Bright Examples of the Use of Foreshadowing in Literature
The Enhancement of Foreshadowing
“The sky poured as if weeping for lost loved ones.” Reading this sentence brings death to mind. This sort of sentence is used as foreshadowing, which is a literary device used in a majority of stories. The stories “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” by Flannery O’Connor, “Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin, and “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne are filled with wonderful examples of foreshadowing. The best uses for foreshadowing is to add tension, make parts of the story believable, or even to mislead the reader.
The first way of using foreshadowing as a literary enhancement would be to add tension to the story. The point of using foreshadowing this way is to give the reader anxiety or excitement for what is to come. The story “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” by Flannery O’Connor has a perfect example of this use of foreshadowing. This short story is about a family who is travelling on vacation when they run into an escaped convict nicknamed The Misfit. Flannery foreshadows this meeting at the very beginning of the story quite obviously. The grandmother tells everyone in the story “…this fellow that calls himself The Misfit is aloose from the Federal Pen and headed toward Florida…” (O’Connor 137), which is where the family is heading. The reader can assume from this sentence that The Misfit will be met later, and that he will have an important part of the story. Later in the story they meet Red Sammy and his wife who states, “If he hears about it being here, I wouldn’t be none surprised to see him.” (O’Connor 142) Which gives off the idea that the characters are getting closer to meeting The Misfit.
Another use of foreshadowing is to help make certain parts of the story more believable. Often times things happen in stories that might not make sense without prior background information. The best example of this is in the short story “Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin. This short story is about the death of Louise Mallard due to the shock of her husband’s undeath. Chopin includes in the very first sentence that “…Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken…” (Chopin) which brought into light some very important information. Josephine even shows how concerning Louise’s heart condition was with her statement that “…you will make yourself ill” (Chopin) when Louise begins acting oddly. Not only does it suggest that something negative will happen because of her heart condition, but it also makes her death more believable. If we didn’t know she had previous heart trouble then her death at the end would seem odd and unrealistic.
A third way to boost a story with foreshadowing would be to mislead the reader with information that feels important. This is often used to confuse the reader and make the story more shocking when the truth is revealed. The story “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne provides a good use of this type of foreshadowing. This short story is about a man named Goodman Brown who leaves his innocent new wife at home as he goes to meet the devil in the woods. The story makes a lot of references to Goodman’s wife, Faith, and her pretty pink ribbons. As Goodman leaves to go meet the devil “…he looked back and saw the head of Faith still peeping after him, with a melancholy air, in spite of her pink ribbons.” (Hawthorne) This gives the image of him leaving behind something sweet and innocent in favor of something dark and sinister. This is what made the reveal of Faith being at this meeting so surprising. The pink ribbons are left out upon Goodman seeing her at the ceremony, “…[he] cast one look at his pale wife…” (Hawthorne) is all that is mention. This, in itself, is symbolism of her innocence being replaced.
In conclusion, foreshadowing a very useful tool that can add tension, make parts of the story believable, or even to mislead the reader. These types of foreshadowing make a story more fun to read and more complex. Without this type of literary enhancement mystery novels would be very boring. A common trope used with foreshadowing is that the end is usually foreshadowed in the beginning. This is true in a majority of the stories mentioned. Foreshadowing is just fun little Easter eggs that are left in stories to bring entertainment and excitement.
Stylistic Devices Used in a Barred Owl and the History Teacher Poems
In A Barred Owl and The History Teacher, the literary devices used help convey the narrator’s attempts to trivialize different horrors. In both poems the objective of the speaker is to shield the children from the outside world. Wilbur uses couplets and a humorous tone in order to soothe the child’s fear of the owl while Collins uses irony and word play to trivialize real-world events, hiding the horror behind the acts committed.
A Barred Owl opens with the image of an owl in “her darkened room”, bringing about a monster under the bed eeriness to the first stanza. The child is obviously frightened by the owl outside so the speaker tries to soothe the child’s fears. The simplicity of this poem is further conveyed by the speaker’s personification of the owl, “Asking of us, if rightly listened to,/ ‘Who cooks for you? and then ‘Who cooks for you?”. Wilbur purposely contradicts the positivity towards the end of the first stanza with the gore in the end of the second stanza. The poem ends with exploring the what would happen if the narrator never “sent a small child back to sleep at night”. This reaffirms the necessity to trivialize the fear as it has no consequence to the child’s well being.
The same could not be said for The History Teacher, in which the teacher sets to protect their student’s innocence. However, in this case, hiding the true facts of the world hurts the children rather than helps them. Collins uses familiar events such as the Stone Age, the War of Roses and the Enola Gay ironically because the readers generally are aware of what really happened. Collins’ play on words serves to trivialize important historical events to no ultimate benefit. The teacher’s miseducation of his students juxtapositions with their their subsequent ill conduct as they “torment the weak and the smart”. This suggests that the student’s immaturity could be improved with real history lessons rather than the fictional stories the teacher insists on telling.
Both poems set out to protect the innocence of children in one manner or the other. However, while Wilbur describes soothing a fear with no consequence, Collins portrays ignorance caused by student’s lack of education.
Rubric rating submitted on: 2/5/2016, 3:03:26 PM by [email protected]
5 These essays offer a persuasive comparison/contrast of the two poems and present an insightful analysis of the relationship between them. Although these essays offer a range of interpretations and choose to emphasize different poetic devices, these papers provide convincing readings of both poems and demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition in language appropriate to the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific. Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is clear and sophisticated, and in the case of a 9 essay, especially persuasive These competent essays offer a reasonable comparison/contrast of the two poems and an effective analysis of the relationship between them. They are less thorough or less precise in their discussion of the themes and devices, and their analysis of the relationship between the two poems is less convincing. These essays demonstrate the ability to express ideas clearly with references to the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of effective writing as the 9–8 papers. While essays scored 7–6 are generally well written, those scored a 7 demonstrate more sophistication in both substance and style. 5 These essays may respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the two poems and their relationship, but they may be superficial in analysis of theme and devices. They often rely on paraphrase, but paraphrase that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their comparison/contrast of the relationship between the two poems may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to the texts. There may be minor misinterpretations of one or both poems. These students demonstrate control of language, but the writing may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the two poems. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or may ignore one of the poems completely. Evidence from the poems may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The writing often demonstrates a lack of control over the conventions of composition: inadequate development of ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreadings and/or demonstrate inept writing. These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4–3 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poems themselves. The essays may contain serious errors in grammar and mechanics. They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poems
Writing Techniques Used by Herman Melville in Benito Cereno
There are many styles in which a writer can convey a story within a movie or a book. Whether it falls under the genre of a romantical, thriller, horror or action adventure movie there are different styles that can be chosen to embellish the way it is told. The act of deception is nothing new to the human race. People choose to hide their true intentions for many different reasons. It simply could be to benefit the individual, someone else or to manipulate a situation. In a story or film this style of writing is called Anagnorisis. In order to identify this type of writing the author will place some clues throughout the tale hinting towards something but does not usually reveal what it is until the end of the story. Herman Melville wrote Benito Cereno in 1855 and it is a novella that came out in three parts. Melville uses the technique, anagnorisis in his novella. This allows him to put an interesting twist in this tale.
The actual definition of anagnorisis is the moment in a plot or story where the recognition or discovery by the protagonist of the identity of some character or the nature of his or her own predicament, which leads to the resolution of the plot. The ideal moment for this device to happen is the moment of peripeteia, a reversal of fortune, where the protagonist realizes some important insight or fact, human nature, his own situation, or a truth about himself. It, in fact, unravels all the major complexities of the plot. This ties into Benito Cereno very well as Melville places many hints throughout this tale which all try to inform the reader of a plot twist. In a quick synapsis of the story, Amasa Delano is the captain of a large American merchant ship called Bachelor’s Delight. He oversees what he thinks to be a distressed ship. The ship turns out to be the San Dominick captained by Don Benito Cereno. The significance of this ship is it is a slave ship that was moving with the waves near the coast. Captain Delano goes to the ship and observes hardly any crew, slaves freely roaming about and the Captain Cereno seemingly being held up by his slave, Babo.
Captain Cereno tells Captain Delano they were stricken by stays for most of the day supplying water and other items to the people on board. A series of strange things happen while Delano is aboard. He witnesses some slaves acting out towards some of the Spaniard crew members. He notices that the Captain Cereno cannot stand on his own and seems to be hesitant to speak. He asks questions all while inspecting the ship. Delano gets many thoughts of doom but his easy-going nature just laughs them off as something else. Ultimately the charade of lies is exposed as Captain Cereno launches into Captain Delano’s boat showing the dagger with Babo. Delano helps recapture the ship killing many slaves. The story goes into the courtroom where the trial of Babo and associates are taking place. The story ends with Cereno saying ‘Had I dropped the least hint, made the least advance towards an understanding between us, death, explosive death-yours as mine-would have ended the scene.”
Now to go back to the topic at hand, anagnorisis. There are many subtle clues throughout the story that hint to Delano the gravity of the situation. He just misses them because he was too wrapped up in his own prejudiced thinking. The first hint comes in this quote from the text “Always upon boarding a large and populous ship at sea, especially a foreign one, with a non-descript crew such as Lascars and Manilla men, the impression varies in a peculiar way from what produced by first entering a strange house with strange inmates in a strange land”. This is showing the mindset of Delano, an American who does not see blacks as equals to white men. It also shows things do not seem natural to Delano. The way the people aboard is free moving, unconstrained and acting odd is not a custom to what he is used to seeing. He depicts the African women as animals along with the men.
When he truly believes they are the equivalent to animals he naturally would not believe they would be intelligent enough to hold a revolt. This almost sets him and the rest of the characters up for the big finally. As the story moves forward Melville rolls on with more hidden messages. Delano is skeptical of the situation aboard the ship but is quick to dismiss everything he thinks. Delano then witnesses a young Spaniard being hit across the head by a slave boy only to watch Cereno do nothing. Furthermore, from the text “That all the negroes slept upon deck, as is customary in this navigation, and none wore fetters, because the owner, his friend Aranda, told him that they were all tractable” This translates to the Captain’s own failure to realize that most captive people would try to escape if given the chance to get their freedom. Him allowing them to do this because of the word of his friend allowed the take over to happen in the first place.
These were just a few of the hidden messages throughout this story line that lead to the end. Ultimately, Captain Delano was duped for a majority of the time into believing that Captain Cereno was in charge. The last big clue was when the captured Captain would not let go of Delano’s hand as he was leaving the ship to his own. Delano saw the look on his face the look on Babo’s face and still did not pick up. It wasn’t until Captain Cereno jumped into the boat which revealed the knife Babo had did Captain Delano see what was truly happening.
Melville never specifically mentioned slavery being a good or bad thing. He was able to use his writing skills to portray a middle stance type of view of the issue at hand regarding slavery. This left it up to the reader to decide. Melville’s use of the writing style called Anagnorisis was impeccable. Especially since this was written so long ago. Stories like these build the suspense and make the reader on edge because they usually pick up on subtle clues but do not actually know what it is they are seeing. The reader forms an opinion and then by the time they get to the end the story is nothing like what they have imagined.
“Postcard from a Travel Snob” by Sophie Hannah
The poem “Postcard From A Travel Snob” Is Written By Sophie Hannah who is a British novelist and poet. The poem depicts the persona writing a postcard to the recipient of the postcard whom the persona thinks she is superior. The persona in the poem is portrayed as a “travel snob”. A snob usually refers to a person with high social position and looks down on those regarded as socially inferior. The poem is amusing as it displays of just how “stuck up” the persona comes across, shredding the people’s thoughts and feelings who enjoy the package holidays that the persona particularly has a disdain for. The persona is characterized through the rich use of literary devices such as rhymes and enjambment which enhances the speech-like impression. It is elucidated as an reflection on the perspective of upper classes on their lower counterparts thus under the surface, the classes are divided and treated differently.
As seen from the title of the poem, the letters “P”, “T”, and “S” have been capitalised, as it creates great emphasis on these words, Postcard, Travel and Snob. The word Postcard is dominant as the first line, “I do not wish anyone were here” delineates the negativity of attitude in the persona, a parody of the usual greetings in postcards. The other two words Travel and Snob are crucial in displaying the persona’s attitude towards travelling and holidays. Therefore, these words link back to the main message of the poem that snobbiness associated with different types of holidays determines one’s social status. Thus, the title of the poem is presented in a way that one is able to understand what is going to happen in the poem, creating a foreshadowing effect. It is separated into four separate stanzas each of four lines. This creates a dramatic effect and reiterates snobbish attitude within the poem. The poet makes use of strong words, alliteration, rich language and enjambment to exhibit the persona’s attitude and feelings towards travel holidays. At the start of the poem the poet uses inversion in “ I do not wish anyone were here” to change the usual greeting of postcards to one which is much more negative and socially exclusive. Pretentious words “wine connoisseurs” and “Anthropologist” shows that the persona reveals her superiority. The use of strong and negative word “not” in the first stanza shows that she is deprecating of the typical middle class holidays with “karaoke nights, and pints of beer”. “Perish the thoughts” is a strong middle class vernacular which shows her as someone who is creating class divisions which backs up her snobbish character. “drunken tourist types” is an embedment of harsh alliteration of the letter ‘t’.
The alliteration increases the sneer, as does the word “types” sounds derogatory as if the persona see all tourists as the lower class people, expressing her superiority. Alliteration is also utilized in the third stanza “sun- sangria- two-weeks- small- minded- package- philistine- abroad,” through the repetition of the letter ‘p’ and ‘s’ which is used to delineate her indignation towards typical holidays. The use of enjambment is prominent. “There’s not a guest house or a hotel within a hundred miles” which enhances the dramatic monologue effect. The last stanza (line 13-16) has significant impact on me, as it is condescending with the speaker looking down on her inferior readers. The speaker compares herself to ordinary tourists. When the persona’s friends who are of higher social status drink, “your friends become wine connoisseurs, not drunks.” Meanwhile, tourists who are the lower class have friends who would be considered drunks.
Therefore, it leads back to the key message of the poem that social status causes the difference in the classes and in this case, holidays are a part of it. Sophie Hannah presents the persona to the readers by creating a snobbish person through the evident use of inversion and contrasting rich language. The idea of social exclusivity is furthered through the use of contrasting language to describe the typical package holiday in comparison to the persona’s ideal holiday. This is achieved by contrasting the negative noun “drunks” to describe the lower class with the more positive noun “connoisseurs” to describe the upper class- the persona and her friends. Thus, readers would view this as the persona trying to create a artificial class difference based on her snobbish thoughts. In conclusion, throughout most of the poem, Hannah employs parallelism in order to differentiate between the speaker and people of lower classes. This poem showcases the harsh reality on separation of people into different classes. The poem uses various literary devices to bring out the message of travelling is also a factor to differentiate people as travel is not accessible to all and superiority is present within the people who are able to travel. Therefore, the poet conveys the persona’s views on travelling.z
The Use of Literary Devices in “We Are All Made of Molecules” by Susin Nielsen
A captivating novel is one that uses multiple literary devices to grip the reader’s attention while reading. Susin Nielsen, the author of We Are All Made of Molecules uses a large selection of figurative language. She uses a variety of foreshadowing, similes, and imagery to express her writing in a creative way. She also has various important reasons as to why she chooses these elements in her writing. Therefore, the author’s use of figurative language impacts the mood of the story.
To start, she uses numerous examples of foreshadowing in the novel which heavily impacts the mood of the story. One example shown in the novel could be when Stewart; the main character was talking about his “Christmas holiday” and how amazing it was going; he was feeling as if his step-family and real family were getting along nicely. Nielsen ends off the chapter with a suspenseful line: “It was a great Christmas holiday, until it wasn’t”. This is foreshadowing the disastrous party that’s held in their house later in the story. The author is using foreshadowing here because she wants to grip the attention of the reader, and she wants to add a suspenseful spin to the story. This line impacted the mood of the story; it went from happy and cheerful with Stewart talking about his exceptional “Christmas holiday” to suspenseful and dark when Neilsen brought up the spooky foreshadowing line. Another example of foreshadowing could be when Ashley; the antagonist and Jared; her boyfriend were planning a New Year’s Eve “get-together” with their friends. Ashley then says to her dad “Dad, its fine. We’re just having a few people over. What can possibly go wrong? Famous last words.” This also foreshadows the ruinous events that happen in the “get-together”. The “get-together” turned into a large party, with people calling others to come join and bring in their own alcohol bottle. Everyone got drunk and many others vandalized and sole expensive items from the house. The author decided to place a line of foreshadowing specifically there because she wanted the reader to infer and be concerned about what’s going to happen later on in the story. This is when the plot thickens and changes the mood from casual and content to concerning and tense. This is how foreshadowing impacts the mood of the story.
Secondly, the use of similes in the story impacts the mood of the story as well. An example would be when Ashley was kissing Jared, passionately when something truly unexpected happens: “he leaned in and kissed me with his beautiful, soft mouth, which I liked. He’s a good kisser. Then he pushed me down on the bed and climbed on top of me like a monkey would.” Ashley compared Jared to a monkey because of the way he was “climbing” her. The author decided to put a simile there to make the reader have a better visualization of how he was climbing her and how lustful Jared is towards her. This line is important because it contributes to the rising action, the story starts to get more exciting within every line the reader reads. This line drastically altered the mood from romantic and pleasant with their kissing, to dangerous, scary and stressful, since Ashley did not have a desire for sex and was frightened by what Jared would do next, to her. Another example of a simile that changes the mood of the story is when Stewart was talking about the time when he got abruptly bullied by Jared in the change room. “Without warning, he grabbed my gym shorts and yanked them down as fast as a cheetah would around my ankles”. Neilsen is comparing Jared to a cheetah because of how fast he “yanked” down his shorts. This line is also important because it contributes to the rising action, and also because the reader is introduced to one of the main characters; Jared. He has a large impact on the story. She placed that simile there to make the reader comprehend his character more. The author wanted to emphasize him pulling down Stewart’s pants also for the reason of better visualization of this bullying scene. This line changed the mood of the story from ordinary and pleasant (because Jared was being nice, and he was casually talking to Stewart just before he quickly pulled down his shorts) to alarming and madness because he “yanked” his shorts down speedily and out of nowhere. These are some of the many similes that transform the mood of this story.
Thirdly, the author places countless passages and sentences of imagery in this novel that differ the mood of the story. An example of this could be when Stewart was talking about Violet’s (his crush) beauty: ” She has a beautiful smile. Her teeth are straight and white. The rest of her face is pretty too. It is a very symmetrical face, which I find aesthetically pleasing”. He is thoroughly describing her facial features and his opinion on them. The author decided to put in a passage of imagery here, so the reader can see things from how Stewart sees is. This can contribute to character development as well, since he starts to have feelings for another person. Also, she used imagery to show how “beautiful” Stewart thinks she is. This line will make the reader more intrigued and want to read the story further on to see how Stewart and Violet turn out later. This passage of imagery changes the mood of the narrative from calm and normal, (since just before Stewart met Violet, him and his best friend were doing some general shopping) to dreamy and lovely, when Stewart speaks about her pleasing looks. Another example of this would be when Stewart was talking about the aftermath of the party; how the physical damage has been fixed: “Life has returned to almost normal. The gigantic hole in the foyer has been fixed. The carpets have been professionally cleaned. Phil’s house has been painted a whole new colour, a very attractive blue”. The author uses rich adjectives to describe how their house looks as good as new. This line is significant because this is the resolution, one of the most important parts in a story. This talks about how his “life has returned to almost normal”. The author used imagery here because she probably wanted to let the reader calm down from the bizarre party earlier. This changed the mood from crazy and stressful, (since the party happened) to calming and peaceful, since the conflict of the party has been resolved. These examples represent how imagery changes the mood of the novel.
This is how figurative language impacts the mood of the story, specifically foreshadowing, similes and imagery. Figurative language is key to a great, exciting, and intriguing novel.
Literary Elements in “The Birthmark” by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story “The Birthmark” demonstrates the absurdity of trying to make an impeccable being, and thusly, meddling with the domain of the awesome. Hawthorne passes on this message through the tale of the researcher Aylmer and his lovely spouse, Georgiana, who has a tiny, hand-molded skin pigmentation to her left side cheek. Aylmer winds up fixated on this check shields his better half from being immaculate and settle to evacuate the check utilizing his science. All through the recounting “The Birthmark” Hawthorne utilizes literary element to additionally show the limit of man, also, the hindrances between the natural, evil world and paradise.
The flower that Aylmer indicates Georgiana delineates the trickiness of flawlessness. At the point when Georgiana endeavored to cull the flower “the whole plant suffered a blight, its leaves turning coal-black as if by the agency of fire”. Georgiana, an imperfect individual, endeavors to get a great flower, yet rather makes the bloom pass on, for Georgiana’s touch speaks to the defects inalienable in every single individual. At the point when Aylmer murmured “There was too powerful a stimulus”, the stimulus he says implies the defect inside Georgiana. The bloom is consistently passing on to appear that a question as immaculate as the blossom can’t live or endure the bit of the defective.
The skin coloration on Georgiana’s cheek, the question of Aylmer and Georgiana common abhor, symbolizes the wrongdoings of man. Aylmer states that the skin pigmentation was “the visible mark of earthly imperfection”. These transgressions and blemishes separate humanity from the creatures in paradise and must be cleansed in death. Georgiana knows that passing, not Aylmer’s science, will expel this skin coloration from her cheek. She wishes to “put off this birthmark of mortality by relinquishing mortality itself in preference to any other mode”. At last, Aylmer accomplishes his objective of making the ideal being yet at the expense of his significant other’s life. Georgiana acquires flawlessness just at the climb of her soul. In ‘The Birthmark, ‘ Nathaniel Hawthorne incorporates an assortment of themes. The two most groundbreaking are the fixation and the contention among nature and science. In a story brimming with uncontrollably fruitful, relatively otherworldly, logical tests, it is immaculate nature itself that is appeared to be more ground-breaking than any synthetic creation. Aylmer can make exquisite sights and astonishing smells from nothing, however he doesn’t be able to control his significant other’s soul or drag out her life. Then again, Georgiana has some proportion of control over her better half’s soul, a power that comes not from science but rather nature. For instance, when Aylmer’s spirits hail, he requests that Georgiana sing to him, and the excellence of her voice reestablishes his great mind-set. Not at all like her significant other’s elixirs, her voice is altogether characteristic however has a substantially more noteworthy impact. Furthermore, Georgiana’s skin pigmentation additionally shows the intensity of nature since it enamors and inebriates nearly everybody who sees it. At last, Aylmer’s endeavor to control nature with science closes just in death and despondency.
Hawthorne exhibits without a moment’s delay both the powerlessness of men to remain in their place in the widespread chain of importance, by trespassing on the privileged insights of Nature, what’s more, God, and the vanity of such an endeavor through “The Birthmark”. Georgiana speaks to the nearest state to flawlessness that man can seek to yet Aylmer isn’t content. He makes progress toward flawlessness in his better half, an objective that, if effective, will result in his losing his significant other, for the ideal can’t exist in the natural world. Rather, at her demise, Georgiana’s spirit will be cleansed of her transgressions lastly permitted to accomplish flawlessness.
The Role of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Advertisements
Advertisements are a form of argument that attempt to prove a point. This point is usually to persuade their audience that they need a certain product to act a certain way, to feel a certain way or to live a certain lifestyle. Honestly if we were to come across most of the products sold to us in advertisements without seeing any ads, we probably wouldn’t buy them. Why should I spend whatever little money I have on a grapefruit face wash? That’s the argument an advertisement would make. And since advertisements are trying to convince you of something, they use Ethos, Pathos and Logos as elements of their argument.
The roles that Ethos, Pathos, and Logos play in advertisements are quite substantial. In fact, I would say that advertisements and commercials revolve around these three elements. Logos are used to communicate statements deemed to be “facts” or “an objective truth” about something. An example of this used in advertisement is stating statistics. An add promoting hair growth might state, “based on such and such survey, 40% of men face hair loss at the age of 60.” The effect of Logos is directly linked to Pathos, which is mainly used to manipulate an emotional response. Going back to the survey example, stating that statistic might make the audience feel that they are not alone in their problem, and thus encourage them to seek action to relive their problem, instead of being embarrassed about their problem or remaining in denial. Furthermore, Logos can be used to induce a sense of security. When audiences hear facts, they might feel like the advertisement makers know what they’re doing, and thus be more trusting towards them. As a result, Pathos can persuade you to be sad, happy, scared, or any other emotion; thus giving advertisement control over your reaction. Once they do this, they can use whatever products they’re selling to ease those emotions.
Ethos is the credibility and authority of the author used to comfort the audience. For example, medical advertisements might say something such as “as a dentist, I am qualified to tell you this teeth whitening product is the solution to your stained teeth.”
Personally, advertisements affect me by making me question fundamental aspects of my life and me as a person. Am I content with my appearance? Am I making healthy choices? Am I in control of my life? However, I’ve learned to be skeptical of certain advertisements. I’ll ask myself some questions such as: am I really buying this shirt because I need this shirt or because I want to be as confident as the model looks? Am I really buying another water bottle because I have a shortage of them or is it to convince myself that this is what I need to start living a healthy lifestyle? And finally, do I really need any more products or am I using retail therapy and instant gratification to compensate for some void in my life?
Definition of Ame Alusions and Their Examples in Neil Gaiman’s Work Master of Alusions
“Ame Allusions are very common in literature. Many authors use them in their books for various reasons. But what exactly are they? How to define them and what are the most famous examples in Gaiman’s work? Is he truly the “Master of allusions”? This essay tries to find the answers to these questions, showing examples from some of his very popular works. Lets start with some theory. The Oxford English Dictionary defines allusion as “a covert, implied or indirect reference”. It’s a kind of a traditional definition which seems to be very simple (that’s good) but it’s also not very clear (not so much). Let’s find something better. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary terms describes allusion as “indirect or passing reference to some event, person, place or artistic work, the nature or relevance of which is not explained by the author but relies on the readers‘ familiarity with what is thus mentioned”. This definition hits the spot and makes this term understandable for the reader.
Enough theory! Let’s go on an adventure with Neil Gaiman. He is a very special creator of worlds. He’s not only the author of prose but he also creates the works of poetry, film, journalism, comics, song lyrics and drama. The number of allusions in Gaiman‘s works and the variety of them is astonishing. He alludes to everything from the Bible, mythology to pop culture and rock songs lyrics. The perfect example is his book “American Gods”. Gaiman shows us that the mythology (in this case mainly Scandinavian) is not only the collection of some old tales but can be used as a base for something fresh and modern. rican Gods” tells a story of a man called Shadow. He is an ex-convict who was given a chance to take some well-paid job by mysterious Mr. Wednesday. During their journey Shadow found out that Mr.
Wednesday is Odin himself and he tries to form an ally between the Old Gods, like Loki (the Scandinavian god of mischief), Czernobog (The Slavic god of darkness), Gwydion (god from Welsh mythology), Easter (Germanic goddess of dawn), Horus (Egyptian god of the sky) and many, many more. They all have to join forces and fight against New Gods – the gods of internet, television and other modern inventions. The whole book is stuffed with allusions to multiple mythologies. As mentioned above, Neil Gaiman is also the author of comic books. If we want to find allusions we can reach for the perfect example that is a comic series “The Sandman”. It’s like a cake stuffed with the cream of allusions. The original series ran for 75 issues and there have been additional albums and spin-offs. The main protagonist – the Sandman known also as the Lord of Dreams is immortal being who controls the dreams of every living human or creature. The most famous one is the 3rd volume of the series, titled “Dream Country”. It contains 4 interesting and unconventional stories: “Calliope”, “A Dream of a Thousand Cats”, “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” and “Façade”.
Three stories are wrapped up around ancient myths. “Calliope” tells the story of the Greek muse who was caught and imprisoned by some author who found her as a source of his inspiration. The story title in itself is an allusion. So the next one is.“A Midsummer Night’s Dream” alludes to William Shakespeare play with the same title. In the another, later album it is explained that this whole story actually was a Shakespeare’s dream which inspired him to write the play with the same title. “Façade” tells the story of Urania “Rainie” Blackwell. It’s a character from other comic book – Element Girl from the album “Metamorpho” (allusion!). She can shape her body however she wants what makes her truly immortal. In the story she’s lonely, depressed and hiding from the outside world at her home because she is tired of her never-ending existence. The story ends with her being shown how to end her life and dying happily. This story contains multiple allusions to Egyptian mythology, especially symbols and hieroglyphs scattered all over the panels. “A Dream of a Thousand Cats” is a comic album presenting the tale of a cat wandering around the world, telling other cats her own tragic story. The story is about the cat’s owners who drowned her kittens. That was the path that leads to find the Cat of Dreams.
The protagonist tries to convict other cats that if they all dream about the world where they’re the masters and people are their subjects, the Cat of Dreams will make this dream real. The reader can figure out that the Cat of Dreams is no one else but the Sandman himself but Gaiman describes this character using also some references to “Alice Adventures in Wonderland”. It’s worth to stress that all these allusions come from only one album from the Sandman’s collection. Every other album contains more of allusions and it’s only up to the reader to “decode” them. There’s a huge advantage of comic book over the regular book, though. A comic book contains pictures and they can be great transmitter of multiple types of allusions – from graphic symbols, through colors to the panels themselves that can look like some movie frames. If someone has any doubts that Neil Gaiman is the Master of Allusions they should take one of his books/comics books/scripts and try to count all the allusions. There are hundreds of them, even in his shorter works. In his single work there is enough material to write a university paper about only one aspect of it like symbolism or allusions. If the examples presented above are not enough maybe it’s time to reach for other books of the same author like “Norse Mythology” – his own rendition of Scandinavian mythology. He probably wrote this book because spreading allusions to this beautiful myths across all his works simply wasn’t enough for him. It proves that he’s really dedicated to bring back to life these myths and make them a part of modern world so the younger readers can get to know them not only by watching “Thor” from Marvel Comics. It also means that we can be sure that he didn’t say the last word when it comes to allusions in his works.
Examining Literary Devices in Kevin Halligan’s Poem the Cockroach
Explore how the words of The Cockroach vividly convey the situation of Kevin Halligan. Support your answer with details from the poem.
Kevin Halligan uses intricate sequencing of words and language devices to make his situation realistic and meaningful in ‘The Cockroach’. The main idea he is tries to convey is that karma is present in his life, “every action has an equal an opposite reaction,” by this acknowledging how diligent you must be while performing actions as the action may come back to haunt you or as he states by allusion, in afterlife. Such ways include an increasing tone in the text by sonorous devices like of as the result of rhymes, as if to show the precessions of events leading up to another or by including the illusion of time which at first may not be caught sight of but with close inspection in context, it will be found. Others like allusive devices are used to capture the reader’s interests, also.
Halligan having used sonorous devices, he makes the reader feel the pressure and too of the stress he is portrayed to have in the poem. He uses rhythmic sounds at the conclusion of lines of the poem ‘, Pace, floor, trace, door; rings, back, wings, attack,’ to introduce the uneasy/grotesque feeling as if to foreshadow an upcoming event. Although the foreshadowing conveyed by the words is meaningful in addressing the situation of fear and anxiety of Halligan, another effect can be found, that is the pumping of the heart, the rhymes create a pulsing precession that is distinctive to the organ, a life source linking to the idea of a lifetime. Both in an anatomical sense and symbolic one the cockroach has no heart, the cockroach breaths through its skin and insects are understood as by reincarnation believers to be vile creatures, the words of rhyme indirectly allowing the reader to inquire about the mind state of Halligan repetitively supporting the tension, and with common knowledge by the reader’s part showing that although with such a defence Halligan acknowledges the cockroach to have it’s own share of vulnerability, just like he does.
Time is vital in conveying the situation of Halligan as showing the manipulation of it induces a feeling of stasis of both subjects in the text, the cockroach and Halligan.
To convey the time dilation Halligan employs the cockroach as made to be an indecisive being but as if too logically reasoning on what next step to take through it’s life, ‘Circling the rusty table.’ He also attempts to acknowledge using first person singular subjected statements that permit the reader to wonder or question more of the reality, which they live in, creating an effect of sympathy, and to empathy in prolonged thought of the reader, ‘I watched a giant cockroach start to pace.’ Doing this he shows that even high-end beings like humans in contrast with cockroaches in the beliefs of reincarnation are sometimes misguided, have questions and that getting a plausible life out of the time we have is going to take a long time, ‘Except I thought I recognized myself.’
Halligan having used allusion in the poem in conjunction with sound devices and time expressions he further backs up his thoughts of culture and/or religion reincarnation pertains to, to which the reader may relate to. Halligan uses the basic concept of karma and the rippling effect an action can cause that can surpass lifetimes, ‘was this payment for a vicious crime.’ With such careful hints like this the reader can reflect upon his or her life, relating to the good and bad deeds they have done or cause the reader to consider such thing of karma too and how much others have been affected by them, this was is clearly shown in ‘The Cockroach’ to be one the Halligan’s main objective/theme.
As the reader has probably been made aware of there are many potentials of ideas in the text, or in other words many lessons that can be learned from this poem, that is the point, the objective is to tap into the sympathetic mindset of the reader. Truly, with the following overarching tools: time expressions, sonorous devices and allusive devices, Halligan achieves great portrayal of Karma as a theme allowing the text to be memorable and meaningful to the reader in such a way that the reader himself/herself can relate to the text, and as the result of this, conveying the situation Halligan; finding the right path through life.
Oedipus Rex: Usage of Literary Devices
Literary Devices in Oedipus Rex
Oedipus Rex is a remarkable play by Sophocles, centering around Oedipus’ purpose of finding the cause of the curse that is tyrannizing Thebes, the city where Oedipus is king. The play strongly demonstrates the point of how one’s pride could cause them to bloat and be blind to the truths around him or her, as had happened with Oedipus. Oedipus, who is self-confident, was so immersed in his own success that he realized when it was too late of how he was the murderer of his own father, the husband of his own mother, the cause of the curse in Thebes, and the person shepherding the life of lies. In addition to the memorable and thought-provoking plot the play has, it has an element of limitation of space as well as a perfectly organized structure that helps to increase tension and drive drama within the play.
The organized structure Oedipus Rex employs within the play is that of an exposition, a rising action, a climax, and a denouement. One thing that sets the play apart from others is how the limitation of time was effectively used to raise tension. Oedipus was on a self-set time schedule where he promised himself and the people of Thebes that he will find the cause of the curse and get rid of it immediately. The play creates the feeling that there isn’t enough time by explaining how people are affected by the curse, and by showing how Oedipus wants immediate answers from those he’s questioning, causing him to jump to immediate conclusions. Additionally, it seems that the entire play takes place in the span of a short time, which shows to the audience how one dramatic event follows right after another, adding to the tension. For example, as soon as Oedipus discovered that Jocasta had killed herself, he gauged his eyes out; the audience weren’t allowed to welcome their shock of Jocasta’s death since the play had already shown them another dramatic event, Oedipus gauging his eyes out. Overall, the technique of limitation of time was used throughout the play which can be seen in the time-span of the events, as well as the sense of immediacy.
In the exposition of the play, the audience are thrown into a situation where they’re introduced to the various characters of the play, and the situation at hand; how Thebes is under a curse, how Creon is requesting the cure for the curse from Apollo, how Oedipus finds out from Creon that he must find the killer of King Laius to lift the curse. All these events are simply background information for the audience, so they can thoroughly understand what’s going on in the play, and the characters and their respective roles. The rising action of a play provides a number of events and details that directs the audience towards the highest point of the play, the climax. The rising action of Oedipus consisted of Oedipus questioning the prophet who unwillingly revealed to him that he is the cause of the curse, Oedipus discussing his situation with Jocasta and Jocasta recalling her own fate with prophecies, Oedipus further seeking out the truth by questioning the servant who survived the attack on the king, and by finally realizing the truth that he had indeed killed King Laius.
In the climax of Oedipus Rex, there’s a lot going. Not only did Oedipus just discover that he is the cause of the curse of his city, but he killed his father and is wedded with his mother. Once Oedipus finds Jocasta, she has already discovered the truth at this point herself and suicided, which causes Oedipus to gauge his eyes out. Following the climax of the play was the denouement where Oedipus kept his promise of lifting the curse off of Thebes by banishing himself from the city, and having Creon promise him to take care of his daughters and of Thebes.
As can be seen, Oedipus Rex is a rollercoaster of a play for audience. It successfully raises tension by utilizing literary devices such as organizational structure and the method of limitation of time. More importantly, the play teaches the significant lesson that one should stray away from being prideful and should give more heed to other’s advices. If Oedipus was not blinded by his own success and confidence, he might not have had to live such a tragedy.