wok into their heads may not be fruitful at all but disastrous in the long run due to lost time, resources and opportunities. But then, why is this the case? Most empirical research studies hat have been conducted on student creativity versus academic scores reveal astounding results.
While academic excellence is directly related to Intelligence Quotient (IQ), creativity is largely pre-determined and controlled by emotional intelligence (Kohn 105). Interestingly, there are vast records of some past philosophers, thinkers and theorists who never made it in class.
A case in point is Albert Einstein, a physical scientist who was ever referred by his teacher as a good for nothing pupil in class since he always emerged the bottom in class. Surprisingly, Einstein spent mammoth resources as well as time in developing a creative idea on the relationship between energy and mass.
To date, he remains to be one of the most cherished scientists of the modern world bearing in mind that his equation is practically applicable in real life situations. Should such a character been restrained from exercising his creativity, then he would have been good for nothing fellow, not just as a school going child, but also in life.
At this point of discussion, it is imperative to appreciate the fact that schools provide a basic ground where elementary knowledge can be acquired. Besides, any learning environment is a potential setting for interaction and developing skills and competences that would otherwise be impossible to harness in a home or isolated environment.
Unfortunately, our educational culture appears to be so much inclined to what has already been processed in the past rather than developing new and fresh ideas. It is a culture that recycles the old stuff in an attempt to make it useful for current use.
However, this may not work in a fast moving world that that has been punctuated with competition and survival for the fittest (Mayesky 71). The fact that the world has turned into a global village calls for a more creative nation. The latter may not be realized unless we allow natural ability to be exercised freely by students in schools.
Assessing education as a platform for competition rather than a vital resource for building the nation is yet another loophole in our educational culture. Making a list of numbers that will eventually dictate the individual ability of a student is a misplaced priority that completely ignores or underestimates the value of education (Geist & Jennifer 145).
By passing on huge chunks of theory to learners and using the same as a definite measure for success for learners, we gag the ability of those other learners who may be excellent in other domains in life.
The scenario is aggravated when the teaching staff insinuates competition among students as the most vital tool for excelling in life. By fact, an environment where individual unique creativity is being enhanced will definitely lead to better results and optimum production since each of the learner will be striving to be the best in his or her area of prowess (Thorne 32).
The ability of students should be determined by their curiosity for knowledge as well as individual integrity. In line with this, the capacity of a student to perform should be envisaged in the way he or she attempts to seek solutions to prevailing challenges in a more creative approach (Wu 126).
These are powerful implications if they are to be put into action at any level of learning. For instance, when learners acquire theoretical knowledge that has been passed from one decade or century to another, their personal integrity will not be brought onto the surface. In other words, it will be close to impossible to comprehend the type of people they are, let alone their unique underlying abilities.
Additionally, a fully loaded theoretical learning environment and where creativity is not in place is likely to kill the curiosity of learners to acquire knowledge that is pragmatic and useful in their lives. Having said this, a creative approach to issues is overly necessary especially for a graduate student who is perceived by the society as not only knowledgeable but also critical in problem solving.
As it stands now, our education system is fairly good but lacks the vital ingredient of developing creativity. We tend to think and overshadow ourselves with the fact that the system of tests and cut-throat competition will eventually land America into knowledge euphoria. It takes more than just theory work to fully build an independent human capacity that is void of reliance on other sources in order to perform.
In any case, the American education system has to some extent, insinuated that those students who do not excel academically and end up as pop stars or otherwise, is failures in life. It is a misconception of reality that has graduated into a myth in some quarters. Students who score As in class are equally god as those who end up in performing arts.
The emphasis given to creativity in this essay does not imply that other elements of learning are less important. It is paramount to reiterate the fact that systems and structures cannot be ignored whenever setting up any form of project, let’s say a school. The modality used to develop these very systems and structures is by far and large, dependent on the level of creativity of the doer. For instance, it is creative work as well as stressful to design a building (Wu 125).
The design of the given building will not be functional if the real task of imagination (and so creativity) is not injected in the process. This is analogous to our system of education. We apparently fail to acknowledge that developing a human mind through the acquisition of requisite knowledge is indeed an art of design that is not done well, will lead into regretful failure.
One single most important question that we are left to debate here is that,how should basic educational knowledge be delivered to our children without leaving them brain-naked and unable to think for themselves? Indeed, a clear-cut and easy answer for this question is not readily available; more deliberations is needed (Lewis 255).
Routines and structures are necessary in our day-to-day lives in order to function normally and optimally. Just like adults, school going children are creatures of habit that eventually determines the stability of our foundation. For children in particular, lack of well defined structure, whether in home or school settings, is likely to cause some form of instability especially in regard to their learning needs.
At one point, they may stop caring thinking that they are either mentally incapacitated when they are poorly performing in class or useless beings that did not deserve to live.
Let us imagine of a scenario when such category of children are not attended to. In any case, they may be well endowed with unique abilities that may benefit them in other areas of life. However, too much concentration on the absorption of theoretical literature by students may as well be suicidal to the dreams and aspirations of children (Starko 48).
Educational psychologists have widely emphasized the importance of striking equilibrium between leisure and class work (Wu 125). It is through play that children learn to be creative. In other words, creativity is derived from play sessions. Although class work entails the use of the mind in most times, it may also incorporate some degree of creativity.
What does this insinuate? In spite of the rigid guidelines and time constraints a teacher has in any given day, it is still not impossibility for a teacher to devise an environment of fun and creativity while teaching so that the gap between the two extremes is closely narrowed.
The art and music classes in school curriculum have been structured for long. Worst of all is the fact that these lessons have been strictly structured in some cases. As a result, it has been quite cumbersome for students who wish to pursue some of these subjects to fully engage themselves in acquiring the relevant knowledge.
As such, they end half-baking themselves with quite a number of subjects that do not elicit their creativity or ability in any way. Teachers have also worsened the situation by sticking to certain conventional models of teaching that do not match the current needs of learning. One such area is the way they typically deliver lesson content when teaching. To some students, such old approaches are hard getting along with.
Much has been said about teachers and how they have tentatively contributed towards the loss of creativity among children. To hit the nail on the head, it is worth pointing out that parents too, have a role to play in nurturing not only creativity but also talent among their children (Coleman & Cross 88).
It is obvious that the process of successful learning demands three key players namely the student, parent and teacher. If one of three relaxes or withdraw from performing his or her role, the end result will not be impressive.
It is upon parents to monitor both the academic and talent (and so creativity) growth of their children. In some instances, it is possible for children to develop rebellious attitude towards learning only to blame it on teachers and the school systems. Besides, it is pertinent for parents to learn that not all content in their child’s mind is acquired from schoolwork.
The creativity spark in a child’s mind can be rekindled by a parent when the latter opts to undertake simple activities at home together with the child. For example, using Google search engine, the child can be directed on how to learn more about an issue of interest and in the process enhance creativity.
Coleman, J. Laurence & Cross, L. Tracy. Being gifted in school: an introduction to development, guidance, and teaching, Texas: Prufrock Press, 2001.
Craft, Anna. Creativity in schools: tensions and dilemmas, Oxon: Routledge, 2005. Geist, Eugene & Jennifer, Hohn. Encouraging creativity in the face of administrative convenience: how our schools discourage divergent thinking. Education 130.1 (2009): 141-150.
Jeffrey, Bob & Woods, Peter. The creative school: a framework for success, quality and effectiveness, Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003.
Kohn, Alfie. The schools our children deserve: moving beyond traditional classrooms and tougher standards. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. Lewis, Theodore. Creativity in technology education: providing children with glimpses of their inventive potential. International Journal of Technology and Design Education 19.3 (2009): 255.
Mayesky, Mary. Creative Activities for Young Children, New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.
Starko, J. Alane. Creativity in the Classroom: Schools of Curious Delight, New York: Routledge, 2010.
Thorne, Kaye. Essential creativity in the classroom: inspiring kids, Oxon: Routledge, 2007.
Wu, Weidong. Development Trend Study of Divergent Thinking among Students from Primary to Middle School. International Journal of Psychological Studies 2.1 (2010): 122-127
Effective Teaching of Reading in Education Essay
Effective teaching of reading is an important aspect as reading does not come as naturally as speaking. Children do not learn how to read just by being exposed to reading materials, but rather, for them to learn this important skill, they ought to be taught explicitly and systematically.
To start with, it is important to establish the main aim of teaching reading as there are several reasons why a learner can read. For instance, one can read in order to develop his/her knowledge of the language of instruction or for fun. An individual may also read for the purpose of gathering information or for confirming the authenticity of the knowledge at hand or even to critically assess someone’s thoughts or style of writing.
Establishing the intention of reading affects the most effective method of comprehension reading. For instance, in case a person is reading a particular poem for the purpose of gratification, he/she is only required to make out the words used by the poet and the manner in which they are presented and has no need to classify the subject of the poem.
On the other hand, in case an individual uses a scientific article with the aim of supporting a certain outlook, one requires to have been exposed to the terminologies being used. He/she should also comprehend the specific information as well as the cause-effect cycle of the information presented. This encompasses the main objective of teaching reading to learners in our learning institutions.
In the past, my main failure in teaching reading was mainly attributed to my presumption of the aim of learning how to read in a language, which I viewed as merely to get the content written in a given lingo. During that time, I mainly restricted teaching reading to literary texts that indicated a deep affiliation to culture.
However, this approach was wrong because it presupposed that students learn to read in a particular language only through learning its terminologies, words and sentence structures, but not by actually reading it, which ignores the aspect of communicative competence.
However, as a result of learning the importance of communicative approach and applying it in the teaching of reading, I have had a better perception of the role of reading as well as the types of texts to be applied in teaching reading in any given language, as a result of which I have succeeded in this endeavor.
When a teacher’s main objective of teaching reading encompasses communicative competence, diverse reading materials such as newspapers, comprehension text books as well as internet should be used. This is because exposing the learners to diverse reading materials develops their communicative competence tremendously. For this reason, we cannot separate instruction in reading from reading practice at any one time.
As an instructor of reading skills, I plan to lay out some comprehension strategies that my learners will employ in order to reap maximum benefits from any given texts in future. This way, the learners will learn to become dynamic and focused readers who can manage reading comprehension on their own.
The strategies include instruction on comprehension monitoring where I will teach the learners on how to be aware of what they understand and make out whatever they do not comprehend as well as employ suitable means of solving comprehension problems. In addition,
I will expose the learners to metacognition skills which will require them to have control over their reading and establish the purpose of reading prior to the reading process, while establishing the hurdles they encounter in understanding a particular comprehension. Furthermore, I will teach the learners on how to make use of semantic as well as graphic organizers for effective understanding.
These include diagrams as well as subject words that are crucial in understanding any comprehension. Other important aspects that I plan to teach include formulating and answering comprehension questions, elaborating the structure of the story as well as summarizing the main components of a given comprehension.
In conclusion, even though a teacher is crucial in instructing effective comprehension skills, the benefits can only be achieved through cooperative learning. Learners should work hand in hand with each other in order to comprehend texts. Besides, they should also employ the given strategies of comprehension reading. We as the instructors should assist the learners to work in groups and model the reading strategies to them.
The core teaching of Jesus Essay
During his time of ministry, Jesus taught many teachings through parables, proverbs, and wise sayings to his 12 disciples and the crowds that followed him wherever he went. Unlike the prophets who came before him, Jesus taught with authority (Mathew 7:29). He forgave sinners, cleansed the unclean, and performed many miracles that baffled the Pharisees and the teachers of the law. Like the prophets before him, he came with God’s divine message and purpose, to fulfill the word.
Many people including Jesus’ disciples returned to him secretly to learn the deeper meaning of his parables. Even though he eluded the Kingdom of God to things familiar to them, they could not still understand him. The core of Jesus’ teachings was on the fact that God love us and that we should love each other just as he has demonstrated his love to us.Many of other Jesus’teachings gave strength to this core teaching of love.
When Jesus’ disciples asked himof the greatest commandment, he answered them by saying, “love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all you mind and with all your strength,” (Mathew 22:37 KJV). There are many instances where Jesus talked about love. First was at the mountainside. He said,
Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for hemaketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? Do not even the publicans so? (Mathew 5:43-48).
In this teaching on the mountain, Jesus strengthened the word of God,as was his purpose for teaching. By telling the people to love their enemies, Jesus was showing them the example of God’s love to us, which we should extend to our enemies.
When the time of Jesus’ death came, as was prophesied, he still spoke to his disciples about loving each as he had loved them, “A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.” (John 13:34). During the time of Moses, offering of burnt sacrifices was done to appease God. The priests at the temple performed this noble task every time the wrath of God befell the nation. It was awayof cleansing the people.
According to Jesus, love was greater that burnt sacrifices. “And to love…is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.” Mark 12:33.He condemned the Pharisees and the teachers of the law who lead sinful lives and continued proclaiming the word of God and offering sacrifices in the temple. He eluded them to blind leaders of the blind. “Let them alone: they are blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.” MATTHEW 15:14
New King James Version Bible. n.d.
Need for Professional Teaching in the Education Essay
Professional teaching ought to foster learning in a way that enhances connectivity of ideas through experiences, environments and societies. The teaching process must reciprocate student abilities. A dynamic teaching style reflects the changing trends of the curriculum and technology to integrate the knowledge areas and strategies of thinking and thus foster learning.
Professional books, Magazines and journals
Books are the key resources of learning in any institution. Journals are a form of books or mostly educational magazines or newsletters used beside books. Compared to the books, these are materials that foster participation for instance through interactive questions and answers forums. Use of Visual images has been a way of conveying information since time in history.
A lively classroom particularly for the young should have pictorial books and or newsletters. (Sasson, 4) This is because young learners are in a position of drawing information from graphics easily as opposed to reading. The teacher must also make use of other graphical interfaces such as wall charts, poster or billboards from cutouts, the flannel boards or flip charts as common graphical presentations that have been in use.
The best way to learning is through participation. The books are vital and valuable resources but limits participation to those who have interest in reading or those who can read among the young learners. According to (Nguyen, 15) It is a proven fact that young learning minds have little interests in reading until they know how to do it therefore they relay on pictorial communication.
Long reads or talks without illustrations are quite boring for participation. The magazines provide a more practical way of teaching and learning through the elaborative nature. They offer a more dialogue style of explanation and pictorial presentation since most people especially children understand pictorial messages better because they convey messages in a more elaborative and acceptable manner.
The learning environment is a key resource to teaching. The teacher must use the understanding of an individual and group motivational activities or behaviours to enhance the setting. A good environment ought to encourage positive social interaction, self-motivation among learners and social interaction. It must assist the teacher in guiding engaging and motivating students. The teaching profession has to develop in a dynamic process from the initial preparation stages to full career growth of assistance full of illustrations.
The environment must provide chances for building rapport among teachers and learners in the aim of working as a team towards a common goal. Good learning environment needs proper investment of supportive and illustrative materials for knowledge growth among the professionals and well-established policies, procedures, resources and structure to guarantee continuous learning opportunities for the learners. (Ormrod, 32)
A supportive environment is a resource that enables the teacher to understand standards and principals of management, understand how pupils influence one another, how a group should function in the society, and ways of assisting students to work cooperatively or productively. Thus the ability to make professional decisions regarding learning. The organization also influences motivation and engagement among the teachers and the students.
There is a close link between growth and change. Engaging a new teacher for a while helps in learning. Teachers often have the interest in teaching beside the career choice and the probability new engagements being a special aspect of any qualified educator. For instance, volunteer teachers are qualified teachers seeking career growth, new direction of service, career change or waiting for chances for full engagement.
The issue of volunteerism arguably emerged from the societal needs or valuable experience or skills in the teaching profession. A teacher should solicit for people who were not necessarily qualified but willing to give back a valuable contribution to the society through education for extra knowledge and a change. Exchange programme motivates growth in the education sectors. The practice enhances enthusiasm, good communication and relational skill.
Beside the learners’ benefit, the educator often gains well-developed personal skills and other work related skills for instance management, creativity, communication skills or public relations skills. It also enables them to be willing to contribute positively to the development of the nation through general teaching of a subject of interest thus ensuring constant knowledge gain.
With this purposes in mind, a professional teacher would wish to engage in volunteerism or exchange programmes to assist in the making valuable contribution to development as they seek to expend their personal skills and gain the experience. They bring in extra knowledge and tactics that are in-line with technological advancement especially through engagement of fresh graduates. (Simpson, 13)
Every individual has a slightly different approach to teaching confined within almost similar rules. This is a key asset for the school cultural advancement. They are mainly new to the field and are therefore highly motivated and full of enthusiasm to their duties.
This is a very positive effect for a teacher who wishes to engage the aspect of reading books, teaching through illustrations, using the environmental factors to explain and seeking external assistance. These very vital natural teaching resources help one to involve with the assignment of enhancing education and place them in an area that best reflects their initial confidence, enticing partnership or interest to ensure maximum output. (Orlich et al, 3)
As professionals, teachers have to be creative enough to deliver as per the expectations; one way can be using the journals beside the common textbooks. They have to connect students to other stakeholders such as the parents or other professionals like the volunteers with the aim of developing a school as a learning facility to foster education and students’ welfare. The environment needs modification to support learning as well.
Nguyen, Tinh “How to Provide a Learning Environment For Your Child.” How to
Provide a Learning Environment for Your Child. 2009
Orlich, Donarld. C., Harde, Robert, J., Callahan, Richard. C., Trevisan Michae, S., &
Brown, Abbie, H. “Teaching Strategies: A guide to Effective Instruction.” Cengage Learning publishers. 2009
Ormrod, J. E. (2008). “Educational psychology: Developing learners” (sixth Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Sasson, Dorit “How to Suit Teaching Resources For the Classroom.” How to Suit Teaching Resources for the Classroom. 2010
Simpson, William “Twentieth Century British History: A teaching Resource Book” Routledge publishers. 2005
Private School Teaching V.S. Public School Teaching Compare and Contrast Essay
Since historic times, private schools have an educational advantage over public schools. They employ an independent learning system from that of public schools. Consequentially, the private school’s education is highly valued, and most parents are willing to pay more for the private school’s educational advantages.
In fact, private schools continue to produce most of the ruling classes in many countries. In the recent past, there has been a rise in the demand for education offered in private schools relative to public schools notwithstanding the high cost of private education. Accordingly, the competition by private schools for qualified teaching staff has led to a recurring problem of teacher shortages in the labour market.
According to Chubb and Moe, private schools employ a larger share of teachers despite the small number of pupils relative to public schools (97). In this regard, the gap in the state sector and independent school sector has been widening. However, the most pertinent question is whether the teaching methods employed in private schools are in any way different from those used in public schools.
While the disproportionate number of teachers in private schools relative to public schools may compromise quality education in public schools, the teaching methods is largely responsible for the disparities between the two sectors. Evidently, teachers in the private education sector enjoy better work conditions including working with fewer pupils, longer holidays and better pay than their public sector counterparts do.
This can be a source of the competitive advantage of private schools over public schools. Rigorous evaluation and recruitment of highly qualified staff ensures quality-teaching methods in private schools compared to public schools. The differences between public and private schools cause the disparities in performance.
The Private and Public School Teachers
The demand for private education has been rising. It is in this context that the demand for teachers by private schools has also been increasing. As expected, private schools have more teaching staff per student than in public schools. As a result, the teachers in the private sector are able to teach a relative smaller class of students and deliver a broad range of learning activities than teachers in the public sector.
This provides the rationale for the relatively higher fees charged by private schools. In addition, the increasing pressure for teachers to deliver improved academic credentials and provide a wider variety of curricular activities has led to increased demand for more qualified teaching staff. Evidence establishes a link between academic performance of the pupils and class size (Chubb, and Moe 101). It is clear that, more resources generate better academic results in the private sector.
Thus, the growing demand for high-quality education is manifested in the rise, in demand for private education. Although, the market supply and demand forces influence teacher’s labour market, institutional constraints largely cause the disparity (Chubb, and Moe 99). Hiring of private schools in private schools is mostly decentralized and a prerogative of independent schools.
In addition, historically, the private schools comprise of a small share in the teacher labour market. The private teachers tend to possess specified skills and competencies that differentiate them from the public sector teaching staff.
In particular, subject specificity is evident in the private sector compared to the public sector. In addition, private schools are not bound to follow a rigid national curriculum, which public schools have to keep. Independent schools also teach traditional subjects, which are not taught in public schools such as sports and music. Charter schools possess some elements from both private and public school systems.
Usually, private schools design their curricula and select their teachers independently. On the other hand, public schools have to adhere to federal, state and local educational standards. Thus, teaching in private schools differs markedly from teaching in public schools in many ways. The differences range from educational standards, resources and the level of teachers’ training, which results to the educational disparity between the two sectors.
With regard to funding, the public schools entirely rely on government funding, which means that they are bound to follow educational standards set by federal, state or local governments. By contrast, private schools receive funding from different sources including grants, tuition fees and endowments.
This gives them autonomy to set their own educational standards that confer them an advantage over public schools. With regard to teacher qualifications, public schools have teacher accreditation programs such as the state credentialing program (Chubb, and Moe 102) that all public school teachers have to undertake. On the other hand, since the private schools set their own standards, the accordingly set their own teacher credentialing requirements.
Comparisons between Public and Private School Teaching
Comparisons of private and public school teaching can be difficult given the many factors at play. Furthermore, schools are better evaluated at an individual level over a given period.
Dee posits, “Academic performance in private, public, and chartered schools is variable, ranging from satisfactory to dismal” (421). A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Department of Education established that, student achievement, especially in mathematics and comprehension, were higher in pupils in private schools compared to pupils in public schools (157).
Besides the school sector, i.e. private or public, student characteristics including previous academic achievement, economic status, level of motivation and parental support and involvement in their children’s learning also have an impact on performance. Furthermore, school’s characteristics including the composition of the staff and students, nature of the community and the class size may influence the performance outcomes independent of the school sector.
Nevertheless, there are crucial differences in public and private school learning particularly in coursework. Often, private schools teach subjects on religion and ethics, a practice largely lacking in public schools. According to Dee, private schools pupils are required to do more course work in high-school level extending up to a whole year compared to public schools (419).
Much emphasis is laid on high-demand subjects such as science, mathematics, computer technology and languages. Furthermore, students in private schools are more likely to participate in community service as a requirement to graduate. The private school’s curriculums contain diverse topics such as music to nurture talent and exceptional skills. In contrast, such topics and education on morals and religion are not integrated into public school curriculum.
Another difference between the two education sectors arises in the pedagogical methods used. Both private and public schools employ unique teaching methods, as they deem appropriate. Thus, differences in teaching practices range from assessment techniques, student discipline, grading system and standardized tests. Private schools, unlike public schools, usually design their own tests and assessment criteria and set their own rules.
Differences in Academic Programs
Major reform efforts have been put in place to ensure higher academic standards for public and private schools at elementary and secondary levels. One of the goals of these reform efforts is to enable students to handle subjects such as science, mathematics and reading in a competent manner. At the elementary level, various aspects of instructional methods differ between the public and private sectors.
In particular, the classroom instructional methods, handling of homework and time allocated to core subjects are different between the two sectors (Stubbs 161). Ballou and Podgursky found out that, teachers in public elementary school spend, on average, 3 hours more on core subjects (English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies) than private teachers do (399). In contrast, private school teachers allocated more time on subjects such as physical education, art, music and religious studies.
At the elementary level, teachers in both public and private schools employ similar instructional strategies. As Stubbs puts it, “elementary teachers in private and public education sectors explain concepts using a chalk and a board or a projector”, (154).
However, private schools show increased use of information technology, television programs and computer applications as learning aids (Stubbs 156). In addition, private teachers often involve videotapes or computer applications when explaining a concept while public school teachers normally lecture.
Elementary instructional methods between the two sectors also differ with regard to homework. According to Ballou, and Podgursky, a higher percentage of private school pupils handle more homework in a week than public school pupils (394). Besides, private school teachers are more likely to correct and return homework to pupils given the small size of the classes they handle.
The differences experienced at the elementary level also exist at high-school level. Overall, the academic programs in private schools are more rigorous compared to those in public schools. Pupils in private schools are required to study a foreign language and take more units at high school than public school students. Ballou and Podgursky study show that, high school graduates from private schools have studied advanced science and mathematics units such as algebra and trigonometry among others (411).
Besides the curricular differences, academic support and health-related services for students also vary between the two sectors; the availability of these services depend on resources available in the school and the significance a school places on the support services. Given that private schools have more financial resources, they are able to provide a broad range of support services for their students.
Nevertheless, some services may be present in public schools, in line with the requirements of local, state or federal legislations. Private schools also have wider library collections that serve the academic needs of the students adequately. Library and media centers are indispensable facilities in any school as they provide the students access to learning materials.
In addition, the class sizes in public schools are relatively bigger resulting to a higher student/teacher ratio. According to the U.S. department of Education, private schools teacher to student ratio stands at one teacher for 13 pupils against the public school’s 16 pupils per teacher (154). However, this may not be applicable in schools dealing with students with exceptional needs.
Private and public school have show variations in many aspects. Overall, the private schools have an advantage in many respects. The teachers in private schools possess certain attributes that set them apart from their public schools counterparts. The instructional strategies used are largely similar between the two sectors.
Private schools emphasize on non-core disciplines such as art while public schools emphasize on the four core subjects (science, mathematics, social studies and English. The differences in curricula, teacher attributes and instructional methods result to some of the disparities between public and private schools.
Ballou, Darren, and Monhro Podgursky. “Teacher Recruitment and Retention in Publicand Private Schools.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 17.3 (1998): 393-417.
Chubb, John, and Terry Moe. Politics, Markets, and America’s Schools, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.1990. 97-102
Dee, Tommy. “Competition and the Quality of Public Schools.” Economics of Education Review 17.4, (1998):419-427.
Stubbs, Marcia. Little, Brown Reader (11th Edition). New York: Longman. 2009: 156- 163
U.S. Department of Education. The Condition of Education 1997 (NCES 97-388).
Washington D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics,2006: 150-157.
Graphic Organizer: Reading Comprehension Teaching Strategies Research Paper
“A reading comprehension strategy is a cognitive or behavioral action that is enacted under particular contextual conditions, with the goal of improving some aspect of comprehension” (McNamara, 2007, p. 6).
In order to present a captivating and educative for students strategy, it is necessary to evaluate their levels of knowledge, their abilities to perceive information, and their attitude to education and reading in particular. When a teacher is aware of what a student expects to get during his or her education, the results of the organizer’s creation may be positive.
This simply organized diagram should be helpful for both student and teacher to check reading abilities of students and improve them if necessary. It is known that any reading comprehension strategy takes certain time (Klingner, Vaughn, & Boardman, 2007): time to explain the purposes of the organizer, time to involve students into the work, time to complete the organizer, and time to evaluate students’ answers.
First of all, it is necessary to clear up what reading comprehension strategies are chosen for this work. There are 5 major strategies under analysis:
“K – W – L” strategy – what I know, what I want to learn, what did I learn
This strategy should develop student abilities to evaluate the received information, to predict the outcomes of reading, and to comprehend why this very reading is important. In the offered organizer, for this very strategy, it is necessary to answer the questions 1, 3, 5. Students get a chance to develop their rational thinking, their forecasting abilities, and their involvement into reading.
Benefits of this graphic organizer for “K – W – L” strategy
Clearly offered questions help students comprehend what kind of answer should be represented. The questions beginning with “WHAT” and “WHY” give a hint to a student that the answers have to be extensive.
This reading comprehension strategy helps to identify the title of the story, its content, the words, which have to be analyzed, and the setting that create a general picture. TELLS strategy requires the answering to all but number four questions of this graphic organizer. A student has to concentrate not only on personal perception of the story, but also be able to share this information with the other students. First of all, it is necessary to introduce the story under consideration: present its title, describe the characters, pay more attention to setting in order to help other students get an idea of how the story is seen by this particular student.
Benefits of this graphic organizer for TELLS strategy
These clearly defined questions promote student’s creative thinking and own approach to the evaluation of the text under discussion. First, a student sees that each question is addressed straight to him or her, this is why this student tries to show his/her maturity and awareness of the topic.
Think – Aloud strategy
Another very helpful strategy for tutors to use is a think – aloud. This strategy requires aloud reading from a teacher and attentive listening from students. When a tutor stops reading, students have to answer each of the questions from the organizer. In general, the answers to the questions 1 and 2 should be similar, because al, students are under the same conditions. However, the answers to other three questions have to show personal attitude to this activity and student’s involvement into this work.
Benefits of this graphic organizer for Think – Aloud strategy
Students already know about the questions, which have to be asked, however, they do not know the content of the story and teachers intentions. This is why this strategy with the help of this organizer promote a student not only to predict possible questions but also listen information attentively in order to give interesting and, the most important point, correct answers aloud.
Annotating Texts strategy
The essence of this strategy is to prepare students for a qualitative analysis of a text. Text annotation requires both awareness of the content and abilities to reproduce own thoughts about the story in a clear and sophisticated way. This graphic organizer helps students concentrate on the main issues, which will develop creative thinking. After a students answers the questions 1-5 of the organizer, he or she will be able to start annotative a text and give appropriate information.
Benefits of this graphic organizer for Annotating Texts strategy
The benefits are rather clear here: students save their time and work on their own creativity in order to represent proper pieces of work and prove a teacher their abilities to comprehend assignments. This circle of answers shows a way of how their thinking should work to students.
QAR strategy – Question-Answer Relationships
This strategy is probably the one that is based on all of the questions, offered in the organizer. The essence of this activity is to study students how to pose and answer questions in a clear way. The offered questions may serve as examples to follow while developing own questions. It is also possible to ask students create sub-questions to the already created ones.
Benefits of this graphic organizer for QAR strategy
The major benefit in this strategy is illustrations of how to work at classes. When students see some kinds of examples, they are not afraid to offer different variations of questions and demonstrate their awareness of the text.
Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Boardman, A. (2007). Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
McNamara, D. S. (2007). Reading Comprehension Strategies: Theories, Interventions, and Technologies. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Diversity and Inclusion of Culture in Teaching Process Research Paper
Culture has had many different definitions but it is generally “the way of life of a group of people” (Gollnick & Chinn, 2008, p. 3). Cultural diversity in schools has been on the increase due to the many students from different races that have their own distinct culture. The education process thus takes the multicultural approach.
The American schools have students from different cultural background. The main cultures taken into consideration in this study are the Spanish and Filipino cultures with analysis of how they influence the process of learning through the use of concept maps. This paper aims at providing an outlook and analysis of culture and multicultural education for the purposes of inclusion and diversity in education.
Further, it acknowledges the impact that culture has on education in terms of differences and biases and thus provides an analysis of how multicultural education can be used to address these differences and biases. The approach also being based on the personal career of teaching provides personal thoughts on the differences and biases in culture and how cultural information has changed my personal ideas. The applications of this to my personal teaching practice are also evaluated for more considerations for inclusion and diversity.
Culture and Multicultural Education
Culture has had many different definitions but it is generally “the way of life of a group of people” (Gollnick & Chinn, 2008, p. 3). It is the basic way of life that is described by the manner of doing things, beliefs, traditions, and the general governing of a group of people. This is portrayed in the themes, concepts and ideas of that society.
It is manifested in the themes such as education in terms of how they perceive it and their levels of learning, religious beliefs; concepts of art such as music, literature, politics aspirations and attitudes of governance, societal interactions in terms of how close the people are to one another and how they relate among themselves and with other people; ideas of beliefs and traditions, language spoken, foods that are unique to them, entertainment modes and their perceptions towards it as well as the general racial matters which also encompass the history of the society.
Culture being so diverse and complex has differences and biases that determine the attitudes and interactions between people of different cultures. Therefore multicultural education is generally the education that is geared on incorporating all the cultures in the learning process and using culture as a tool of learning (Phelan & Davidson, 1993). The objective is to reanalyze and address the differences and biases in culture so as to ensure respect and appreciation for other people’s culture.
Multicultural Education in addressing the Differences and Biases in Culture
The diverse differences in culture do pose as a challenge to the multicultural education to ensure equal representation of the cultures in the learning process. The challenge further lies in the acknowledgement of the biases. This education however is very applicable in addressing such differences and biases.
Firstly, it is possible to include all the cultures in the learning process, instructions and objectives of learning where the learners get to learn about the other cultures (Phelan & Davidson, 1993). This thus expels all the biases, provides an appreciation of the differences and provides an opportunity for class discussions through which such differences and biases are tackled.
The type of content associated with a certain culture has the ability of either impacting a negative or positive effect on the learners. Multicultural education thus can make use of content that does not expose the negative aspects of certain cultures only, but where the content provides the positive aspects of each culture that are applicable in the society (Gollnick & Chinn, 2008).
This can be made possible through the appreciation of the uniqueness of each culture and their contributions to the welfare of the society. Additionally, it is necessary for multicultural education to provide opportunities for critical analysis of the biases that are present among cultures.
This is possible through analyzing the reasons for such biases and provides an opportunity for the learners to understand the cultural differences and the disadvantage of such biases. This can be enhanced through the inclusion of content that handles such societal issues and encourages peaceful coexistence such as the demerits of racial discrimination.
Further, renegotiation of the education process is necessary through ensuring equal representation of the cultures in the learning disciplines so as to avoid instances where certain disciplines are wholly associated with certain cultures (Phelan & Davidson, 1993). The education process further can encourage learners to have multicultural friendships and also encourage them to visit other towns and place associated with a culture different from theirs so as to learn and appreciate them.
It is worth noting that the administration of such multicultural education is very necessary in addressing cultural differences and cultures. For example, equal attention should be given to all the learners irrespective of their cultures while discrimination should be avoided through also encouraging admission of learners of a different culture (American Government, 2008).
It is necessary as Phelan & Davidson (1993) assert for the teacher to focus on improving his or her communication in a majority or all of the languages to some degree to be able to connect with each of the students at a personal level. The focus on the cultural elements of class, gender, religion, age, exceptionality, language and race is very necessary while also discussing the current issues as they relate to cultures (Gollnick & Chin, 2008).
This is also represented in engaging students on the issues of hate groups, violence in schools, social justice and their perceptions of culturally responsible teaching while upholding democracy (Phelan & Davidson, 1993). It is also recommendable for the teacher to make use of stimulating and captivating resources such as videos that stimulate cultural and social discussions for the correction and changing of these perceptions through more informed cultural knowledge (Gollnick & Chin, 2008)
Personal Thoughts on Culture and Multicultural Education
Personally, this information is very important in my career. Not only would it help me in maintaining professionalism in the work, but also ensure good teaching with the development of the instructions that caters for all the students. Additionally, it will improve the knowledge I have on these cultures for effective teaching on such cultural issues and help me to interact and understand my students so as to engage them in the teaching learning process.
Ideally, this information helps me to overcome the biases of culture that limit the cultural equality and understanding. These biases limit the attitude towards such students. As such, getting to understand them would help me overcome such biases. Additionally, this information forms a good basis for the teaching practice in disciplines such as history, arts, languages and sociology among others.
The thoughts and perceptions I personally hold is that cultures though different are related in some attributes and as such it is very necessary to respect and avoid cultural biases as much as possible. This is represented through a Venn diagram of how cultures are linked to each other thus lack of respect and biases affects all of the individuals involved while these cultures are equally represented despite the numbers.
In this case, if three cultures are represented in the classroom, they are different but related in some aspects and equally represented in the group of students not in terms of numbers but as an individual group. It is very necessary to avoid biases and lack of respect since due to their interconnectedness; this affects the whole class as a complete group and causes an imbalance.
A, B and C represent different cultures which the various students in class come from. They are interconnected though there are differences among them while multicultural education forms the connection among them with them being equally represented. Just as each circle is whole, it is necessary to respect each culture with the understanding of the role it plays in making the society and class complete.
Gollnick & Chin (2008) point out that the differences among the students are evident and these stem from their class, gender, religion, age, exceptionality, language and ethnicity or race. This is related through having some aspects that are similar and yet have others that are different. For example two girls in the same class are of the same gender but can be of different ages and race.
They do not provide an actual relation of cultures but rather that cultures are pluralistic. Phelan & Davidson (1993) agree on the differences in culture but that the teacher forms the role of connection of the cultures of the students through equality in the learning process. They further differ to the extent that they perceive that the cultures are not equally represented thus the minority needs to be considered. In this case dominance and influence is perceived in terms of numbers
Application to Teaching Practice
The analysis of these cultures is very important in the teaching and learning process. The research has not only strengthened my perceptions of the interconnection and relation between the cultures, but also my appreciations of the different cultures thus avoiding the biases as well as the emphasis on respecting the different cultures with a willingness to learn.
Additionally, the research has provided additional knowledge on the strategies to use in multicultural education and the ways of dealing with the biases that are present towards different cultures and the ways of encouraging cultural and social discussions to get to know the perceptions of the learners to be able to help them deal with such biases and differences. Further, it has increased my knowledge of the different applications to the teaching thus increasing my professionalism and cultural responsibility and sensitivity in the classroom.
This research is necessary in the choice of instruction that encourages multiculturalism, ensuring that racial discrimination is avoided and the approach of teaching. This is possible through ensuring that the examples and resources and other learning materials used does not represent a negative notion or present an opportunity that can cause some students of certain races to be discriminated.
Multiculturalism would also allow for the students to learn to appreciate and respect the cultures of the other students. The cultural awareness is also necessary in the choice of resources and materials for learning that is culture conscious. This also is likely to influence the personal attitude and interest of the learners in the learning.
This is also important in the making of policies such as the issue of students who have English as their second language who require special attention to make sure that they learn and to ensure equality in education (Phelan & Davidson, 1993). This is also necessary in helping the learners develop their own self identity and encouraging coexistence through an understanding of their cultures such as their history and learn to appreciate them.
The research is applicable in the teaching practice through the different strategies that are necessary to address the cultural differences and biases. It is applicable in emphasizing a culturally responsible approach to teaching.
Further, it is very necessary in increasing the focus on the learner differences so as to form policies of the different ways to enhance democracy and ensure that all the learners benefit from the teaching process. For example regarding the offering of more specific content to cater for the English language learners where English is the language of instruction, the policy makers and administrators can benefit from this research.
The research is applicable with the emphasis it lays on the teacher playing an active role in ensuring democracy in the learning process and encouraging the learning of such cultures. It offers encouragement for new teachers to focus on learning the cultures of their learners to be able to engage with them. It is also applicable with the need for focus on the current issues in the society to deal with the cultural biases and differences (Gollnick & Chin, 2008).
Cultural awareness is very crucial in the classroom. This paper has analyzed the definition of culture and multicultural education as well as the ways in which such education can be useful in addressing the differences and biases in culture. Further, it has provided my personal thoughts on the issue of culture and multicultural education. The applications of such knowledge to the teaching practice have also been addressed with appreciation of each culture and effective implementation of multicultural education.
American Government. (2008). U.S. Schools Adjust to Growing Hispanic Population. Web.
Gollnick, D., & Chinn, P. (2008). Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society. New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.
Phelan, P., & Davidson, A. (1993). Renegotiating Cultural Diversity in American Schools. New York: Teachers College Press.