Stephen Hawking


The Exploration of Space and Time in Stephen Hawking’s Brief History of Time

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

‘A Brief History of Time’ is Stephen Hawking’s way of explaining the most complex concept and ideas of physics such as space, time, black holes, planets, stars and gravity so that we can understand how planet was created, where it came from and where its going. This book will surely let you think beyond what you have learnt. It helps to unfols the concept that lies in darkness. It unfolds the concept of black hole. There is a famous quote from the book itself, that is; ‘The Universe doesn’t allow perfection’ This book is must is must for those who want to think behind the science of each and every celestial bodies and co-relates it to a more easier way of understanding it. Though this is not a much image-based book, so it may be boring for some readers.

Hawking set out a theory of cosmology explained by the union of the General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. The readers with no prior knowlwdge of scientific theories will find this book interesting and easier to understand because of its use of non- technical terms. The famous theories from this book include the The Bing Bang Theory and The Black Hole Theory. The possibilities of Time travel and Wormhole is another ride of this book. The book is written by an personality who despite having physical limitations has solely discovered many secrets of the universe. Stephen Hawking was a hero before this book arrived and after this book, he became a sort of legend. This can be easily proven by the fact that he was the professor at the same university and was sitting in the same position where Newton used to sit.

There is only one equation used in the book and that too is the most familiar equation of all time. Even people who hate maths, physics and science know about the equation. The equation was; E=MC^2 The world-famous equation given by Einstein which changed the way scientists looked at the matter and helped them and others invent many things thereafter. This book is recommended to all those readers who want to think beyond the box. Already renowned in academia for his contributions to cosmology and scitific phenomenon, Hawking grew into a cultural icon and one of the world’s most celebrated science communicators. Black holes, superstrings and deep dives into the finite yet boundless nature of the universe necessarily make up for great reading. The manner in which Hawking broke down complex concepts of science in theoretical physics, along with his nuisense use of humor and analogy, clearly won over many readers. One of the book’s most famous quote: ‘That if humankind did discover a unified theory of the universe, “we would know the mind of God.”’  A Brief History of Time

It was a book written to explain where the universe came from and where it was headed, and the incredible and complex events that happen in between. He explain the nature of the life of stars and their sizes. The various efforts that have helped us to understand them better. From the old tradition of watching the night skies and forming superstitions about them to Newton’s law of gravity and to Einstein’s General theory of relativity, we discover how it works and how we’ve come this far. He breaks our notions of how Newton discovered; space is relative and then nearly 250 years later, Einstein shook the world by showing that time isn’t absolute either and how everything in the world is changing this space time-fabric. And then comes a case of singularity which cannot be explained by classical complex theories – what happens inside black holes, and what happened during the Big Bang.

He diverts the gaze from the stars to smaller things, searching for answers on the microscopic level – on how things are made, and what they are made of.His main goal is to give an overview of the subject, but he also attempts to explain some complex things regarding cosmology. Hawking discusses the possibility of time travel and wormholes and explores the possibility of having a universe without a quantum singularity(when there was no time that is, at the beginning of time.

Hawking begins with an account of the historical studies of astronomy by ancients such as Aristotle and Ptolemy. He came to this conclusion via his observations of lunar eclipses and by considering the altitude of the North Star from various observational points. He, like Ptolemy, believed the sun and stars orbited the Earth. This hypothesis was later disp roven by the work of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. As studies of the origin of the universe progressed, two opposing viewpoints become the most common: philosophers believed that the universe had always existed, while theologians generally argued that the universe was created at a specific point in time in the past. The dominant name among the theologians, St. Augustine, held this belief, coupled with the idea that time itself was a concept that did not exist until the creation of the universe. By the twentieth century, Edwin Hubble discovered that galaxies are moving away from each other, meaning that at one time they were all in one place. Scientists continue to seek a theory that would uncover everything in the universe and be able to explain it all.

Space and time are examined in Chapter Two, especially with respect to Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. The big bang, which grew to be the dominant theory of the creation of the universe, is the basis for the third chapter in the described book. This concept of an expanding universe is explained by Hawking via the Doppler shift, which occurs when something moves toward or away from something else. The uncertainty principle, which indicates that the speed and the position of particles cannot both be found at the same time, is the concept of another Chapter. This exclaimed chapter considers the behaviors of light and serves to undermine the concept of deterministic theories, which were said to be able to predict everything in the future. The next chapter explains the building blocks of the universe. These are the smallest things from which all matter is made, and are called quarks. Nuclear forces unite the quarks into neutrons and protons and keep the neutrons and protons together in atoms. Hawking goes on to describe what is known as a “grand unified theory” in which some scientists attempt to explain weak and strong nuclear forces and electromagnetic forces in a unified manner.

Black holes are the central focus of the given book. Black holes are stars that have collapsed into one very small point called a singularity(which has a very strong gravity). They have a very strong gravitational force, thus are able to pull things, including light and stars, to their centers. Black holes are almost impossible to locate because they do not let light out as in return they bend it. However, they can be seen by telescopes when they suck in other stars or a planet, thus emitting x-rays. Subsequent parts explain topics in cosmology including entropy, which concerns disorder in the universe, and the big bang explosion, which is commonly believed to have been the birth of the universe. Wormholes and time travel are discussed as well. A worm hole is, in theory, a passage that could serve as a shortcut through the universe by collapsing space and time.

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Meet Robert Hawking – the Eldest Son of Stephen Hawkings

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

It’s a big-big shoe to fill! If there was a song with that exact line as a title, that would be Robert Hawking’s mantra. If you’re still wondering why, then it’s high time you looked up, Stephen Hawking’s profile ASAP. Robert Hawking is a British software engineer at Microsoft and also serves the tech-giant’s product engineer. But most of all, Hawking is known for being the (eldest) son of award-winning physicist and cosmologist, Stephen Hawking. Although not as famous and celebrated in the intellectual community like his father, Hawking sure has a track record of his own that makes him worth some accolades. In this article, we walk you through his bio and other interesting details about the scientist who will one day fill the shoe his erudite father.

Robert Hawking was born in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, on 19th May 1967, to parents Stephen and Jane Wilde Hawking. His father is the famed scientist known for his challenging thoughts and theories about the singularity and several other issues concerning the cosmos. His mother is a writer, educator and journalist best known or her memoirs. Robert was raised in Hertfordshire alongside his brother and sister, Lucy and Timothy. Timothy works with The Lego Group as a Brand Development Manager. While Lucy took after her mother and is a writer and journalist and philanthropist. It wasn’t all rosy for the trio as their parents got divorced in 1995. Robert was twenty-eight at the time.

As a young boy, Robert took a special liking to his father and would take care of him during the worst periods of his Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) condition. The condition is also called Lou Gehrig’s disease. This attribute got noticed by his mum who, in her memoir; Travelling to Infinity: My Life with Stephen, admitted that her son was especially affectionate and empathetic and had to do things for his father that normal children really shouldn’t have to do. Eventually, Stephen Hawking himself admitted that Robert was the only one of his three children to take after him in the science sphere. However, as we have seen, Robert didn’t exactly end up a cosmologist, but a software engineer who now works with Microsoft.

After going through high school, Robert proceeded to the prestigious University of Oxford where he studied software engineering. He began working in information technology for several years and lived in Canada before joining tech-giant, Microsoft Corporation, as a software engineer and project engineer.

What Is He Known For

Robert Hawking (middle) with his father, sister (Lucy) and mother, Jane Wilde.Although best known for being the son of Stephen Hawking, Robert’s image took a whole dimension after his mother’s book, Travelling to Infinity: My Life with Stephen was adapted into a movie, The Theory of Everything (2014). The British biographical romantic drama film was an instant success; featuring Oliver Payne and Tom Prior, who portrayed Robert.

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Stephen Hawking – the Great Physicist and Human

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Born on January the 8th of the year 1942, he was one of the Britain’s greatest scientist (theoretical physicist). He grew up in oxford and he had been born into a highly intelligent/educated family. Both his parents had studied at Oxford University (they wanted Stephen to study medicine). At an early age in school, he was given the nickname “Einstein” because he showed great interest into science and maths. Due to this interested, he wanted to study maths at university however Oxford did not have a maths degree so he took to the sciences (physics and chemistry). After his graduation at Oxford he went to Cambridge to get his PHD.

Sadly during his time at Cambridge he started having health issues. His speech became slurred he was constantly clumsy dropping things for no apparent reason. He went through a series of tests, the result of these test showed the doctors that Stephen had a disease called ALS. The doctors estimated that he only had a few years to live.

Initially Stephen was depressed with the news but quickly realised he wanted to accomplish something during his life time. So with this mental drive and motivation he began to study harder than before. His main goal to earn his PhD before he died however he met a lovely a woman called Jane and between Jane and his work it gave him a reason to live. Despite the doctors first initial estimate Stephen has lived a full life with the help of advanced medicine. His condition increased over the years and in 1985 he caught pneumonia and tracheotomy operation which left him sppechless . However his body is restrained into a wheel chair while being silenced which is why he has the help of a voice synthesiser which is connected to a touch pad.

His main focus with academic work where on black holes and their behaviour and on theories of space time and quickly became an expert on relativity and the behaviour of black holes. One of his most known discovery suggested that black holes emitted some sort of radiation. Hawking’s discover proved that black holes didn’t have an enormous amount of gravity that would pull things in making the black hole smaller, but that it was radiation which is now called Hawking’s radiation.
In 1971 he suggested a new thought, that black holes had a large amount of mass even by being the size of a proton. In 1974 he suggested that A black hole will only stop when it exhausts its energy and explodes. Hawking’s work explained and explored the science behind black holes and their behaviour and their creation.

Due to the significance of Hawking’s work he earned multiple honours and awards. In 1074 he was elected for the royal society, he was one of the youngest among this group. He then became a professor at Cambridge to teach gravitational physics in 1977 and two years later he became Cambridge’s Lucasian professor of maths. This was a huge achievement which kept Hawking inspired and working through life. He was also made commander of the British Empire which is an unbelievable honour in 1982. In 2009 he received the U.S presidential medal of freedom.

Hawking specialised in certain areas such as cosmology and quantum gravity. He even wrote a book ” A Brief History Of Time” which sold 10 million copies. The success of this novel allowed him to write more books, these books gave him a platform to share his work and discoveries through to ordinary people. “the universe in a nutshell” was also a popular novel, so was ” George’s secret key to the universe” was a book to target children and give them a basic overview of what Stephen was studying.

His brilliant mind also brought dread into the world, for example he suggested that since there was a start to the universe there must be an end to it. Many were sceptical at first but then many scientist understood from his perspective how this would occur, once again black holes were the answer. They would tear apart the universe and it would just end. This suggested that Einstein’s theory and the quantum theory connect together. Using the two he discovered that black holes aren’t just dark but emit radiation. He predicted that black holes actually joined together to form the universe.

He also expressed his feelings that humans should spread out by living on different planets and making time travel possible. He said this would allow us to correct our world and reform it in a better for the universe. He believes all it takes is the discovery of an equation such as Einstein’s to make time travel possible.

I believe Stephen Hawking has inspired billions around the globe due to the fact his fought through disabilities and yet was still the smartest person in the room in all occasions, he shows that the best motivation is when you love what your doing which in his case was science. He made a goal to explore the laws of mother nature its self, the universe which has only been scratched by us humans. His determination gave us reason to believe it is possible that with technology we can go to other planets, we can go back in time, and that we can fix this world which we have diluted in pollution. He also welcomed the fact that there is extra terrestrial life on some planet that was more advanced than us and that they could share their knowledge with us. Others doubted him but the doubts is what drove him to greatness, people doubted him due to his state, people doubted that the universe was made by something else that wasn’t god. I have concluded that his work on black holes has opened up many opportunities for us in the future. We can only hope there is another great mind out there that can follow up on his notes and break through the mental and physical barriers that Stephen had. “Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change”.

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Life Path of Stephen Hawking

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

At first site, Stephen Hawking may not look as if he is capable of much. This is because his 57 year old body is strapped into a wheelchair and he speaks through a voice synthesized computer. In his case, appearance can be extremely misleading. By persevering over his handicap, Stephen Hawking has become a very famous modern day scientist and mathematician. Stephen William Hawking was born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England. His parents were originally from London, but opted to have him in Oxford because it was safer during World War II. At the age of eight, Hawking+s family moved to St. Albans, a town 20 miles north of London. When he was 11, he attended the St. Albans school. It was at this age that he started to notice that he was not physically coordinated, and had very poor handwriting. However, he had no idea that this would lead to some type of rare disease. After coasting through grade school, Hawking attended the University of Oxford, his father+s old college. He wanted to study mathematics, while his father would have preferred medicine. Because mathematics was not available at Oxford, Hawking chose Physics. Three years later he was awarded a first class honors degree in Natural Sciences. During his final year at Oxford, Hawking says he began to notice himself becoming more and more clumsy. He even fell over a few times. Following college, Stephen Hawking discovered a new interest: Cosmology. Cosmology is the study of the large scale structure, composition, and evolution of the universe. In order to research this, he went on to graduate school at Cambridge University. This is where Hawking+s father noticed his problem becoming progressively worse. He was sent to the hospital, where many tests were run on him. He was then informed that he had an incurable disease known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig+s disease. Hawking did not let this disease slow him down one bit. Recently after being diagnosed, he became engaged and married to Jane Wilde. After receiving his Ph. D., Stephen Hawking once again focused on Cosmology. He wanted to unify all elements of Physics into one single theory, known as the |theory of everythingX. According to most scientists, once this theory is reached, man will know the origin of the universe. The Big Bang theory says that some kind of initial singularity began to expand in all directions in the form of a hot gas as it created space. As the gas expanded, it cooled and allowed matter to form into structures like stars and galaxies. The major problem is that scientists don+t know what caused the |initial singularityX in the first place.

At the present time, no theories provide the answer. Even Einstein+s general theory of relativity cannot deal with the start of the universe. This is where Stephen Hawking comes in. He and a group of physicists have been searching for a theory of quantum gravity, which will solve this problem, and find the origin of the universe. Hawking predicts that there is a 50/50 chance that the |theory of everythingX will be discovered in the next 20 years. He wrote a book about this, entitled A Brief History of Time, which has been translated into 33 languages and sold over a million copies. Presently, Stephen Hawking holds the position of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge University, formerly held by Sir Isaac Newton. He has 12 honorary degrees, was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honor in 1989. He is the recipient of many awards, medals, and prizes and is a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. All of these things he managed to accomplish while raising a family and dealing with a major disability. Stephen Hawking managed to persevere through times at which he did not think he would live another day. He has done an enormous amount with his life, and is not finished yet. Because of all this, he is considered to be the most brilliant man since Einstein.

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An Essential Contribution of Stephen Hawking

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Stephen William Hawking

Stephen Hawking is the most acclaimed theoretical physicist since Albert Einstein. He is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in England. A position that was once held by Sir Isaac Newton. He has expanded our understanding of the beginnings of the universe. His groundbreaking research into cosmology and black holes reveals the startling possibilities of time running backwards, an eleven-dimensional universe and a no boundary model of creation.

Hawking s parents lived in London where his father was doing research in medicine. However, it was during World War II and a very dangerous place to be. His mother was sent to the safer town of Oxford where Stephen was born on Jan. 8, 1942. The family was soon reunited and moved to Highgate, north London. Here Stephen began his schooling.

In 1950, Hawking s father moved to the Institute for Medical Research in Mill Hill. The family moved to St. Albans. When Stephen was older he attended St. Albans school but his father wanted him to take the scholarship exam to go to Westminster. Stephen was ill at the time of the exam and remained at St. Albans. Stephen has said that his education at St. Albans was good and that he never found that a lack of social graces has been a hindrance.

His last couple of years in school he wanted to specialize in math where his math teacher had inspired him to study the subject. His father was against the idea and persuaded Stephen to make chemistry his main school subject. His father s reasoning was that he wanted Stephen to go to University College, Oxford, the college he himself had attended, and that school had no math degree.

In 1959, Hawking was awarded a scholarship at Oxford to study natural sciences. At University College, he specialized in physics in his natural sciences degree. From Oxford, he moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, a difficult area for someone with only a little math background.

Hawking had noticed that he was becoming rather clumsy during his last year at Oxford. When he returned home for Christmas in 1962 at the end of his first term at Cambridge, his mother persuaded him to see a doctor. In early 1963, he spent two weeks having tests done in the hospital and was diagnosed with motor neuron disease, better known as Lou Gehrig s disease. His condition deteriorated quickly and the doctors predicted that he would not live long enough to complete his doctorate.

Lou Gehrig s disease is a progressive fatal neuromuscular disease that attacks nerve cells and pathways in the brain to the spinal cord. Motor neurons, the largest of all nerve cells, reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. The disease causes the motor neurons to die and the ability of the brain to start and control muscle movement dies with them. With all voluntary muscle action affected, patients in the later stages are totally paralyzed. Yet, through it all, their minds remain unaffected.

Lou Gehrig s disease is one of the most devastating disorders which affects the function of nerves and muscles. Most who develop it are between the ages of 40 and 70 and both sexes are affected in nearly equal numbers. Nearly 5,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with the disease each year. Half of all affected live at least three or more years after diagnosis. Twenty percent live five years of more and up to ten percent will survive more than ten years.

The disease is difficult to diagnose. It is individual in each person in the area of the body affected as well as in the rate of progression. At the onset, symptoms may be so slight that they are frequently overlooked. Early symptoms usually include tripping, dropping things, fatigue of the arms or legs, slurred speech, muscle cramps and twitches, and uncontrollable periods of laughing or crying. As the disease progresses weakening of the hands and feet cause difficulty in walking or using the hands for daily living such as dressing and washing. The disease eventually affects swallowing, chewing and breathing.

Since Lou Gehrig s attacks only motor neurons, the sense of sight, touch, hearing, taste, smell and muscles of the eyes and bladder are generally not affected. Also, the mind is not impaired and remains sharp despite the progressive degeneration of the body.

Stephen Hawking defied the odds. After his diagnosis he met a girl he wanted to marry and realized he had to complete his doctorate to get a job. They eventually married and had three children. His research progressed and he completed his doctorate in 1966. He was awarded a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, but later became a Professorial Fellow and taught there. In 1973, he joined the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge. In 1977, he became Professor of Gravitational Physics. In 1979, Hawking was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge.

In the early stages of the disease, he couldn t walk far, so he needed an apartment near the Cambridge campus. Finding a convenient place was difficult and university administrators were uncooperative. A few years and some productive research later, Hawking s disease had progressed to the point that he couldn t negotiate stairs. People were more helpful finding a better place then. He needed more and more assistance, from helpful students and then part-time nurses and finally full-time nursing care.

Between 1965 and 1970 Hawking worked on singularities in the theory of general relativity and devised new mathematical techniques to study this area of cosmology. From 1970, he began to apply his previous ideas to the study of black holes.

Using quantum theory and general relativity, he was able to show that black holes can emit radiation. His success with proving this made him work from that time on combining the theory of general relativity with quantum theory. In 1971, he investigated the creation of the Universe and predicted that, following the big bang, many objects as heavy as 10 tons but only the size of a proton would be created. These mini black holes have large gravitational attraction by the laws of general relativity, while the laws of quantum mechanics would apply to objects that small.

Another remarkable achievement of Hawking s using these same techniques was his no boundary proposal made in 1983. He explains this would mean that both time and space are finite in extent, but the do not have any boundary or edge. There would be no singularities, and the laws of science would hold everywhere, including at the beginning of the universe.

In 1982 he began writing a popular book on cosmology and by 1984 he had produced a first draft of A Brief History of Time. However, Hawking suffered further illness in 1985. He caught pneumonia and was on life support in a hospital in Geneva. The doctor there told his wife it was not worth keeping him on life support. His wife flew him back to Cambridge where a surgeon there carried out a tracheotomy. An operation that saved his life but took away his voice.

He was given a computer system to enable him to have an electronic voice. It was with these difficulties that he revised the draft of A Brief History of Time which was published in 1988. The book broke all sales records. It had been on The Sunday Times bestseller list 237 weeks by May 1995. This feat is recorded in the 1998 Guiness Book of Records. He has also published several other books including 300 Years of Gravity and Black Holes and Baby Universes.

The scientist appears for work a Cambridge University about 11 a.m. each day and works into the evening conferring with students, correcting papers, attending lectures, and writing. He also lectures to crowded audiences. The transformers and chargers for the batteries on his 300-pound wheelchair contribute to the 22 pieces of luggage necessary when Hawking travels. Able to see, swallow, and smile he is otherwise limited to triggering a wheelchair button with one hand.

Doctors predicted decades ago that he only had a few years to live. As a result, he became more determined to get the most from life. He didn t die. Instead, as his condition worsened, his reputation in scientific circles continued to grow, as if to show the mind s repudiation of the body s limitations. He has been labeled the smartest person in the world.

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