Bright Examples of the Use of Foreshadowing in Literature
The Enhancement of Foreshadowing
“The sky poured as if weeping for lost loved ones.” Reading this sentence brings death to mind. This sort of sentence is used as foreshadowing, which is a literary device used in a majority of stories. The stories “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” by Flannery O’Connor, “Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin, and “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne are filled with wonderful examples of foreshadowing. The best uses for foreshadowing is to add tension, make parts of the story believable, or even to mislead the reader.
The first way of using foreshadowing as a literary enhancement would be to add tension to the story. The point of using foreshadowing this way is to give the reader anxiety or excitement for what is to come. The story “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” by Flannery O’Connor has a perfect example of this use of foreshadowing. This short story is about a family who is travelling on vacation when they run into an escaped convict nicknamed The Misfit. Flannery foreshadows this meeting at the very beginning of the story quite obviously. The grandmother tells everyone in the story “…this fellow that calls himself The Misfit is aloose from the Federal Pen and headed toward Florida…” (O’Connor 137), which is where the family is heading. The reader can assume from this sentence that The Misfit will be met later, and that he will have an important part of the story. Later in the story they meet Red Sammy and his wife who states, “If he hears about it being here, I wouldn’t be none surprised to see him.” (O’Connor 142) Which gives off the idea that the characters are getting closer to meeting The Misfit.
Another use of foreshadowing is to help make certain parts of the story more believable. Often times things happen in stories that might not make sense without prior background information. The best example of this is in the short story “Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin. This short story is about the death of Louise Mallard due to the shock of her husband’s undeath. Chopin includes in the very first sentence that “…Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken…” (Chopin) which brought into light some very important information. Josephine even shows how concerning Louise’s heart condition was with her statement that “…you will make yourself ill” (Chopin) when Louise begins acting oddly. Not only does it suggest that something negative will happen because of her heart condition, but it also makes her death more believable. If we didn’t know she had previous heart trouble then her death at the end would seem odd and unrealistic.
A third way to boost a story with foreshadowing would be to mislead the reader with information that feels important. This is often used to confuse the reader and make the story more shocking when the truth is revealed. The story “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne provides a good use of this type of foreshadowing. This short story is about a man named Goodman Brown who leaves his innocent new wife at home as he goes to meet the devil in the woods. The story makes a lot of references to Goodman’s wife, Faith, and her pretty pink ribbons. As Goodman leaves to go meet the devil “…he looked back and saw the head of Faith still peeping after him, with a melancholy air, in spite of her pink ribbons.” (Hawthorne) This gives the image of him leaving behind something sweet and innocent in favor of something dark and sinister. This is what made the reveal of Faith being at this meeting so surprising. The pink ribbons are left out upon Goodman seeing her at the ceremony, “…[he] cast one look at his pale wife…” (Hawthorne) is all that is mention. This, in itself, is symbolism of her innocence being replaced.
In conclusion, foreshadowing a very useful tool that can add tension, make parts of the story believable, or even to mislead the reader. These types of foreshadowing make a story more fun to read and more complex. Without this type of literary enhancement mystery novels would be very boring. A common trope used with foreshadowing is that the end is usually foreshadowed in the beginning. This is true in a majority of the stories mentioned. Foreshadowing is just fun little Easter eggs that are left in stories to bring entertainment and excitement.
Stylistic Devices Used in a Barred Owl and the History Teacher Poems
In A Barred Owl and The History Teacher, the literary devices used help convey the narrator’s attempts to trivialize different horrors. In both poems the objective of the speaker is to shield the children from the outside world. Wilbur uses couplets and a humorous tone in order to soothe the child’s fear of the owl while Collins uses irony and word play to trivialize real-world events, hiding the horror behind the acts committed.
A Barred Owl opens with the image of an owl in “her darkened room”, bringing about a monster under the bed eeriness to the first stanza. The child is obviously frightened by the owl outside so the speaker tries to soothe the child’s fears. The simplicity of this poem is further conveyed by the speaker’s personification of the owl, “Asking of us, if rightly listened to,/ ‘Who cooks for you? and then ‘Who cooks for you?”. Wilbur purposely contradicts the positivity towards the end of the first stanza with the gore in the end of the second stanza. The poem ends with exploring the what would happen if the narrator never “sent a small child back to sleep at night”. This reaffirms the necessity to trivialize the fear as it has no consequence to the child’s well being.
The same could not be said for The History Teacher, in which the teacher sets to protect their student’s innocence. However, in this case, hiding the true facts of the world hurts the children rather than helps them. Collins uses familiar events such as the Stone Age, the War of Roses and the Enola Gay ironically because the readers generally are aware of what really happened. Collins’ play on words serves to trivialize important historical events to no ultimate benefit. The teacher’s miseducation of his students juxtapositions with their their subsequent ill conduct as they “torment the weak and the smart”. This suggests that the student’s immaturity could be improved with real history lessons rather than the fictional stories the teacher insists on telling.
Both poems set out to protect the innocence of children in one manner or the other. However, while Wilbur describes soothing a fear with no consequence, Collins portrays ignorance caused by student’s lack of education.
Rubric rating submitted on: 2/5/2016, 3:03:26 PM by [email protected]
5 These essays offer a persuasive comparison/contrast of the two poems and present an insightful analysis of the relationship between them. Although these essays offer a range of interpretations and choose to emphasize different poetic devices, these papers provide convincing readings of both poems and demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition in language appropriate to the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific. Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is clear and sophisticated, and in the case of a 9 essay, especially persuasive These competent essays offer a reasonable comparison/contrast of the two poems and an effective analysis of the relationship between them. They are less thorough or less precise in their discussion of the themes and devices, and their analysis of the relationship between the two poems is less convincing. These essays demonstrate the ability to express ideas clearly with references to the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of effective writing as the 9–8 papers. While essays scored 7–6 are generally well written, those scored a 7 demonstrate more sophistication in both substance and style. 5 These essays may respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the two poems and their relationship, but they may be superficial in analysis of theme and devices. They often rely on paraphrase, but paraphrase that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their comparison/contrast of the relationship between the two poems may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to the texts. There may be minor misinterpretations of one or both poems. These students demonstrate control of language, but the writing may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the two poems. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or may ignore one of the poems completely. Evidence from the poems may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The writing often demonstrates a lack of control over the conventions of composition: inadequate development of ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreadings and/or demonstrate inept writing. These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4–3 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poems themselves. The essays may contain serious errors in grammar and mechanics. They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poems
Writing Techniques Used by Herman Melville in Benito Cereno
There are many styles in which a writer can convey a story within a movie or a book. Whether it falls under the genre of a romantical, thriller, horror or action adventure movie there are different styles that can be chosen to embellish the way it is told. The act of deception is nothing new to the human race. People choose to hide their true intentions for many different reasons. It simply could be to benefit the individual, someone else or to manipulate a situation. In a story or film this style of writing is called Anagnorisis. In order to identify this type of writing the author will place some clues throughout the tale hinting towards something but does not usually reveal what it is until the end of the story. Herman Melville wrote Benito Cereno in 1855 and it is a novella that came out in three parts. Melville uses the technique, anagnorisis in his novella. This allows him to put an interesting twist in this tale.
The actual definition of anagnorisis is the moment in a plot or story where the recognition or discovery by the protagonist of the identity of some character or the nature of his or her own predicament, which leads to the resolution of the plot. The ideal moment for this device to happen is the moment of peripeteia, a reversal of fortune, where the protagonist realizes some important insight or fact, human nature, his own situation, or a truth about himself. It, in fact, unravels all the major complexities of the plot. This ties into Benito Cereno very well as Melville places many hints throughout this tale which all try to inform the reader of a plot twist. In a quick synapsis of the story, Amasa Delano is the captain of a large American merchant ship called Bachelor’s Delight. He oversees what he thinks to be a distressed ship. The ship turns out to be the San Dominick captained by Don Benito Cereno. The significance of this ship is it is a slave ship that was moving with the waves near the coast. Captain Delano goes to the ship and observes hardly any crew, slaves freely roaming about and the Captain Cereno seemingly being held up by his slave, Babo.
Captain Cereno tells Captain Delano they were stricken by stays for most of the day supplying water and other items to the people on board. A series of strange things happen while Delano is aboard. He witnesses some slaves acting out towards some of the Spaniard crew members. He notices that the Captain Cereno cannot stand on his own and seems to be hesitant to speak. He asks questions all while inspecting the ship. Delano gets many thoughts of doom but his easy-going nature just laughs them off as something else. Ultimately the charade of lies is exposed as Captain Cereno launches into Captain Delano’s boat showing the dagger with Babo. Delano helps recapture the ship killing many slaves. The story goes into the courtroom where the trial of Babo and associates are taking place. The story ends with Cereno saying ‘Had I dropped the least hint, made the least advance towards an understanding between us, death, explosive death-yours as mine-would have ended the scene.”
Now to go back to the topic at hand, anagnorisis. There are many subtle clues throughout the story that hint to Delano the gravity of the situation. He just misses them because he was too wrapped up in his own prejudiced thinking. The first hint comes in this quote from the text “Always upon boarding a large and populous ship at sea, especially a foreign one, with a non-descript crew such as Lascars and Manilla men, the impression varies in a peculiar way from what produced by first entering a strange house with strange inmates in a strange land”. This is showing the mindset of Delano, an American who does not see blacks as equals to white men. It also shows things do not seem natural to Delano. The way the people aboard is free moving, unconstrained and acting odd is not a custom to what he is used to seeing. He depicts the African women as animals along with the men.
When he truly believes they are the equivalent to animals he naturally would not believe they would be intelligent enough to hold a revolt. This almost sets him and the rest of the characters up for the big finally. As the story moves forward Melville rolls on with more hidden messages. Delano is skeptical of the situation aboard the ship but is quick to dismiss everything he thinks. Delano then witnesses a young Spaniard being hit across the head by a slave boy only to watch Cereno do nothing. Furthermore, from the text “That all the negroes slept upon deck, as is customary in this navigation, and none wore fetters, because the owner, his friend Aranda, told him that they were all tractable” This translates to the Captain’s own failure to realize that most captive people would try to escape if given the chance to get their freedom. Him allowing them to do this because of the word of his friend allowed the take over to happen in the first place.
These were just a few of the hidden messages throughout this story line that lead to the end. Ultimately, Captain Delano was duped for a majority of the time into believing that Captain Cereno was in charge. The last big clue was when the captured Captain would not let go of Delano’s hand as he was leaving the ship to his own. Delano saw the look on his face the look on Babo’s face and still did not pick up. It wasn’t until Captain Cereno jumped into the boat which revealed the knife Babo had did Captain Delano see what was truly happening.
Melville never specifically mentioned slavery being a good or bad thing. He was able to use his writing skills to portray a middle stance type of view of the issue at hand regarding slavery. This left it up to the reader to decide. Melville’s use of the writing style called Anagnorisis was impeccable. Especially since this was written so long ago. Stories like these build the suspense and make the reader on edge because they usually pick up on subtle clues but do not actually know what it is they are seeing. The reader forms an opinion and then by the time they get to the end the story is nothing like what they have imagined.
“Postcard from a Travel Snob” by Sophie Hannah
The poem “Postcard From A Travel Snob” Is Written By Sophie Hannah who is a British novelist and poet. The poem depicts the persona writing a postcard to the recipient of the postcard whom the persona thinks she is superior. The persona in the poem is portrayed as a “travel snob”. A snob usually refers to a person with high social position and looks down on those regarded as socially inferior. The poem is amusing as it displays of just how “stuck up” the persona comes across, shredding the people’s thoughts and feelings who enjoy the package holidays that the persona particularly has a disdain for. The persona is characterized through the rich use of literary devices such as rhymes and enjambment which enhances the speech-like impression. It is elucidated as an reflection on the perspective of upper classes on their lower counterparts thus under the surface, the classes are divided and treated differently.
As seen from the title of the poem, the letters “P”, “T”, and “S” have been capitalised, as it creates great emphasis on these words, Postcard, Travel and Snob. The word Postcard is dominant as the first line, “I do not wish anyone were here” delineates the negativity of attitude in the persona, a parody of the usual greetings in postcards. The other two words Travel and Snob are crucial in displaying the persona’s attitude towards travelling and holidays. Therefore, these words link back to the main message of the poem that snobbiness associated with different types of holidays determines one’s social status. Thus, the title of the poem is presented in a way that one is able to understand what is going to happen in the poem, creating a foreshadowing effect. It is separated into four separate stanzas each of four lines. This creates a dramatic effect and reiterates snobbish attitude within the poem. The poet makes use of strong words, alliteration, rich language and enjambment to exhibit the persona’s attitude and feelings towards travel holidays. At the start of the poem the poet uses inversion in “ I do not wish anyone were here” to change the usual greeting of postcards to one which is much more negative and socially exclusive. Pretentious words “wine connoisseurs” and “Anthropologist” shows that the persona reveals her superiority. The use of strong and negative word “not” in the first stanza shows that she is deprecating of the typical middle class holidays with “karaoke nights, and pints of beer”. “Perish the thoughts” is a strong middle class vernacular which shows her as someone who is creating class divisions which backs up her snobbish character. “drunken tourist types” is an embedment of harsh alliteration of the letter ‘t’.
The alliteration increases the sneer, as does the word “types” sounds derogatory as if the persona see all tourists as the lower class people, expressing her superiority. Alliteration is also utilized in the third stanza “sun- sangria- two-weeks- small- minded- package- philistine- abroad,” through the repetition of the letter ‘p’ and ‘s’ which is used to delineate her indignation towards typical holidays. The use of enjambment is prominent. “There’s not a guest house or a hotel within a hundred miles” which enhances the dramatic monologue effect. The last stanza (line 13-16) has significant impact on me, as it is condescending with the speaker looking down on her inferior readers. The speaker compares herself to ordinary tourists. When the persona’s friends who are of higher social status drink, “your friends become wine connoisseurs, not drunks.” Meanwhile, tourists who are the lower class have friends who would be considered drunks.
Therefore, it leads back to the key message of the poem that social status causes the difference in the classes and in this case, holidays are a part of it. Sophie Hannah presents the persona to the readers by creating a snobbish person through the evident use of inversion and contrasting rich language. The idea of social exclusivity is furthered through the use of contrasting language to describe the typical package holiday in comparison to the persona’s ideal holiday. This is achieved by contrasting the negative noun “drunks” to describe the lower class with the more positive noun “connoisseurs” to describe the upper class- the persona and her friends. Thus, readers would view this as the persona trying to create a artificial class difference based on her snobbish thoughts. In conclusion, throughout most of the poem, Hannah employs parallelism in order to differentiate between the speaker and people of lower classes. This poem showcases the harsh reality on separation of people into different classes. The poem uses various literary devices to bring out the message of travelling is also a factor to differentiate people as travel is not accessible to all and superiority is present within the people who are able to travel. Therefore, the poet conveys the persona’s views on travelling.z
Literary Elements of the Literature that Make the Reading Experience More Interesting
In literature, there are many different elements that allow an author to shape the reading experience so that they can appeal to the reader more. These elements consist of allegory, character, and figurative language. There is also imagery, meter, plot, point of view, rhythm, setting, speaker, structure, symbolism, and tone. Some of these elements have subsections that allow for extra ways to make the literature better as a whole. This paper is designed to touch on the more important elements of the literature that make the reading experience more interesting.
The first element is allegory. An allegory is a “narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait (i.e. greed, vanity, or bravery) and attempt to convey some larger lesson or meaning of life”. When a character in a story portrays a larger trait and the aim is to teach the audience some type of lesson, it appeals to the reader because they want to know more. When the reader is interested in what they are reading, then they will want to continue reading and they will keep coming back for more. The allegory influences how the reader feels because when they think that they are learning something valuable, they will want to know more. While this is not the only element, it is an important one.
Another element is the character, which is the “representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally human activities or functions in a work of fiction,” and it can fall into a few different sub-categories, which are: protagonist, antagonist, minor character, static character, and dynamic character. In any given story, the protagonist is the most important person, because the story revolves around them. The antagonist does not always have to be a person; it is just something that goes against the protagonist and tends to be negative. A minor character is one who does not have too much of an important role, but their main purpose is to support the protagonist. Finally, the static and dynamic characters differ in the way that the static character is “a character that remains the same,” and the dynamic character is “a character that changes in some important way”. These subcategories all fall under the element of a character, and they all have a way of enhancing the reading experience because when there are different characters, they are able to tell a story that they would not be able to do if there were no characters whatsoever. The different types of characters are able to tell stories from varying points of view and that has a way of appealing to readers.
Another literary element that helps to make a story better is imagery. Imagery is “the author’s attempt to create a mental picture in the mind of the reader,” so that means that the author will explain things in a way that paints a picture into the minds of the reader. When the author finds a way to describe something so vividly that it paints a clear picture in the reader’s mind, it helps the reader to enjoy the piece that they are reading just a little bit more. That allows the reader to feel differently about the piece that they are reading, which makes the piece much more interesting.
Figurative language is yet another element that is used in literature. Figurative language is broken down into multiple categories, but as a whole it is “the use of words to express meaning beyond the literal meaning of words,” meaning that instead of just saying a simple phrase, the phrase will be changed in order to make more of a statement. The subcategories that fall under figurative language are metaphors, similies, hyperboles, and personification. These categories differ, but all have similar goals, they want to make a point. A metaphor is “contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme without using like or as,” which means that a phrase may attempt to use a word to make a point. Similarly, a simile has the same goal but unlike a metaphor, the simile uses the word like or as. A hyperbole is some type of exaggeration to make a phrase sound even more inflated, and finally, personification is “giving non-human objects human characteristics,” (Literary Analysis). All of these subcategories are similar in a way that they all have a way to exaggerate phrases in order to make a point. They change the meaning of a phrase to make it a bit more important and it helps the reader to understand the importance of the phrase as a whole.
While there are more literary elements that aim to make readers feel a certain type of way when they are reading a story, these are very important ones and they are well known to many individuals. Readers will continue to want to read these stories even more due to the fact that they are playing with the reader’s feelings. Imagery, figurative language, character, and allegory all have found a way to influence how a reader feels and it makes the literature that much better.
Literary elements as well as literary genres are all part of the literature that is known to man today. The literary elements can be used in the literary genres in order to make a story even better. While all of these elements and genres are part of their own little subculture, they all come together in order to make a work of art appeal to a reader even more. When the stories appeal to the reader, it makes them feel as if they can relate to it a bit more, and that is why people still enjoy literature to this day, whether it be drama, poetry, prose fiction, and/or graphic novels.
The Use of Literary Devices in “We Are All Made of Molecules” by Susin Nielsen
A captivating novel is one that uses multiple literary devices to grip the reader’s attention while reading. Susin Nielsen, the author of We Are All Made of Molecules uses a large selection of figurative language. She uses a variety of foreshadowing, similes, and imagery to express her writing in a creative way. She also has various important reasons as to why she chooses these elements in her writing. Therefore, the author’s use of figurative language impacts the mood of the story.
To start, she uses numerous examples of foreshadowing in the novel which heavily impacts the mood of the story. One example shown in the novel could be when Stewart; the main character was talking about his “Christmas holiday” and how amazing it was going; he was feeling as if his step-family and real family were getting along nicely. Nielsen ends off the chapter with a suspenseful line: “It was a great Christmas holiday, until it wasn’t”. This is foreshadowing the disastrous party that’s held in their house later in the story. The author is using foreshadowing here because she wants to grip the attention of the reader, and she wants to add a suspenseful spin to the story. This line impacted the mood of the story; it went from happy and cheerful with Stewart talking about his exceptional “Christmas holiday” to suspenseful and dark when Neilsen brought up the spooky foreshadowing line. Another example of foreshadowing could be when Ashley; the antagonist and Jared; her boyfriend were planning a New Year’s Eve “get-together” with their friends. Ashley then says to her dad “Dad, its fine. We’re just having a few people over. What can possibly go wrong? Famous last words.” This also foreshadows the ruinous events that happen in the “get-together”. The “get-together” turned into a large party, with people calling others to come join and bring in their own alcohol bottle. Everyone got drunk and many others vandalized and sole expensive items from the house. The author decided to place a line of foreshadowing specifically there because she wanted the reader to infer and be concerned about what’s going to happen later on in the story. This is when the plot thickens and changes the mood from casual and content to concerning and tense. This is how foreshadowing impacts the mood of the story.
Secondly, the use of similes in the story impacts the mood of the story as well. An example would be when Ashley was kissing Jared, passionately when something truly unexpected happens: “he leaned in and kissed me with his beautiful, soft mouth, which I liked. He’s a good kisser. Then he pushed me down on the bed and climbed on top of me like a monkey would.” Ashley compared Jared to a monkey because of the way he was “climbing” her. The author decided to put a simile there to make the reader have a better visualization of how he was climbing her and how lustful Jared is towards her. This line is important because it contributes to the rising action, the story starts to get more exciting within every line the reader reads. This line drastically altered the mood from romantic and pleasant with their kissing, to dangerous, scary and stressful, since Ashley did not have a desire for sex and was frightened by what Jared would do next, to her. Another example of a simile that changes the mood of the story is when Stewart was talking about the time when he got abruptly bullied by Jared in the change room. “Without warning, he grabbed my gym shorts and yanked them down as fast as a cheetah would around my ankles”. Neilsen is comparing Jared to a cheetah because of how fast he “yanked” down his shorts. This line is also important because it contributes to the rising action, and also because the reader is introduced to one of the main characters; Jared. He has a large impact on the story. She placed that simile there to make the reader comprehend his character more. The author wanted to emphasize him pulling down Stewart’s pants also for the reason of better visualization of this bullying scene. This line changed the mood of the story from ordinary and pleasant (because Jared was being nice, and he was casually talking to Stewart just before he quickly pulled down his shorts) to alarming and madness because he “yanked” his shorts down speedily and out of nowhere. These are some of the many similes that transform the mood of this story.
Thirdly, the author places countless passages and sentences of imagery in this novel that differ the mood of the story. An example of this could be when Stewart was talking about Violet’s (his crush) beauty: ” She has a beautiful smile. Her teeth are straight and white. The rest of her face is pretty too. It is a very symmetrical face, which I find aesthetically pleasing”. He is thoroughly describing her facial features and his opinion on them. The author decided to put in a passage of imagery here, so the reader can see things from how Stewart sees is. This can contribute to character development as well, since he starts to have feelings for another person. Also, she used imagery to show how “beautiful” Stewart thinks she is. This line will make the reader more intrigued and want to read the story further on to see how Stewart and Violet turn out later. This passage of imagery changes the mood of the narrative from calm and normal, (since just before Stewart met Violet, him and his best friend were doing some general shopping) to dreamy and lovely, when Stewart speaks about her pleasing looks. Another example of this would be when Stewart was talking about the aftermath of the party; how the physical damage has been fixed: “Life has returned to almost normal. The gigantic hole in the foyer has been fixed. The carpets have been professionally cleaned. Phil’s house has been painted a whole new colour, a very attractive blue”. The author uses rich adjectives to describe how their house looks as good as new. This line is significant because this is the resolution, one of the most important parts in a story. This talks about how his “life has returned to almost normal”. The author used imagery here because she probably wanted to let the reader calm down from the bizarre party earlier. This changed the mood from crazy and stressful, (since the party happened) to calming and peaceful, since the conflict of the party has been resolved. These examples represent how imagery changes the mood of the novel.
This is how figurative language impacts the mood of the story, specifically foreshadowing, similes and imagery. Figurative language is key to a great, exciting, and intriguing novel.
Literary Elements in “The Birthmark” by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story “The Birthmark” demonstrates the absurdity of trying to make an impeccable being, and thusly, meddling with the domain of the awesome. Hawthorne passes on this message through the tale of the researcher Aylmer and his lovely spouse, Georgiana, who has a tiny, hand-molded skin pigmentation to her left side cheek. Aylmer winds up fixated on this check shields his better half from being immaculate and settle to evacuate the check utilizing his science. All through the recounting “The Birthmark” Hawthorne utilizes literary element to additionally show the limit of man, also, the hindrances between the natural, evil world and paradise.
The flower that Aylmer indicates Georgiana delineates the trickiness of flawlessness. At the point when Georgiana endeavored to cull the flower “the whole plant suffered a blight, its leaves turning coal-black as if by the agency of fire”. Georgiana, an imperfect individual, endeavors to get a great flower, yet rather makes the bloom pass on, for Georgiana’s touch speaks to the defects inalienable in every single individual. At the point when Aylmer murmured “There was too powerful a stimulus”, the stimulus he says implies the defect inside Georgiana. The bloom is consistently passing on to appear that a question as immaculate as the blossom can’t live or endure the bit of the defective.
The skin coloration on Georgiana’s cheek, the question of Aylmer and Georgiana common abhor, symbolizes the wrongdoings of man. Aylmer states that the skin pigmentation was “the visible mark of earthly imperfection”. These transgressions and blemishes separate humanity from the creatures in paradise and must be cleansed in death. Georgiana knows that passing, not Aylmer’s science, will expel this skin coloration from her cheek. She wishes to “put off this birthmark of mortality by relinquishing mortality itself in preference to any other mode”. At last, Aylmer accomplishes his objective of making the ideal being yet at the expense of his significant other’s life. Georgiana acquires flawlessness just at the climb of her soul. In ‘The Birthmark, ‘ Nathaniel Hawthorne incorporates an assortment of themes. The two most groundbreaking are the fixation and the contention among nature and science. In a story brimming with uncontrollably fruitful, relatively otherworldly, logical tests, it is immaculate nature itself that is appeared to be more ground-breaking than any synthetic creation. Aylmer can make exquisite sights and astonishing smells from nothing, however he doesn’t be able to control his significant other’s soul or drag out her life. Then again, Georgiana has some proportion of control over her better half’s soul, a power that comes not from science but rather nature. For instance, when Aylmer’s spirits hail, he requests that Georgiana sing to him, and the excellence of her voice reestablishes his great mind-set. Not at all like her significant other’s elixirs, her voice is altogether characteristic however has a substantially more noteworthy impact. Furthermore, Georgiana’s skin pigmentation additionally shows the intensity of nature since it enamors and inebriates nearly everybody who sees it. At last, Aylmer’s endeavor to control nature with science closes just in death and despondency.
Hawthorne exhibits without a moment’s delay both the powerlessness of men to remain in their place in the widespread chain of importance, by trespassing on the privileged insights of Nature, what’s more, God, and the vanity of such an endeavor through “The Birthmark”. Georgiana speaks to the nearest state to flawlessness that man can seek to yet Aylmer isn’t content. He makes progress toward flawlessness in his better half, an objective that, if effective, will result in his losing his significant other, for the ideal can’t exist in the natural world. Rather, at her demise, Georgiana’s spirit will be cleansed of her transgressions lastly permitted to accomplish flawlessness.
The Development of Indian Fables
The Fables that were inserted in the epic, along with ballads and legends and another form of Folk-Tales, in fact, constituted the beliefs, customs and traditions of the common people. Every popular similes and analogy played an important role in the development of fables. During the expansion of the Mahabharata, the fables that were included were from the popular narrative literature. So much replete with folk content are the fables of the Mahabharata that, because of the fables and other small non-fable popular narratives, it got transformed into an encyclopedia of folklore rather than a work of literature.
The Indian Fables, like other folk-genres, the myths, place and hero legends, drolls, cumulative stories and ballads are narrated to the folk and adapted from the folk. The fables in the Jatakas and the Mahabharata were part of the oral traditions first before they were put to writing, and even though those in the Panchatantra and its various revisions were composed first, they became subsequently the part of the folk, because they could be disseminated through oral means only. As a result, the fable maintained itself through the expression of mental sharing of the human culture. The narrative, in fact, lives with the people. These fables focus our attention on the following three concerns as below.
- Directions of Self-Perfection
- Practical wisdom for living a successful life.
- Ways of living in harmony with other beings.
The self-perfection means to instill the trustworthy values in one’s life. Amongst these are non-covetousness, honesty, friendliness and contentment. There are many tales which plainly emphasise the dangers connected with greed, the value of honesty etc. A lot of numerous such stories including practical sagacity to live a prosperous life. The intention of these stories is to help children absorb values in their lives. Their values are transmitted through tales rather than through direct instructions because one remembers stories more easily and the force of the narrative is much greater in convincing one to follow certain practices. Reading these fables which create from various cultural backgrounds one becomes aware of the universality of the moral values propounded in them. Consequently, the researcher realised that to live a harmonious life we need to be kind, honest and sincere.
A life of hypocrisy and selfishness is both in a realistic manner counter productive as well as morally debased. It is the same with greed it is neither practically viable nor helpful in creating self-satisfaction and satisfaction.
The Role of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Advertisements
Advertisements are a form of argument that attempt to prove a point. This point is usually to persuade their audience that they need a certain product to act a certain way, to feel a certain way or to live a certain lifestyle. Honestly if we were to come across most of the products sold to us in advertisements without seeing any ads, we probably wouldn’t buy them. Why should I spend whatever little money I have on a grapefruit face wash? That’s the argument an advertisement would make. And since advertisements are trying to convince you of something, they use Ethos, Pathos and Logos as elements of their argument.
The roles that Ethos, Pathos, and Logos play in advertisements are quite substantial. In fact, I would say that advertisements and commercials revolve around these three elements. Logos are used to communicate statements deemed to be “facts” or “an objective truth” about something. An example of this used in advertisement is stating statistics. An add promoting hair growth might state, “based on such and such survey, 40% of men face hair loss at the age of 60.” The effect of Logos is directly linked to Pathos, which is mainly used to manipulate an emotional response. Going back to the survey example, stating that statistic might make the audience feel that they are not alone in their problem, and thus encourage them to seek action to relive their problem, instead of being embarrassed about their problem or remaining in denial. Furthermore, Logos can be used to induce a sense of security. When audiences hear facts, they might feel like the advertisement makers know what they’re doing, and thus be more trusting towards them. As a result, Pathos can persuade you to be sad, happy, scared, or any other emotion; thus giving advertisement control over your reaction. Once they do this, they can use whatever products they’re selling to ease those emotions.
Ethos is the credibility and authority of the author used to comfort the audience. For example, medical advertisements might say something such as “as a dentist, I am qualified to tell you this teeth whitening product is the solution to your stained teeth.”
Personally, advertisements affect me by making me question fundamental aspects of my life and me as a person. Am I content with my appearance? Am I making healthy choices? Am I in control of my life? However, I’ve learned to be skeptical of certain advertisements. I’ll ask myself some questions such as: am I really buying this shirt because I need this shirt or because I want to be as confident as the model looks? Am I really buying another water bottle because I have a shortage of them or is it to convince myself that this is what I need to start living a healthy lifestyle? And finally, do I really need any more products or am I using retail therapy and instant gratification to compensate for some void in my life?
Literary Techniques in “To Autumn” by John Keats
Within the work, To Autumn by John Keats, there is a central theme that pays respect to all the aspects of autumn. Keats uses dramatic and even romantic devices in order to create a work that is centered in the genre of the ode. This use of imagery, diction, and other devices come together to showcase the beauty and blessing that is nature. Keats represents the genre of the ode well, giving his work a lyrically charged feel, which proves to be ethereal and as breathtaking as the subject itself.
The genre of the ode is one that is centered in praise and recognition of those things, and often times people, who are beautiful and deserve to be noticed. This genre has been seen as far back as the era of the ancient Greeks, who wrote crafted these wonderful works in their infancy. There is something almost holy or, blessed, about an ode, which showcases the wonders of our world. This can be seen in the earliest records of its existence, when Solomon wrote an ode which featured, “…[The] poet’s consciousness of the presence of the grace of God within him (Schoedel).” Keats is able to tap into this ancient power and bring about the face of god through his imagery of the beauty of nature in autumn. Though, through time the face of an ode may have altered slightly, in rhythm, grammatical conventions, and subject matter, the essence of the ode remains true. One scholar can be quoted saying, “…There is in western literary tradition a significant sub-genre of the lyric, the ode…and it has come down to use from the ancients…The spirit of the ode as practiced by the originators remains intact…Further, the motivation for the ode is so fundamentally powerful as to give continues rise to unique and exceptional nonce forms (Wright).” Keats understood the spirit of the ode, and was able to portray his subject, autumn, in a way that put beautifully vivid images within the reader’s head, which is what the ode is trying to do make you appreciate it’s subject matter.
Use of diction within Keats work helps to set a tone that is peaceful, as well as multilayered. Looking at the first two stanzas of his work this use of diction can be seen. The text reads, “ Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun…(Keats).” Overall, the tone this sentence sets is reminiscent of a fairy-like fantasy land. The use of the word, mists, in particular plays a huge role at setting this fairyland tone. The word, mists, brings about images of foggy dew covered greeny, an image that could be twisted to a more negative side ( the classic fog covered horror scene), however, the following use of, mellow fruitfulness and close bosom-friend of the maturing sun, gives the tone a more peaceful calming approach, rather than suspenseful. Specifically, the use of the word, fruitfulness, implies fertility or life itself. This can also be seen in the choice of the word, bosom, which is where we all get life from in our infancy. The fact that Keats chose to incorporate the sun, and in particular, the maturing sun, also suggests life and the cycle of growth. The imagery here is important because it showcases the beauty of life within nature, which is the center of everything we are. The imagery of the sun with these lines also paints a very vivid picture that alludes to the bright, natural, and warming. In these attributes Keats uses his words much like the Pre-Raphaelites of the Victorian era used warm bright colors to enhance their art to show life. The imagery presented here is important because it causes the reader to recount a similar instance, in which, they experienced the same occurrence. Macinnes and Price had this to say in regards to imagery within the human brain, “…Imagery is defined here as, a process by which sensory information is represented in the working memory. Imagery processing and information processing, in general, fall on a elaboration continuum that ranges from processes limited to the simple retrieval or evocation of a cognitive concept…(Mac, Price).” When we read something that incites a certain image in our mind, the material will automatically become realer and contain more depth. By giving us this image Keats is bringing the reader into his mind and how he sees the wonders of autumn. This elaboration, so to speak, of the tone and meaning behind the words, which can only be seen using diction and imagery, works to promote the aspects of the work that make it a great ode.
Going on from here, we are able to again see the aspects of god within the work. In the third and fourth stanzas the text reads, “…Conspiring with him how to load and bless, With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run… (Keats).” From these lines the reader gets the impression that god himself is blessing the vines with it’s fruit. This can be alluded to from the use of the word, bless, which suggests that they are being bestowed the fruit from a holy presence. The imagery here is one that, again, is very peaceful, green, and overall alive. In the mind’s eye, everything within this realm is fertile and hanging low with the bounty of it’s gifts. The blessing of the fruit can be seen once more as an allusion to growth and life itself. These images create the perfect atmosphere for an ode, and really plays to the strengths of the natural beauty within nature.
The bounty of nature only continues to increase from this point on, which can be seen in the lines that read,”…To bend with apples the moss’d cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, And still more, later flowers for the bees..(Keats).” Within these lines vegetation is featured and enforce the idea of life and growth. We can also see another allusion, in a way, to god in the mention of apples that bend the trees. This is very reminiscent of the garden of eden and the apples which tempted Adam and Eve. By including this Keats gives off a tone that this scene is something so wondrous it is straight out of the Garden of Eden. The apple bending the tree can also be seen as an abundance of life, because they are literally so large that the tree can barely hold them. In the next line we see the word, ripeness, alluding to life and reinforcing the idea that this garden blessed by god. The use of the word, core, in this sentence also holds a great bit of significance because it alludes to the fact that the fruit is ripe to the core, meaning that it is good right down to its very being. The ripeness of the fruit only proves that god walks amongst these leaves and foods.
Going on to look at the next stanzas which read, “…To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, And still more, later flowers for the bees..(Keats)”, the presence of life and growth can be seen. The “swell[ing] of the gourd” proves to be an image that rival that of the full tree bending apples. The use of the word, swell, in particular give way to the idea that these gourds are filling with the essence of life itself. Keats does a wonderful job within this poem of expressing these ideas and concepts in a way that is very pleasant and godly. Southam had this to say in regards to the wonderful devices used by Keats, “ To all levels of readers it is an immediately attractive poem within which we find an acute and vivid description of the season, its processes and phenomena rendered sensitively in the verbal texture and the movement of the lines (Schoedel).” The vivid aspect of the poem helps to improve the work as an ode, because it enhances the experience for the reader and makes it more realistic, which will allow for more appreciation of the subject. This vividity can be seen in the line which reads, “ plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more (Keats).” The use of the word, plump, within this stanza brings out, once again, the idea of fertility because it alludes to the plumpness of being with child, much like the hazel shells are with kernel. The fact that the line finishes with, “…to set budding more”, only adds to the idea that these shells are impregnated with life and promise. This is reaffirmed further in the following line which reads, “…And still more, later flowers for the bees…(Keats).” The bees pollinating the flowers relate to spreading of life and growth, which can be seen as a huge theme within the work.
The overall tone of the previous line,” With a sweet kernel”, can be seen as quite innocent and peaceful, mainly due in part to the use of the word, sweet, to describe the kernel. The word, sweet, brings about images of the innocent, children, and a general benevolence. This tone of innocence continues within the next line which reads,”… Until they think warm days will never cease, For summer has o’er-brimm’d their clammy cells (Keats).” This line is very interesting because it brings about images of froliking in the warm of the day to a point where the happiness inside of you overflows. However, at the same time this line is also saying goodbye to summer because of the line that reads, …they think warm days will never cease.” This highly implies that summer will indeed cease making way for the autumn.
Within the following stanzas we see a change in imagery, along with tone, and make way for autumn in a way. The line reads, “…Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Thee sitting careless on a granary floor (Keats).” From these lines the reader can tell that summer has gone, autumn replacing it with it’s slower nature. This slower nature can be equated to the fact that autumn is, in general, more about about strolling along a brownish red orchid, while summer entails more active methods of enjoying nature. This slowing down can be seen in the line which reads, “….Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find thee sitting careless on a granary floor (Keats).” The speaker is not only sitting, he seems to be resting because of the use of the word, careless, which implies that he is completely at peace and comfortable in his position. This ease of nature really helps to promote autumn as a really tranquil and wonderful experience, which only builds on the poem’s status as an ode. Overall, these lines give the section a tone of tranquility, which can be seen further in the next stanzas which read, “…. Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Or on a half-reap’d furrow sound asleep (Keats).” These lines really play up the slow tranquil tone that the previous stanzas created. The diction within the stanza is also quite tranquil in its attributes. The use of the phrase, “ Thy hair soft-lifted”, brings about images of the magical, along with the peaceful. Even the choice of the word, lifted, plays a huge role in literally uplifting the spirit, so to speak, of the tone. This is because when we think of the word, lifted, images of raising up to a higher sense of being are implored. This can also relate to the many allusion to god within the work, because of the connotation the word holds.
Looking further into the slowed down tranquil tone the poem has now set, we can see another example of this in the line, “…Or on a half-reap’d furrow sound asleep (Keats)” This line brings the tone of the tranquil to the brim, because of the use of the phrase, sound asleep. This particular diction is important because not only are they asleep, they are sound asleep. This wording gives the act tremendously more effect for being at peace and tranquil. The image that plays within the mind when reading this line is someone who is tucked nice and warmly within their bed, fast asleep and at peace.
The poem takes a turn towards a different tone towards the 23rd stanza. Now the work begins to bring about the fact that autumn is the best season of all. Within the text it can be read, “… Where are the songs of spring? Ay, Where are they? Think not of them, thou hast thy music too (Keats).” Within this line Keats is acknowledging that spring may have its wonders, however so does autumn. This can be seen in the line that reads, “…Where are the songs of spring…Think not of them, thou hast thy music too (Keats).” The use of the imagery of music within these lines is very effective at relaying the beauty that is within autumn. The work continues on relaying the majesty that autumn has to offer. This can be seen in the lines which read, “While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue; Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Among the river sallows, borne aloft…(Keats).” Looking at the first line, “…barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day”, an image of fluffy white clouds dancing across the sky comes to mind. The use of the word, bloom, within this stanza helps to play into the theme within the overall poem of growth and fertility. The word, bloom, incites within the mind this image of a flower slowly turning out its petals towards the sky, which can be seen as a very beautiful and erotic image. The fact that the line also states that the sky experiencing the soft-dying day, also plays into the idea of the beautiful and erotic. Taking a look at the rest of the stanza which reads, “…And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue; Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Among the river sallows, borne aloft…(Keats)”, Keats is clearly enforcing the idea of the beautiful and tranquil within nature. The first line which features the word, rosy, creates a wonderful image within the mind, one that is at peace, mainly because of the obvious meaning behind the word (everything’s rosy). The word also can bring about images of young girls blushing softly, which really creates a innocent and tranquil tone. This is only reinforced in the next phrase which states, “…Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn.”
The last two stanzas of the work really tie together the overall tone of the work, which is overall tranquil in nature. The lines read, “The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies (Keats).” The diction of these two lines work to hold up the tone of the section and overall tone of the work. The word, whistles, referring to the sounds coming from the red-breast, relate an image of joyful song. The bird doesn’t just crow, as some do, this bird sings which suggests freedom and peace. This can also be seen in the next stanza as the swallows, twitter, in the sky above. Again, the use of diction her helps to set an image and tone that is very peaceful and full of freedom.
Looking at the Keat’s, To Autumn, as a whole the work really sets a tone that is peaceful and tranquil. He uses his diction to create illusions and tones that also rely the beauty and blessing that can be seen within autumn and nature in general. Overall, Keats is able to use his devices and techniques to capture this slow and quiet beauty perfectly and showcase it in order to create a perfect ode to autumn.