Greek Mythology

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Characteristics Of Odysseus Hero Image

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

Courage and Wits are the main characteristics into becoming a hero. In the movie The Lion King, Mufasa says “I’m only brave when I have to. Being brave doesn’t mean looking for trouble”. Mufasa just wants to protect his kingdom and his family, that’s what Odysseus wants to accomplish as well. This quote displays Odysseus’s courage towards the journey he embarks on as well as his courage to protect his men. Odysseus is a natural-born leader who people listen to. Odysseus fits the dictionary definition of a hero which is “a mythological or legendary figure often of divine descent endowed with great strength or ability; an illustrious warrior; a man admired for his achievements and noble qualities; one that shows great courage”. He is a mythological creature who defeats other mythological creatures to better the earth. His wits and courage are his great strength and ability as well as many more qualities. He is a man that his crew know they can trust. This helps him to encourage his men to keep going even when they are doubting. Homer uses the dauntlessness and wits of Odysseus to prove the Greek’s idea of a hero.

Odysseus uses his wits to protect his men and himself. He is considered a hero and thinks about his men before himself. A hero is someone who fights for others before protecting themselves and someone who is brave as well as selfless. Homer convinces us that Odysseus is a hero and these traits are what makes him who is. Odysseus and his men were trapped in a cave with a Cyclopes when he comes up with an idea and says “My name is Nohbdy: mother, father, and friends, everyone calls me Nohbdy” (Homer 263-264). Odysseus tells the cyclopes that his name is nobody so he cant call for help when they stab him. Thinking on his feet that quickly is why people follow him as a leader and trust him to get them out of situations. Being such an effective leader helps him as a hero. Odysseus and his men were preparing for the right time to strike. Odysseus explains his plan when he says “I drew it from the coals and my four fellows gave me a hand, lugging it near the Cyclopes as more than natural force nerved them; straight forward they sprinted, lifted it, and rammed it deep in his crater eye.” (Homer 276-280). Homer uses imagery to show how they brutally stabbed the cyclops in the eye. Odysseus shows his intellect when he warmed up the big piece of wood or it might not have gone into the eye so smoothly. His crew workers helped him to kill the cyclops, this shows their dedication towards the one they call their hero. Homer wants us to know that Odysseus’s mind and wits are what lead him to become a hero that everyone trusts. Odysseus proves to the Gods that he can go through all of the hard and difficult journeys that they made him go through. He never loses and part of himself including his hope. He perseveres even when times get tough and thinks that he might not see his son and wife again. Although Odysseus’s mind is what helped him the most through his journey his courage was another part of him that he could not have done without.

Odysseus’s fearless acts are all due to his courage. Courage is defined as the quality of mind which allows one to face danger without fear; courage; fearlessness. In a successful man, the characteristic of courage is important because it allows him to have confidence, and not to be afraid of what happens or will happen in his life. This helps him to feel as though he could do anything. Odysseus shows us courage many times throughout the odyssey. He uses his courage to protect his men as well as himself. Odysseus men were being killed by circe so he listened to Hermes and ate the plant that would stop her magic from working. Homer writes “When Circe has used on Odysseus the magic which had always hitherto been successful and her amazement saw him stand unchanged before, her, she so marveled at the man who could resist her enchantment that she loved him” (Homer 306). Odysseus proves that he was courageous and would do anything to protect his men. He risked himself by eating the plant and standing up to her not knowing if he would be protected by the plant or not. Odysseus’s courage awarded him when circe helped him and his men after she saw what Odysseus did. Homer explains “She treated them all with such kindness, feasting them sumptuously in her house, that for a whole year they stayed happily with her”. (Homer 306). Because of Odysseus all of the men did not die and were spared. He is the one who made her happy. He didn’t only help himself he also helped Circe not meaning to. These characteristics show us that Odysseus is a hero and he cares about others more than he cares about himself. One other characteristic that Odysseus uses during his journey is his dauntlessness.

Odysseus has displayed his courage as well as his wits. One of his major qualities that helps him to jump into danger without even thinking. He does this to make sure that others are safe before he saves himself. Odysseus and his men were passing the sirens island he knew what they could do but kept it to himself to protect his men. Homer explains“Odysseus told his men about them and that the only way to pass safely was for each man to stop his ear with wax”(Homer 310). He protected his men from the siren song so that they wouldn’t be consumed by their charm. His dauntless side induced him into wanting to hear the sirens. Odysseus’s dauntless side also affects Odysseus in a bad way as well. He didn’t need to hear the song he could have put beeswax in his ear. He would never have beeswax in his ear due to his need to be fearless. Odysseus needed to find a way to keep himself from being killed by the sirens so he came up with the idea of “He himself, however, was determined to hear them, and he proposed that the crew should tie him to the mast so strongly that he could not get away however much he tried” (Homer 310). He knew that he would not survive if he was not restricted. Making his crew tie him up was a precaution that he took to save himself. His crew trusted him and knew that he would survive this so they did as he said and tied him up. Odysseus’s needs for danger and to participate in adventures that are dangerous is so he can have a self victory. This is not to show off its something that he does for himself. Odysseus is not a selfish person he wants the best for everyone and that’s why he completed the hero’s journey.

Odysseus’s heroic abilities and personality allow him to achieve hero status. His leadership throughout the journey shows his dedication to his men. His never-ending courage and strength encourage him to continue this journey without having to take a step back or fray away from the fight. These characteristics prove that Odysseus is truly a hero. Saving his men from the Cyclopes by using his wits, showing is courage by defeating circe, and giving his men Beez wax to stop his men from hearing the sirens displays his dauntlessness. He defeated many enemies that the Gods threw at him. Odysseus proved himself not only to the Gods but to his son that his abilities will get him through anything and that you should never give up. In the world people are always giving up or not believing in themselves to do anything. Odysseus shows us that it doesn’t matter who old you are or how smart you are, you can still do anything that you put your mind to. That’s what Odysseus did and he got what he wanted he didn’t lose faith or give up he persevered through the tough times. His road of trials is over and he returned home to his family. The dauntlessness and wits of Odysseus were used to prove that he has completed his hero’s journey.

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218

The Role Of Warriors Armor In Iliad

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

In today’s battles, soldiers wear uniforms designed to make them indistinguishable from each other. Forced to wear the same clothes and don identical haircuts, soldiers are stripped of their identity as they collectively become G.I Joes. Conversely, in Homer’s epic The Iliad, warriors dress in decorative armor and wield glitzy weapons and shields to stand out and make a name for themselves, reflecting the heroic nature of the war. Throughout the epic, warriors wear armor to express their individuality, and, inevitably, their armor takes up a recognizable identity. But conflict arises when warriors wear armor that do not belong to them. Demonstrated through Patroclus and Hector’s deaths while wearing Achilles’ armor, the identity of the warrior and identity of the armor clash as the warrior attempts to live up to the armor’s reputation but pays the price when he cannot reach the potential of the armor.

In The Iliad, warriors choose specific armor to express themselves in a certain way, consequently revealing underlying character traits they may have not meant to express. This motif is clear through the description of Paris’ armor, which encapsulates his beautiful, but narcissistic characteristics: “But shining Alexandros put his fine armor upon his broad shoulders, he, the husband of Helen of the lovely hair. First he strapped the splendid greaves around his shins…over his powerful head he placed his well-forged helmet with flowing horsehair” (3:328-336). Descriptive vocabulary such as “broad” and “lovely” paint Paris as a strong, attractive male. Just as pretty as his looks is his armor, as illustrative vocabulary including “splendid”, “well-forged”, and “fine” draw attention to the alluring armor. Although his armor is shiny and pretty, it hinders him on the battlefield as Menelaus “seized Alexandros’ horsehair-crested helmet” (3:67), hinting at Paris’ obsession with beauty over utility. After being saved by Aphrodite from certain doom, Aphrodite quotes in a sarcastic tone, “he is in there, in his bedroom, on his bed that is inlaid with rings, shining in beauty and raiment—you would not think that he come from fighting a man, but rather that he was going to a dance, or had just left the dance and was reclining” (3:91-94). As beautiful as Paris’ armor is, the chief purpose of it is to be beautiful and not contribute to the battlefield, just as Paris often finds himself not on the battlefield, but rather in the bedroom unscarred, narcissistically admiring his beauty.

Similarly, the scene where Achilles is armored in Book 19 not only reflects his rage following Patroclus’ death, but also suggests Achilles’ godliness. As Achilles continuously stares at the armor aptly forged by Hephaestus the god of fire, “anger entered him all the more, and his eyes terribly shone out beneath his lids like fire flare” (19:16-17). The symbol of fire mirrors Achilles’ uncontrollable wrath and indicates Achilles’ ability to wreak havoc on the battlefield. Furthermore, at first sight, the armor’s aura intimidates all other warriors: “And trembling took all the Myrmidons, nor did any dare to look upon it straight, and they shrank” (19:14-16), but Achilles is the only warrior capable of staring at the armor, suggesting that he is godlike because he is able to wear armor from the gods. The juxtaposition between the godlike Achilles and the mortal Myrmidons highlights the greatness of Achilles on the battlefield, as he stands as a godlike figure among mortals.

While warriors wear armor to express certain traits, they also wear armor as a trophy of glory to flaunt their victories, therefore leading to armor taking up the identity of the warrior. To win glory on the battlefield, warriors not only had to claim victory, but also have others see it. Hence, warriors strived to strip the armor of their fallen foes to seize permanent proof of victory, which is why a big fight occurs over Achilles’ armor when Patroclus falls. What follows is that armor becomes a sign of reputation and identity. Achilles gains the reputation as the strongest warrior because others see him defeating other warriors and stripping their armor. Because others see Achilles claim victory in his armor, the reputation and glory of Achilles as a warrior becomes associated with Achilles’ armor. Thus, his armor takes up his identity. In other words, Achilles’ enemies fear the image of Achilles’ armor, not necessarily Achilles himself.

Since armor takes up the identity of its owner, it veils sightseers from the true warrior underneath. When people view a warrior and garner a certain impression, anybody could be underneath the armor, but the person viewing the armor will have a certain impression because of the armor’s reputation. When Hector meets with his wife and son before saying farewell, his son does not recognize him in his shining armor. In fact, “the child turned away, back to the breast of his fair-belted nurse, crying, frightened at the sight of this own fire, struck with terror seeing the bronze helmet and crest of horsehair” (6:467-469). Hector’s moral identity is that of a family man, evidenced by when his son immediately returns affection when Hector takes his helmet off. But with his armor on, Hector is masked and appears as a monstrous man, unrecognizable by the masquerade his armor creates.

Yet, though armor can mask the physical appearance of a warrior, armor cannot disguise the true warrior underneath. Before even stepping on the battlefield, as Patroclus suits up in Achilles’ gear, he is able to wear all the armor but is unable to take the spear, as “Only the spear of blameless Aeacides he did not take up, heavy, massive, powerful; this no other Achaeans could wield, but only Achilles knew how to wield” (16:140-142), signifying Patroclus can never be the warrior Achilles is, no matter how much he looked like Achilles.

Since wearing someone else’s armor disguises the wearer’s appearance, the wearer strives to take on the identity of the armor due to how people react to seeing the armor. What brings Patroclus’ downfall is not his plan, but rather his over-eagerness while wearing the armor of Achilles. Patroclus, normally a man of reason, conjures a seemingly innocent plan to hold off the Trojans from the ships: “And give me your arms to wear upon my shoulders, with the hope that likening myself to you the Trojans will hold off from fighting” (16:40-43). Homer, however, foreshadows his impending death after he relays his plan to Achilles, suggesting he will be a “great fool; for he was to beseech his own evil death and destruction” (16:46-47) because he does not keep his promise to follow the plan. With the appearance of Patroclus in Achilles’ armor, the illusion of Achilles being back on the Achaean side rallies the Achaeans and startles the Trojans as Patroclus “drove panic upon them all when he killed their leader” (16:292). Descriptions such as “And Patroclus, when he had cut off the ranks of the Trojans turning back, he penned them against the ships… he rushed among and killed them, and exacted vengeance for many” (16:392-297) highlight the temporary boost Patroclus gains from wearing Achilles’ armor. He feels stronger because he is wearing the armor of the greatest warrior, and his opponents are scared to fight the greatest warrior. Patroclus’ plan is working, but the identity of the armor overtakes Patroclus’ identity. With his logic blinded by the lust of power when wearing Achilles’ armor, Patroclus overextends by pushing the Trojans all the way back to the gate—something only Achilles would dare do, leading to his gruesome death. From this, it is clear Patroclus is not Achilles, no matter if Patroclus wears Achilles’ armor.

Hector’s death in Achilles’ armor is another reminder that you cannot become someone else by wearing their armor because armor stays true to its identity and is loyal to its intended wearer. When Hector strips Achilles’ armor, he gains glory that elevates him to the title of the greatest warrior. Despite this, the armor is attributed to Achilles’ identity and aura. The armor betrays Hector when fighting with Achilles, as it seemingly communicates to Achilles the right spot to strike, “The rest of his body was held by brazen armor…but at the point where the collarbone holds the neck from the shoulders there showed his gullet, where death of the soul comes swiftest” (22:322-326). Hector’s false sense of security from wearing Achilles’ armor is his downfall, as the armor betrays him for its true master. Wearing Achilles’ armor only gives Hector the illusion of being the greatest warrior when the reputation that comes with the armor rightfully belongs to Achilles. As long as Achilles is alive, Hector can not claim the title of “greatest warrior” no matter if he dresses in the armor of the “greatest warrior”.

All in all, armor in The Iliad serves as a form of expression on the battlefield. It functions as a trophy of conquest and glory, garnering reputation for prowess on the battlefield. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that although wearing armor can act as a disguise from reality, wearing armor is not disguise from the true warrior underneath. By wearing someone else’s armor, warriors strive to live up the identity of the armor. However, the clash of identities between the armor and warrior may lead to disastrous consequences, as the true warrior comes from within, not from their gear.

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255

Family Tree Of Twelve Olympian Gods

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

The twelve Olympian Gods are the most important gods in the ancient Greek Religion. Their names are Poseidon, Demeter, Zeus, Hera, Artemis, Apollo Athena, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Hermes, Dionysus, and Ares. Twelve Olympian Gods are composed of the first- and second-generation gods. In the first-generation Olympian gods are Poseidon, Demeter, Zeus, Hera. These Olympian Gods are the descendants of a titan couple Cronus and Rhea. There are Artemis, Apollo Athena, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Hermes, Dionysus, Ares in the second-generation Olympian gods. They live on the Mount Olympus above the clouds. The twelve Olympian Gods rule the world and represent the civilization of Greece.

Zeus

Zeus is a god of the sky and weather. He controlled the lightning, weather, natural laws, Thunder, Order. He also is a god of father. He decides the ruler of the gods and humans. His role on Mount Olympus is a chief judge. His job needs to manage not only the human but also the Olympian Gods. So, he is a king of the Olympus and the World. His symbols are Thunderbolt, Aegis, Set of Scales, Oak Tree, Royal Scepter. There are four words can represent him. They are justice, honest, fair and Honor.

Mythology of Zeus

Zeus and His Father

In Greek Mythology, Cronus killed his father, Uranus and controlled the world with his wife, Rhea. One day, there is one body that told him. One of his sons would kill him and controlled the world. So, He terrified. He decided to eat his children when they were born. However, when his sixth child Zeus was born, his wife Rhea hid Zeus in a cave. Then Rhea took a stone instead of Zeus to give her husband for eating. After a long time, when Zeus grew up, he poisoned his father with a bottle of poisonous wine. At the same time, he rescued his siblings that Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Zeus fought against the other Titans with his siblings. They won wars together. Finally, Zeus started controlled the sky and weather. Poseidon started controlled the water and sea. Hades started controlled the underworld…

Hera

Hera is a goddess of Marriage, Women, Birth, the Havens. She is the queen to heaven and twelve Olympian Gods in Greece. She is the sister of Zeus before she married Zeus. So, she is also Zeus’s wife after Zeus controls the sky. She and Zeus together birth the Ares. Hephaestus also is her child. Her symbols are Diadem, Scepter, Pomegranate. She represents the virtue and beauty of women

The wedding of Zeus and Hera.

One day, Zeus walked along in the area of the beautiful region of Hesperides. He suddenly found a lovely woman named Hera and fell in love. He became a frozen cuckoo and stood on the window of Hera’s room. Hera saw the cuckoo. She felt very sad and wanted to help this cuckoo. So, she hugged this cuckoo in her room. At the same time, Zeus transformed into his identity and made love with Hera. Hera was scared that people wrought know this thing, and she wanted to cover her shame too. Hera decided to marry him. Zeus had a sacred the wedding with Hera then she became queen after wedding. Finally, Hera and Zeus had a sweet honeymoon for 300 years…

Poseidon

Poseidon is the importat god in the twelve Olympian Gods. His Roman name is Neptune, and it is one of the nine planets. His parents are Cronus and Rhea, and Zeus is his brother. He controls Sea, Earthquakes, Storms, and Horses. The symbols of him are trident, fish, dolphin. The dolphin is very important to Poseidon. Dolphin as a symbol that represents his power in the ocean. We can see Poseidon riding the dolphin in many movies. Poseidon is a god with powerfully aggressive and extremely ambitious.

Share the World with Zeus

After Poseidon and his siblings, they defeated his father, Cronus. Poseidon, Zeus, Hades, these three brothers, wanted to share the world power that is heaven, sea, underground. They decided a way that playing draws. They thought this is a fairway. Then Zeus got the heaven, Poseidon got the ocean, Hades got the underground. Now we called Poseidon king of the sea…

Demeter

Demeter is the goddess in the Greek Mythology. Her Roman name is Ceres. Her parents are Cronus and Rhea. She also is Zeus’s sister. She is a goddess of grain, agriculture, fertility, and harvest. She teaches people farming. She also is one of the justice goddesses. She can make every object become gold. She also is the fourth wife of Zeus. They have a child called Persephone. Persephone is the wife of Hades. Her symbols are Cornucopia, Wheat, sickle, and Bread.

Demeter and fire

A long time ago. There was an old city called Eleusis. Metaneira is the queen of Eleusis and had a son called Demophon. One day, Demeter came to the world and transformed into an older woman. Demeter, as an older woman, was invited to visit Metaneira’s house. Demeter felt the hospitality of the queen Metaneira while having dinner in her house. At the same time, Metaneira wanted Demeter to take care of her son Demophon like a nurse because her son has a severe sickness. But the queen did not know the older woman is goddess Demeter. Demeter agreed with Metaneira’s request. After that day, Demeter fed Demophon with gods’ foods. She also burned Demophon at every night. This way can make Demphon immortal. However, one night, his mother saw her son burning in the fire. She cried and shrieked. Demeter showed her identity finally and saved Demophon…

Artemis

Artemis’ roman name is Diana. She is a goddess of hunt, wild, and the moon. Zeus and Leto(dark goddess) are her parents. She and Apollo are twins. She controls bright. So moon is a symbol of her. She also likes hunting. She has a high-level skill in archery. Deer is her sacred animal. Artemis also a protector of young women. She represents a woman’s confidence and independence.

Artemis and Animals

Artemis would spend much time to hunt and found animals in the forest and grassland. It can be said that Artemis was born for hunting. She also was called “hostess of animal” by the human because of this reason. Artemis also like hunting with mortals. Thence. Artemis also become a protector of animals. And humans use deer to represent her sacred animal.

Apollo

Apollo is a god of the sun. Apollo’s parents are Zeus and Leto. He and Demeter are twins. He controls the light time of one day, and his sister controls a dark time of one day. Apollo is a god of art, music, lecture. In Greek Mythology, he is very good at the lyre and make beautiful rhythm. He can write poetry and stories. He also is a good of medicine. He teaches mortals medicine to save lives. He is the most versatile, handsome, clever god. Nowadays, he represents a modal of male beauty.

Music Competition between Apollo and Marsyas

Satyr Marsyas was the developer and performer of flute from Phrygia. He was an arrogant man. He thought he is the best flutist even better than Apollo. One day, Apollo knew about this man with his arrogant. He wanted to have a competition with Marsyas with flute. The winner of the game can do anything to the loser. The judge of this game is Muse, who is the goddess of Arts and Sciences. During the competition, Marsyas played the flute with a wonderful melody. Apollo also played the lyre with a fantastic melody. So, they were tied in the first round. In the second round, Apollo turned his lyre upside down and played a beautiful melody. However, flute could not be played upside down. So Marsyas loss the competition. In the end, Apollo hanged his body from the tree and peeled off his skin. Finally, other gods transformed Marsyas’ skin into a stream.

Athena

Athena is the goddess of war and wisdom. Her symbols are aegis, helmet, armor, spear. Her Roman name is Minerva. Athena was born of Zeus’s head. Athena fights for justice in every way. Also, she is good at using strategy to win the wars. Athena is not only good at war but also teach citizens weaving, building transportation, established laws. These are the reason that she also is a goddess of wisdom. The name of the city of Athens is named after her. The Athenians built a temple called Parthenon for Athena.

The Name of Athens

A long time ago, the city of Athena did not have a name. At that time, this city controlled by a king called Cecrops, who was one-half person and one-half snake. One day he wanted to give his city a name that the name should use one of Olympian Gods’ names. Two gods were interested in this name. One god is Poseidon, who is the god of sea and earthquake. The other one is Athena, who is the goddess of wisdom and war. This contest has one rule is to give a valuable gift for Cecrops’ city. Poseidon created lakes with his trident as a gift. However, it lost its value because the water is salt. People could not use the water for daily life. Athena used her spear to make an olive tree as a gift. The king thought this olive tree is a symbol of peace and prosperity. It would be a good impact on his city. So, he used Athena as the name of his city and build a temple for her. Now, Athens still a famous and historical city in Greece.

Hephaestus

Hephaestus’ roman is Vulcan. There are two versions of his parents in Greek mythology. His parent cloud is Zeus and Hera or Hera alone. He is a God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, and the art of sculpture. He has the best forging and metalworking skills in Greece. Hephaestus is called the god of fire because his work is related to fire. He forges a lot of useful weapons for other Olympian Gods. His symbols are Hammer, Anvil, and Tones.

The “Robots”

We all know Hephaestus was a great blacksmith. He built a lot of useful weapons for Zeus, Ares, Athena, Hermes, and other gods. He also created some fancy robots for Gods. He made a golden palace with some smart robots to serve all Gods. One golden statue could speak, had ideas and power like a human and two mechanical immortal dogs as guards of the palace. Automatic tables provided foods for all Gods. This palace was more like the “robots” palace and Hephaestus made all.

Aphrodite

Aphrodite’s roman name is Venus and born from the waves of water. Aphrodite is a goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. Her husband is Hephaestus. She has a rule that a woman cannot be a virgin so she can use love magic to help man to attract a woman because she believes love is beautiful. Aphrodite has some different lovers except her husband, Hephaestus. Her symbols are Dolphin, Rose, and Dove.

Aphrodite and Golden Apple

This story happened during the wedding of King Peleus and sea-nymph Thetis. Eris was a goddess of chaos, strife and, discord in Greece. She not invited to the wedding, so she was jealous of Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena. She brought a golden apple that is a fruit of temptation during the wedding. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all wanted to own this apple. However, Zeus could not decide the owner of the golden apple because these three goddesses all were important to Zeus. Then, Zeus gave this choice to a mortal handsome man named Paris, who was the trojan prince. He chose the Aphrodite because Aphrodite promised to give him the most beautiful mortal woman, Halen. Finally, this case caused the trojan war in Greek mythology.

Hermes

Hermes is the god of trade, Thieves, Travelers, Sports, diplomacy. His roman name is Mercury; it is one of the nine planets. Zeus and the goddess Maia. He is the messenger and interpreter of Zeus and other gods. He can pass two worlds between heaven and the mortal world. He can bring the mortal’s prayer to the gods. In Greek mythology, he is an inventor of rules, numbers, and letters. His symbols are Talaria and Caduceus.

Hermes steals cattle

We all know Hermes is the god of thieves is because he like stealing and hiding things from other gods. A long time ago, there was a mortal called Battus. He lived on the top of a hill where was a place that Hermes stole the cattle of Apollo. Battus saw Hermes took the cattle through his house and hid the cattle in the cave. Battus promised Hermes not to say this situation because Hermes would pay him. However, Battus still told this thing to Apollo. Apollo found the cattle and took the Hermes to find Zeus for punishment. Hermes was angry because Battus betrayed him. Finally, Hermes used his power to make Battus become a stone statue.

Dionysus

Dionysus is the god of wine and joy. His roman name is Bacchus. His parents are Zeus and the mortal princess Semele. He has a high-level skill in making wine. He invents how to cultivate grapes and make wines. He spread these knowledges to the human, bring the joy of drinking. He is responsible for creating recreational activities for mortals. His symbols are Grapes.

The Birth of Dionysus

One day Zeus saw a beautiful and lovely woman, Semele, and fell in love. Soon after, Semele was pregnant, but this situation let Zeus’ wife Hera know. Hera was very jealous of Semele, and then she wanted to kill Semele. Hera transformed into a servant to tell Zeus is not love her. This sentence makes Semele began to doubt his identity. Zeus agreed to answer all the questions honestly in order to show his love to her. Then Semele demanded Zeus to show his identity. Zeus knew that if mortal see the identity of gods would be punished by death. However, Zeus could not go against his promise because of love. The thunderbolt hit the house of Semele. Hermes tied Dionysus to Zeus’ leg for saving his life. Hera always wanted to kill Dionysus since the day he birthed. So, Dionysus must forced to move and around the world.

Ares

Ares is the god of war. His roman name is Mars, and mars is one of the nine planets. His parent is Zeus and Hera. He is a warfighter always with violent, bloody. His power is not like his sister Athena because his war is bloodthirsty without any wisdom and strategy. So Gods and mortals are both do not like him. His symbols are Spear, Helmet, Chariot.

Ares was Abducted by Giants

Ares is the god of war. However, he was bloody, violent. These reasons caused other Olympian Gods did not like him. He always lived alone and no friends on Mount Olympus. One day, he was missing because Giants abducted him. Ares had been locked in the house by the giant for 18 months until the mother of giants realized Ares was locked up as an enemy. She informed this thing to Hermes for saving Ares. Finally, he owned freedom.

Works cited

  1. Cartwright, Mark. “The 12 Olympian Gods.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, https://www.ancient.eu/collection/58/the-12-olympian-gods/
  2. “Greek Mythology – Greek Gods and Goddess in Ancient Greece.” Greek Gods, https://www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/
  3. “Greek Stories about Hera- The Sacred Wedding of Zeus and Hera.” Greek Gods, https://www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/hera/myths/zeus-hera-wedding/
  4. “Greek Stories about Demeter – Demeter-Fire.” Greek Gods, https://www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/demeter/myths/demeter-fire//
  5. “Greek Stories about Artemis – Artemis-Animals” Greek Gods, https://www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/artemis/myths/artemis-animals/
  6. Learnodo Newtonic. “10 Most Famous Myths Featuring the Greek God Zeus” Learnod-newtonic, 19 Mar. 2019, https://learnodo-newtonic.com/zeus-myths
  7. Powell, Kimberly. “Genealogy of the Olympic Gods.” ThoughtCo, Aug.22, 2019. https://www.thoughtco.com/genealogy-of-the-olympic-gods-1421992
  8. “The Olympian Gods.” Olympian Gods and Goddesses, Twelve Olympians -Greek Mythology, https://www.greek-gods.org/olympian-gods.php
  9. “Twelve Olympians: The 12 Olympian Gods of Mount Olympus.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/olympians/

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The Proofs Of Odysseus As An Epic Hero

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

Odysseus is an epic hero because he carries the traits that a hero is known for. He is brave, strong, and a great leader of men. He is known to be a speaker that can motivate his men to follow him through any kind of situation without question. He has a caring for the men he leads which creates a sense of selflessness. He truly is what an epic hero should be.

Odysseus by far is a strong warrior from the first ten years of surviving a battle and another ten year from blinding a Cyclops and surviving the song of the sirens and the most badass journey he made was when I think he was ordered by Circe to travel to the underworld and retrieve an item for her and he fought the undead soul and he came back safely and by the way many fear the underworld because if one is not careful of what they do they can be trapped there forever and no way to escape. He also is a compelling and confident speaker. When he and his crew were at a tight situation with the lotus eaters know that lotus eaters are creatures who feed you a plant or food substance and once you eat it you will become addicted to it and you will forever be trapped at their hands so back to Odysseus and his crew when they arrive to the island of the lotus he quickly notices this curse land and order his men to get back on the boat and be in a hurry if they want to see home ever again see how he compare their life to what they want the most of their home and family so with that Odysseus and his men escape the lotus island by telling his men that if you want to see home again you better hurry.

The most courageous that Odysseus has ever been was when he was when he was escaping the Cyclops Polyphemus the son of Poseidon who in the book imprisoned Odysseus and his crew in order to eat them but Odysseus being as clever as ever he found ways to trick the Cyclops and blind him of his sight and escape the cave that which they were imprisoned and the other was that when he was shouting out his name to the Cyclops and calling the Cyclops a fool as the Cyclops was throwing boulders at him and his crew ship as they were trying to escape and as well as revealing his name and his home. His journey was long but he never feared returning. In fact his long journey lasted 20 years. In those 20 years he spends ten years at war the Trojan war where he and his men fight for ten years were he alone was powerful enough to keep his men save and another ten years was when he was in search of his home Ithaca but in this journey he and his ship mates went in a cruel journey were the cursed island of the lotus eaters and the wicked son of Poseidon the Cyclops Polyphemus planned to keep Odysseus and his crew trapped in there and eat them and the worst i believe was the sirens song in which Odysseus orders his men to tie him up and keep him there at all cost no matter how much he pleads to be untied and he begged very badly to be untied.

He proves himself in battle at the Trojan war holding off enemy troops in an intense battle for ten years and ever being injured or tired you can say he was addicted to the battle or just fear of dying in this waste of a fight and never seeing his wife and son or even his home ever again and he never stop until you know they had to go back and then he had to fight supernatural beings and had more of an responsible to keep his men safe and himself by any means possible and he did want to see his home badly.Circe had a big impact on how Odysseus survive many tasks and in return he became her lover for a year so how Circe help was that she thought him to summon the dead for many help and that she alone was the one to help him with the siren problem she told Odysseus that you must put wax on the crew ears to keep them from losing their minds and he alone must listen to the horrible song of the deadly sirens. Another help was at a waste due to Odysseus idiot of a crew was help from the master of the wind Aeolus and he had a gift for them a bag full of wind in which was meant to take Odysseus and his men to Ithaca and be safe but like I said Odysseus idiot crew just ruined the only back home thinking it was gold open it and the wind brought them back to the home of Aeolus.

So, in the end, Odysseus proves through all his trials and tribulations that he is a true epic hero. The traits that he has shown that he can overcome all obstacles, is a great leader of men, and has no fear of anything challenge presented to him.

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Zeus And The Heroes In Ancient Greek Mythology

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

Greek mythological heroes are so phenomenal and are more affiliated to gods than humans as they are perceived to be an exaggerated ideal of human attitudes, strengths, flaws and beliefs. Zeus’ creation of the “more just and superior godly race of men-heroes…” during the heroic ages presents a canonical depiction of how heroes are perceived in Greek myths. Heroes are expected to be exceptional in one way or another, Heracles is the strongest man alive, Odysseus, the most cunning and Achilles, the most skilled warrior. These remarkable attributes aid in characterising the heroes as god-like as the Greeks gods similarly possess unnatural strength, cunning, exceptional leadership and battle skills as well as cults of dedicated followers.

Heroes’ abilities that aid them in achieving their goals are mainly categorized under metis and bia; guile and force which are comparably utilised by the gods in their challenges. Each hero has a varying measure of both metis and bia that is similar to the gods. Heracles successfully performs miraculous physical feats through the utter use of bia when he defeats the Nemean Lion, Lernaean Hydra, Cretan Bull and Cerberus, whom he subdues after wrestling with pure strength. As the son of Zeus, his bia-orientated skills can be compared to that of Zeus’ during the defeat of the Titans (Hesiod Theogony 687-710). Likewise, Theseus engages in battle with the merciless Minotaur, ultimately slaying it by stabbing at its throat (Ovid Metamorphoses 8.169-71) utilising his bia-orientated potency to a degree that is more akin to gods than humans. Achilles, “who in the day of battle is a tower of strength…” is known for his extraordinary force on the battlefield during the Trojan War, and is often compared to the war god, Ares.

There are, however, heroic figures such as Odysseus, that display a combination of metis and bia with wisdom unusually surpassing strength. Though his strength can be regarded as that of a fighter, Odysseus demonstrates implausible stratagem during his stay at Kalypso’s island by ensuring his safe departure by forcing Kalypso to prove her sincerity when she swears an oath to the Styx (Homer Odyssey 5.178-79). He also uses incredible cunning to triumph as the only one, amongst all other suitors, who could restring Penelope’s bow (Homer Odyssey 21.146-7). His aptitude of forethought and wisdom is parallel to that of one of the primordial gods, Gaia. She is known to be the first being in Greek mythology who uses metis in her plan to free her suppressed children from their father, Ouranos. This exceptional stratagem is also shown by Rhea when she plans to overthrow Cronos and secure her son’s, Zeus’, place on the throne.

Regardless of their superhuman attributes and accomplishments, the heroes prove to be similar to the gods in a contrary manner; their vulnerability to fate and the wrongful circumstances it occasionally brings upon them. As the child born from Zeus’ infidelity, Hercules is subject to Hera’s jealousy and she seeks to eliminate him at every stage of his life. She sends snakes to his crib in an attempt to attack him, but given Hercules’ god-like strength, he manages to strangle the snakes (Ovid Heroides 9.14). During his young adult years, she drives him to madness, causing him to murder his own family, and she continues to conspire against him despite his attributes of courage and strength. In spite of all his accomplishments, Heracles is poisoned and burnt alive above a funeral pyre, a tragic and painful end to greatest Greek hero.

As an infant, Perseus, is similarly loitered near death when his mother, Danae, and he are flung onto the sea in a wooden casket by Acrisius, his murderous grandfather (Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheca 2.34). In this sense, the misery and anguish endured by heroes is comparable to that of particular gods. Like Hercules and Perseus, Cronos and Zeus are both persecuted as children. Cronos is threatened with imprisonment by his father, Ouranos, and Zeus is nearly devoured by his father, Cronos. In the case of Persephone, although she was abducted by Hades and deceived into living in the Underworld, in spite of Demeter’s despair and Zeus’ negotiations, she is forced to live with Hades, as his wife, for majority of the year. Even though gods and heroes alike, possess extraordinary abilities, they are still subject to the nature of fate, a reality that is faced by humans.

Heroes are proven to be complementary to the gods, as an authoritative figure over their subjects. Gods, due to their ancestry and powers, are born with jurisdiction over mortals, likewise, heroes are traditionally born from royal or deity bloodlines, differentiating themselves from the average human. Heracles is the son of Zeus, the king of the gods, and Alcmene, a mortal princess descended from the hero Perseus. Having both deity and royal blood running through his veins, Heracles is given elevated status in society prior to his accomplishment of the 12 Labours. Likewise, Achilles’ mother is Thetis, a nereid, and his father, Peleus, is the king of Myrmidons, so Achilles too had a reputable family tree. Odysseus, Theseus and Jason are born into royal families and eventually take their place as the reigning monarchs in their respective kingdoms after completing their corresponding trials. Through their status and high regard in society, the heroes are distinct from humans and more affiliated to the gods in the societal and patriarchal hierarchy.

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The Greek God Zeus, His Power And Actions

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

Zeus was the ruler of all Gods and humans. He lived with the other gods at the top of Mount Olympus. Sometimes, Olympus was thought of as an actual mountain in Greece, but more often as a beautiful place in the heavens. Zeus was the youngest son of the Titans, Kronos and Rhea. They produced many offspring, but Kronos could not allow his children to survive because it had been prophesied that he would be dethroned by one of his children. He swallowed each of them following their birth, except for Zeus, who was saved by his mother Rhea. She gave Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes for him swallow instead of Zeus. He grew to manhood, attended by nymphs on the island of Crete. Zeus was able to save all his siblings, and with a thunderbolt, he killed Kronos (Thury Devinney 39). This earned him the right to become the leader of the gods.

With the writings of Homer, Zeus is pictured in two different ways, as the God of justice and mercy and the punisher of the wicked. Despite his power, he had a weakness for mortal women and frequently descended to earth to couple with them. He had numerous affairs with both human and goddess, however, Zeus was married to his sister Hera. Due to his many affairs their marriage was not a happy one and Zeus used all kinds of tricks to hide his infidelity from her. Their marriage produced four children. Hebe was the goddess of youth and acted as a cupbearer of the gods. Ares, the god of war. Eileithuia, the goddess of child bearing. And Hephaistos, the craftsman of the gods (Thury Devinney 40). The offspring of Zeus from other affairs were too numerous to count. He had other wives before Hera, the first being Metis. Zeus had thirty-two mortal children and most of them were leaders of the Greek nations. He also had thirty-eight immortal children. Only five of them were from his wives.

Hera’s jealousy and Zeus’ need to satisfy his lust and to have his desires appeased were human nature. Gods were supposed to be divine, but many of the qualities that Zeus had were of very low moral character.

According to myths the gods created men. The first race of men lived in harmony. This was the Golden Age where there was no pain, toil or old age. Dying was as easy as falling asleep. They enjoyed the fruits of the earth and after death, they remained as spirits to protect men from evil.

Next the gods created the Silver Age. This was inferior to the Golden Age. They remained children for a hundred years and were dominated by their mothers. In this age they had to work, and the year was divided into seasons. Then men knew cold and heat. Crime began in this period and Zeus was displeased and put an end to this age.

Zeus then created the Bronze Age out of ash spears. These men were strong and violent warriors, who worked in metal and created some tools of civilization. They finally destroyed themselves with their warfare.

The next period was the Heroic Age, many heroes and mighty deeds were performed. Heracles, Jason, Theseus and the heroes of the Trojan war were all part of this age. One of the greatest celebrations was the Olympian Games. They took place every four years in Olympia, even if there was a war between the city states of Greece, they stopped the war to take part in the games. Our present-day Olympics is patterned from those games.

Zeus then created the Iron Age, the worst race of men to ever appear on the earth. The things that now exist were the same as then. Hard work, trouble, pain and weariness were all present. They were considered evil which caused the gods to abandon them. At this time Zeus was disgusted with man and his evil and decided to destroy them with a flood. Some of the people were warned and prepared for it by getting into a chest with provisions. After ten days the flood subsided, and the chest rested on a mountain. The few people came out and offered a sacrifice to Zeus. They asked him to restore the human race.

The tale of the five ages of man shows that there was a negative attitude by the gods about each age. While the gods improved with each age, man degenerated from age to age. This does not match with our belief that each age has improved. We started as primitive man and as time passed, man progressed to his present state. The story of Zeus’ flood has a biblical comparison to the flood of Noah’s generation.

Works Cited

  1. Thury, Eva M., and Margaret Klopfle Devinney. Introduction to Mythology: Contemporary Approaches to Classical and World Myths. Oxford University Press, 2017.

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Language, Education, Music And Myths Of Ancient Greek

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

Gatherers have believed Ancient Greek to be one of the most persuading social demands in current life. Greek culture was a great time for monstrous achievements and divulgences. It helped in different circles, for example, languages, educational systems, myths, and music. The suggested philosophers, for example, Pythagoras, Plato, Thales, and Aristotle saved our impelled way of life.

Language is one of the most significant bits of the Greek Culture. It is the procedures by which we talk now. It’s the course by which we talk with people. Language causes us make. The basic thing you learn is your letter sets. By then you become acquainted with the sound of the letters to make words. anguage is the techniques by which we pass on what necessities be. We understands how to break down, structure and so forward. We can shape books, articles, papers and so on. We moreover have various languages that we can comprehend how to talk. Our language can expand to better ourselves.

Nowadays, we contribute half of your essentialness going to class and the other aspect of our life’s working. In today’s world you cannot get a job if you don’t have any kind of education. It’s so crucial to have a GED, high school diploma, or some type of college degree. Math plays a fundamental improvement in our typical ways of life. We cannot do anything without math. Some way, things deal with counting. We start off with the stray bits of including adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. Enlargement was calculated in the Greek time by totaling the separation in the symbols. Multiplication was used by duplicating. Division relied on the reverse. He felt with the triangles, broadness, circles, and right triangles. By then Pythagoras came in managing the unrefined figures. Pythagoras hypothesis utilized right picked triangles. Their answers gave building squares to the future mathematicians could expand on during the current moment.

Mythology was tremendous in Ancient Greece. It helped question things and make people wonder. It legitimized a present social structure and record for standard conventions. In Ancient Greece time, accounts about God, legends, In Ancient Greece time,and monsters were important things. It in like manner explained where we would look for after decimation. It offered seminar on the best way to deal with oversee have a chipper lifestyle. The myths helped shape the present society. Greek Mythology is so far being used starting now. I’m the present world a few myths have a negative impact. They do in light of the way in which that it doesn’t show up consistency. Myths was used for religions, educational, and entertainment purposes.

Music has an enormous impacts in the present time. We us music for everything. We have different sorts of genres of music, for example, gospel, r&b, rap, zydeco, Rock and so forth. I’m by protection, I look at music when I wake up. Music keeps me quiet and centered.In case we didn’t have music ,I personally would be lost. In Ancient Greece music was basically utilized as training purposes, religions, and metro ceremonies. In like manner, music was utilized in men’s life. Plato and Aristotle, was first to look at parts of the bargains. They created rhythm and harmonies. The felt it helped the human spirit for pleasure and torment. Plato feels music isn’t simply to strengthen your voice, but it helps the preview of the spirit for pleasure and misery. Plato thinks music prepares the youthful for virtue by familiarizing then with their feelings. For example,they have created lullabies. Lullabies were utilized to rock nursery children to rest or bring them to harmony.

I have constantly discovered the Ancient Greek interesting because of the manner where they included. The Greeks were very proud of their culture. They had a very strong eagerness in the things they did. We have learned an immense measure of educational things from the Greeks. Plato, Thales, Aristotle,and Pythagoras demonstrated to us a great arrangement of things that regardless we take on and carry right until now.

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145

The Concept Of Individualism In Iliad

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

The denotation of individualism is the principle of being independent from group mentality and having freedom of actions and thoughts without limitations. Ancient Greece placed an emphasis on the individual, making it a major aspect of Western Civilization. Greeks were the first to experiment with ideals of individualism through direct democracy, in which certain citizens were encouraged to take an active role in government. As this idea developed and spread throughout Greek culture, people were encouraged to act and create based on their own talents that were unique to them. However, the only way to know this was to have a sense of self, or as Socrates proclaimed, “know yourself” and this will lead to a path of individuality. This concerns rising above social conformity and taking responsibility of one’s own actions, which can be seen through two unique but very different Greek heroes, Achilles and Agamemnon. They are portrayed in the “Iliad” with similar and opposing values and virtues, which stem from their unique strengths and weaknesses. The contrasting personalities of Achilles proves that individualism can be shown in different lights. Although it can be beneficial to ignore society’s standards, in can lead to feelings of isolation and alienation. Despite the challenges they were destined for, Socrates and both Greek heroes were able to overcome the negative aspects of possessing individuality, even in the face of death.

Socrates expresses individualism and the idea that the individual has dominance over all other things through his philosophy and search for wisdom. It is because he held this trait that he was sentenced to death. One of the main accusations held against Socrates was his corruption of the youth. The young men of the wealthier class enjoyed watching him aggravate Athenian elderly, especially politicians, by persistently asking difficult and embarrassing questions, exposing the ignorance of those who claim to be wise. Despite Socrates’s accusations against him, he remained the same, truthful and simplistic, even when his death sentence was quickly approaching. His trial and death were a sacrifice for the individual, resisting conformity to the respected standards of Ancient Greek. Socrates says, “Men of Athens, at hearing the speeches of my accusers, I cannot tell; but I know that their persuasive words almost made me forget who I was: – such was the effect of them, and yet they have hardly spoken a word of truth” (Apology Pg. 19). He did not change his perception of the world or halt his methods of seeking wisdom just because he was told to. This proves Socrates had no fear of death, unlike the rest of the “wise” people. He says “For to fear death, my friends, is only to think ourselves wise without really being wise, for it is to think that we know what we do not know. For no one knows whether death may not be the greatest good that can happen to man” (Apology Pg. ). He believed a life lived through injustice is known to be inadequate, and not the life he wished to live. Socrates would rather die in honor while fulfilling his search for wisdom, than giving up and live a life of dishonor. He, unlike those accusing him, has no passion for what is in the heavens or under the earth, or for worldly things, such as money, reputation, or politics. Plato says this when describing Socrates:

“When a man is refuted in argument, and when that has happened to him many times and on many different grounds, he is driven to think that there’s no difference between honorable and disgraceful, and so on with all other values, like right and good, that he used to revere… when he’s lost any respect or feeling for his former beliefs but not yet found the truth, where is he likely to turn? …And so, we shall see him become a rebel instead of a conformer” (The Republic Part VIII).

Socrates was a man interested only in seeking human virtue, wisdom and excellence, heading for a path to individualism. He is more invested in individual morality, not social politics. In his eyes, if you participate heavily in government, there is no time to care for one’s own soul or to become moral experts. One must pursue his or her best interest, but the only way to do that is to become as virtuous as possible. The individual is of upmost importance to Socrates because the individual has different freedoms. There is freedom from control of the state and desires of pleasure, and there is freedom from self-deceit, or believing false testaments to be true and hold important value. The individual must be worthy of their freedom, resisting worldly temptations and by yearning for and seeking out ultimate wisdom and virtuous perfection, which was accomplished by Socrates himself. Socrates teaches that the human is not just a mere body, but also a soul. The soul of a human justifies reason and logical thought and allows one to make their own decisions and become a self-sufficient individual, independent of others.

In “The Iliad,” it is obvious that Achilles embodies the idea of individualism, which can be exhibited through his strong emotions, but also his actions and motives. At the very beginning of the epic poem, Achilles persona shines though, establishing his “rage” just within the first line. His human characteristics do not fit the normal standards of a united military. He is temperamental, merciless and selfish. However, he is a great warrior, stronger and smarter than other men. The aspects of individualism Achilles possesses are negative and detrimental to his life and his army. He reveals the self-centered side of him, with only revenge on his mind. Every action must be to his benefit in order to protect his masculinity and pride, which was ripped away when his prize, Briseis, is taken from him. Throughout “The Iliad,” Achilles has his own battle with rage, and his journey to the moment of realization is due to this internal conflict. Despite the vicious war surrounding him, his greatest battle is with himself. This is a downside to individualism, which created anxiety from feeling outcast and alienated from his people and most importantly from himself. With only the restoration of honor on his mind, Achilles has no concern for how his actions affect those who are close and loyal to him. His decision to refuse to fight in the war was an independent and individual choice based on his heightened rage and passion. In Book 16, his sense of independence surfaces. Patroclus warns Achilles of how bad the war is going, and says “Achilles, son of Peleus, greatest of the Achaeans, spare me your anger, please, such heavy blows have overwhelmed the troops” (The Iliad, Book 16, Line 23). Achilles agrees to lend his armor and troops but refuses to fight himself. He is aware that the battle cannot be won without him present. His pride is still wounded, as he continues to act without humanity. Achilles is semi-divine, considering his mother, Thetis, is a goddess, while his father is a mortal. As Achilles’s rage grows stronger, he is straying further and further away from his human side and begins to retrieve his strong emotions from his godlike side. As the book progresses, Achilles takes responsibility for his actions all on his own, guilt setting in and finally showing a good side to his individuality. Homer says, “A black cloud of grief came shrouding over Achilles… Overpowered in all his power, sprawled in the dust, Achilles lay there fallen, tearing his hair, defiling it with his own hands” (The Iliad, Book 18, Line 24). Although he knows he must die, he still maintains a sense of eternal life. Achilles eventually accepts his fate of death, which is a step to achieving happiness according to Socrates, who had no fear of death itself. Achilles represents individuality, both its negative and positive aspects. Although he shows his human side, with rational thought, he is overcome by the alienation of himself from the rest of the world. He functions within his own realm, following through with actions that are to his own benefit. He lacks the important individual values associated with success and ultimate happiness and wisdom.

Throughout the Iliad, Agamemnon possesses many of the same characteristics of Achilles. However, with his pride at stake, he tends to use manipulation in order to benefit himself. Agamemnon acquires the negative aspects of individualism, which he somewhat overcomes. These damaging traits doubt his qualifications as a king. For example, he feels the need to test his troops in Book 2. Agamemnon exclaims, “But first, according to a time-honored tradition, I will test the men with a challenge, tell them all to crowd the oarlocks, cut and run in their ships” (The Iliad, Book 2, Line 85). This action is detrimental to the morale of his army, who now believe that their leader has no loyalty and faith in them. He consistently allows his overwhelming emotions to influence critical decisions in government and warfare. For example, to restore his honor, Agamemnon claims Briseis, who happens to be Achilles’s prize. He says,

“Not so quickly, brave as you are, godlike Achilles – trying to cheat me. What do you want? To cling to your own prize while I sit calmly by – empty handed here? No – if our generous Argives will give me a prize, a match for my desires, equal to what I’ve lost, well and good. But if they give me nothing, I will take a prize for myself – your own” (The Iliad, Book 1, Line 153).

He does not understand that the needs of his people should come before his own, especially his desires. This tragic flaw is what encourages him to keep Achilles’s prize, despite Nestor’s advice to let her go. Agamemnon’s individualistic traits reveal his selfish inner motives. For example, he is dishonorable, lacks faith in the gods and regrets offending Achilles when he offered him treasures as an incentive to fight. He worries his own men will turn against him and blame him for the many deaths of the Achaeans, which he deserves. In Book 14, Agamemnon is cowardly, and fears losing the war. He says “How on Earth can a wounded man make a war?… No shame in running, fleeing disaster, even in pitch darkness. Better to flee from death than feel its grip” (The Iliad, Book 14, Line 77 & 96). By proposing to sail away while his army stays and fights, he shows cowardice and weakness due to his overwhelming sense of pride. Agamemnon finally comes to realize just how badly his decisions have affected others and led to irreversible consequences. By recognizing his mistakes, he expresses a positive side to individualism, coming to this conclusion independent of others.

Though Greek literary works, such as “The Iliad” and Socrates’s philosophy teachings in “The Trial and Death of Socrates,” the concept of individualism is revealed to be a substantial focus in Greek culture. Although this idea is linked with positive and negative aspects, the two Greek heroes mentioned, along with Socrates, were able to rise above and allow for the benefits of individuality to lead them toward the fulfillment of truly knowing themselves, including their strengths and weaknesses. Being an individual stems from using this knowledge as a way to fulfill one’s happiness in life, allowing to express themself freely and creatively, based on their talents attributed to them. Socrates was wise, because although he did not know everything, he recognized his faults, making him wiser than even the greatest politicians. Achilles, though very stubborn and isolated, was a confident leader, obtaining the skills needed to win the Trojan war and create a spark of motivation in his troops. In the beginning of “The Iliad,” Agamemnon lacks all the traits of a moral and efficient king, repeatedly making decisions for his own benefit, rather than for the good of the public. In hindsight, he comes to realize his actions had detrimental consequences to the outcome of the war and finally understands what it means to be a virtuous ruler. Individualism involves rising above society’s limiting factors (for Achilles, this was alienation due to his emotional persona. For Socrates, this was the politicians and accusations) and staying true to one’s beliefs and talents, despite being faced with challenges, especially death, in which there should be no fear.

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Strengths And Weaknesses Of Odysseus

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

Every weakness contains within itself a strength. Odysseus is known for his long journey, attempting to return home after the Trojan War events. He had some challenges to seek vengeance and let his pride get the best out of him. Odysseus has struggled with excessive pride, exaggeration, throughout this narrative. So how do the unique strengths and weaknesses of Odysseus magnify his voyage on the sea?

There have been several times in which Odysseus has displayed bravery. He is always prepared to take action to defend himself and his men. Odysseus states, “Much have I suffered, labored long and hard by now in the waves and wars. Add this to the total—bring the trial on!” Odysseus says these lines when Calypso tells him he’s going to die if he leaves the island. Odysseus is willing to suffer great hardships. Odysseus has also shown intelligence as one of his strengths various times. Another example, Odysseus and his men escaped the sirens by putting beeswax in their ears. He constructed a clever plan to save himself and his crew. One final strength Odysseus demonstrated was ambition. He intended to return home to his wife, but later discovered that many suitors were surrounding Penelope in his years of being gone. His strength has helped him throughout his voyage by benefiting him when it comes to taking important steps and risks during his journey. Finally, from observing closely in the story, you can see how his noble characteristics helped him during his journey.

However, Odysseus had struggles with weaknesses throughout his journey. Starting with Odysseus’s arrogance, he was given the warning that he should not take the cattle with him on his Helios trip, but he still goes through with it. “Old shipmates, our stores are in the ship’s hold, food and drink; the cattle here are not for our provision, or we pay dearly for it.” Next, Odysseus and his son got revenge on the suitors by killing all of them for disrespecting his household. “Odysseus and his gallant son charged straight at the front lines, slashing away with swords, with two-edged spears and now, they would have killed them all.” Final weakness Odysseus struggled with is curiosity. When Odysseus and his men got on the island of the Cyclops, he wanted to know if the Cyclops were friendly, so he decided to visit them. This is very similar to the saying “curiosity killed the cat.” Throughout the reading of Odysseus’ acts, we can see how his weaknesses were magnified in his search for home.

In conclusion, there have been several times in which Odysseus has displayed strength. However, Odysseus had struggles with arrogance, vengeance, and curiosity throughout his journey. Strengths and weaknesses are the main elements of our characters.

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The Portrait Of A Hero On The Example Of Hector In Iliad

May 19, 2022 by Essay Writer

The Iliad was written by the Greek poet, Homer, which covers the war and fights between the Trojans and the Acheans during the final year of the Trojan war. The events surrounding the main characters and gods are depicted in the last several weeks of the war. The poem begins with King Agamemnon demanding Achille’s, a powerful Greek warrior, to give him Briseis, which was Achille’s war prize. This ignites an ongoing feud which ultimately results in Achilles distancing himself from the war. Achilles even asks that the Trojans beat the Greeks, which cause the Acheans to suffer greatly. The fight between Paris and Menelaus over Helen is also described to be the main cause of the war. The story is heavily affected by the involvement of gods throughout and reflects the key characteristics of heroism. In many ways, Hector, the leader of the Trojan army, embodies what being a hero is. Hector reflects his heroism through his selflessness and humanity, bravery, and loyalty.

When Hector is first introduced in the Iliad, the primary reason for his involvement in the war is out of responsibility to his city and his family. His selflessness is shown throughout many of the speeches he makes during the war. Most of his speeches are concerned with the fate of his city, and the effect the war may have on his family. Another attribute of Hector’s selflessness is he rarely boasts about his successes during the war and he is not as prideful compared to his other war hero counterparts. It is clear that Hector deeply cares for his family, and it shows that he is a lot more human than a lot of the characters in the story. One example of his humanity is at the end of book 6, Hector tries to cheer up his wife after she worries about his fate in the war. “Andromache,/ dear one, why so desperate? Why so much grief for me?/ No man will hurl me down to Death, against my fate.” (6.579-581). Hector’s character traits are also shown in his dismay for the war. He voices his disappointment of Paris, who is his brother, for allowing a war to happen so close to where his wife and son live, especially over such juvenile circumstances. Hector even persuades Paris and Menelaus to end the war with a one-on-one fight, because he looked out for his people as a whole (Thomas).

Courage in the Iliad is praised even more than faithfulness or honesty, which is why Hector is described as one of the greatest warriors to fight in the war. Hector is also very different from some of the other greatest warriors because he is mortal. Hector also exhibits humanity and often times more bravery than some of the demigods in the war. Hector is also unwavering when it comes to facing his duty and even his fate. Although he is devoted to his wife and son, he continues to fight for his city. Hector is also faced with many which might tempt him to leave the war, one of which is when his young son cannot recognize him after coming back in his battle gear covered in blood, sweat, and dirt. His son cries and screams until Hector takes his helmet off and comforts his son. Hector’s bravest moment is perhaps when he recognizes that his death is inevitable. “I beg you, beg you by your life, your parents/ don’t let the dogs devour me by the Argive ships!” (22.399-400) Hector does not plead for Achilles to save his life, Hector accepts his fate heroically not cowardly and just asks that Achilles returns his body back to his loved ones.

A big part of Hector’s personality that makes him a hero is his loyalty towards all aspects of his life. It is clear from the beginning of the plot that Hector feels very strongly about fulfilling one’s duty to their city and that each person is responsible for pulling their own weight in the war. He is highly critical of people who do not carry out their duties and are cowardly. Hector regularly insults his brother Paris for his lack of responsibility to defend his city and how cowardly Paris is. Hector also shows a lot of loyalty to his family. He is faithful to his wife and is very family-oriented. His loyalty to his family is largely due to his kindness by nature which is characterized by his attitude towards Helen because he was the only person who was ever nice to her once the war started. His loyalty to his city is depicted in his prayer over his son before he returns to battle. “ Zeus … Grant this boy, my son,/maybe like me, first in glory among the Trojans.” (6.569-571) Hector understands that Troy may be defeated, his family may be killed, and his wife may be enslaved if he continues to fight, but wishes that his son might gain glory like Hector.

Although Hector was not the strongest warrior in the Iliad, it does not mean he was not the best. He was outmatched because mainly because of his mortality but this was a key factor that contributed to his heroism. Hector, was not gifted courage and strength unlike Achilles, instead, he devoted his life to learning and observing how to be strong and brave. His humanity and loyalty also made him very respected and loved by many people which is much more relatable, which allowed Hector to resonate with more people.

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