Roosevelt and His Program: Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal
Can you imagine what it’s like to live in a cardboard home, starve, and raise a family in poverty? Unfortunately, most Americans in the 1930s went through this on a day-to-day basis. In 1929 the stock market crashed and changed things forever. The Tennessee Valley Authority is a federally owned corporation in the United States created on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, as well as fertilizer manufacturing.
The New deal affected the U.S environmentally and socially. The Tennessee Valley Authority otherwise called the TVA is one of the largest public power companies in the United States. The TVA was one of Roosevelt’s many programs involved with the new deal. The TVA was used to provide jobs as well as electricity to those who were in need. Since the great depression hit Tennessee very hard, the TVA was founded to help Tennessee after the great depression. The TVA is still in use to this day, it is used to manage one of the largest river systems in the US.
May 18, 1933, the Tennessee valley flooded. Part of Roosevelt’s new deal was a program called the TVA. I believe that the Tennessee valley flooding was a huge Environmental impact as well as a Societal impact. I think that it was an environmental impact because The TVA helped clean up the environment after the floods, they gave people jobs as well as electricity to homes and businesses, they also replanted the forest. All of these reasons show how this was an environmental impact. I am strongly convinced that the TVA had a long-lasting impact on the society in the Tennessee Valley area as well as other areas nearby. The TVA aimed to help reduce the problems they were having in ways like teaching better farming methods, replanting trees, and building dams. Overall the TVA was very successful in what they wanted to accomplish. They had an impact on society by giving them what they needed and helping them constantly.
The New deal affected the U.S environmentally and socially. The TVA impacted the environment a lot and still is in use today. TVA created many jobs for people in need. Taught people better farming methods and conserved water power etc. The TVA was overall sometimes flawed and hated by many people in which the program aimed to help, the organization helped to bring modern goods to the region that had been devastated by the economic crisis of the Great Depression. In the end, The TVA encountered many setbacks and failures and was involved in many controversies, but it brought electricity to thousands of people at an affordable price. Overall the TVA was mostly successful in what they wanted to accomplish and how they accomplished it.
The Essence of the New Deal and Its Outcomes
Thousands of American citizens lined up waiting for work, so they could provide for their families. Others were begging to survive the harsh time. This is what was happening across America during this time. Getting jobs was easy when the country wasn’t in such difficulty, but now the country was going through an economic nightmare known as the Great Depression. The New Deal was their answer, the ultimate reform, it provided change without bloodshed.
Development and Implementation
Before Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president, hover the presidency at the peak of the Great Depression, FDR helped the American people regain faith and hope by promising change through his famous phrase “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” He was known as a man to make bold moves to solve problems and the only president to serve more than two terms.
After many attempts to fix the economy and repeated failures, the New Deal was significant because it worked. Unlike the past ideas that did more damage, it brought forth reformation. Employment grew very strongly from 1933 to 1937 causing unemployment to fall ten percent (Alexander Field 2009). If it wasn’t for the New Deal the financial safety nets we have today would not exist. The New Deal provided more assurance to banks, safety to lenders, more stability to relations between capital and labor, more predictable wages to the most vulnerable workers, and a safety net for both the unemployed and the elderly.
The modern term for the New Deal objectives is the 3 R’s – relief, recovery, reform. They required either immediate, temporary, or permanent actions and reforms (Linda Alchin 2014). Relief meant immediate action taken to halt the economic collapse. Recovery meant jump-starting temporary programs to restart the flow of demand. Reform meant permanent programs to avoid another depression and to secure citizens against another disaster. These three objectives would later lead to the creation of several administrations and acts.
After FDR declared the banking holiday to cease the run on banks, he later created federal programs that would be identified as Alphabet Agencies (FDR Library n.d.). From 1933 to 1939 about forty plus alphabet agencies were created. Some of the popular ones are the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), Civilian Authority (TVA), Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), Social Security Administration (SSA). The AAA reduced agriculture prices by reducing surpluses, The CCC work relief program for unemployed men, TVA provided flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, FERA gave jobs to Americans through construction projects, and SSA is social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors’ benefits.
During that point in time racism covered the nation so it wouldn’t be hard to believe that African Americans were one of the groups that didn’t benefit from the New Deal. Instead of using the deal to promote civil rights, FDR decided to let the hatred continue because he needed the vote of southern democrats to pass the deal. Most of the programs that were set up discriminated against blacks. Employers gave unequal pay and the Federal Housing Act didn’t promise a mortgage if they tried to buy a house in white neighborhoods. According to Jim Powell, the poor suffered from policies like the Tennessee Valley Authority. The dams flooded 750,000 acres forcing those who lived there to move (Jim Powell 2003).
From an overall observation, Franklin D Roosevelt kept his pledge to the people. The New Deal was a success, it did what it was designed to do. It turned a country that was struggling with unemployment and stagflation to one that was distributing jobs left and right. It put into place programs that would later help future generations. Even though some citizens didn’t benefit as much it did help the majority. It redefined what role the government should take, convincing the nation that the government should take part in the economy as well as provide support to its citizens.
The New Deal and the Green New Deal: Their Pros and Cons
The New Deal occurred in the early 1930s throughout the Great Depression. The Great Depression was definitely one of the most appalling economic declines industrial wise in the world. This took place directly after the 1929 crash in the stock market and it did not only send millions into a panic, it also wiped out many many investors. Many people were struggling to just get by, some didn’t even know when their next meal would be. It was a very sad time for millions of unemployed Americans that would lose cars, homes, and have trouble finding good-paying jobs.
The New Deal was put in place to tackle all of these issues. It was a sequence of programs and projects put into play by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This was planned to conduct economic relief. This took place from about 1933-1939 in the United States but affected the entire world industrially. Especially the lack of trade between countries. It was directed to reestablish the prosperity back into America. This certainly helped the economy and provide jobs and relief to the many that were hurting. There were a lot of Americans who supported the idea to employ and give financial safety to millions of Americans. But there were also may that had to disagree with the idea. Political enemies opposed the New Deal, this was many businessmen and even the Republican party. The most famous was Huey Long, he believed that the New Deal did not do enough for the poor and his alternative plan was called, “Share Our Wealth”. Even though The New Deal definitely didn’t end the Great Depression, it was fortunate in restoring common assurance back into the people, and the creation of the newer programs brought relief to millions. It was definitely successful in both short-term and putting in a long-term structural reform, it has easily changed the United States forever. The only negatives people had to support against the New Deal would be the fact that it upset the balance of the federal estimate, and it was unsuccessful in ending the Great Depression, but at the same time, it did help with the massive problem of unemployment.
The second idea that is coming into play is the Green New Deal. This idea is the big go green idea. This is to address all of the global warming taking place, because of the industries such as fossil fuels. The idea pushes the thought to use less carbon and be more energy-efficient such as using solar energy and wind to generate electricity. Some might say the plan is very broad, but others say that it has a lot of detailed parts that get to the point. Many believe that we are slowly killing ourselves and our planet, because of what we put in the atmosphere and the way we treat it. This plan is not fully in action yet, but many Democrats are very serious about putting it into play. The entire plan for the new deal is to reduce the production of greenhouse gases in all. They think that if the issue of greenhouse gases is tackled itself then that could help the huge issue of global warming. The Green New deal also adds to help the people of low-income, because in many ways items become more expensive when drought takes place or even a natural disaster. This is called income inequality and it is to help with the raising of prices to make sure that the low- income homes can still afford these higher prices. With all of the global warming taking place, science says that if we don’t act fast by 2030 the change will not be able to reverse. There are many things that would be helpful if the Green New Deal was put into place, like it would create jobs, cut climate change in half, support farming, and boost manufacturing. Many republicans fight this because they don’t know how much it will really affect our planet or not and think that it costs way too much money and will just send our country into debt even into our second Great Depression.
There are many similarities and differences between the two deals, but somethings that they do in common is the fact that they both were put in play to benefit the country, increase the number of jobs, ideas from both could have sent the country bankrupt, and both were supposed to benefit the economy spending wisely in the long run. Things that are different about the two deals are that the New Deal took place during the Great Depression, while the Green New Deal is taking place currently. Also, the Green New Deal was thought of to tackle the idea of global warming and limit the number of fossil fuels and greenhouse gases, while the New Deal was put into play to help them with the huge problem of unemployment during the Great Depression and help the economy build its way back up because industrially we were really failing at that. So we needed to create some economic relief. Also, the Green New Deal could help with low-income homes while many thought that the new deal did not do enough for the poor and just made it harder for them to afford the things that they needed.
Finally, it is easy to say that both deals could easily benefit the country, but there are definitely holes in both plans or things that could use some work. No matter what when it comes to the two deals someone is not going to be happy so no matter what you put into play someone will always be satisfied while others will not, but that’s just how life works you can not always make everyone happy. In all the deals both are great ideas and the Green New deal might not ever be put into place, but it is a great building block.
Fdr Managed to Put the Base of the Remarkable Nation that USA is Today
How did Franklin D. Roosevelt help to shape American culture and society into the nation the United States became by the new millennium?
The United States of America solely dominated much of the era of the 20th century compared to other nations in that it made remarkable achievements that made it become a major influence to the entire world. For instance, in the 20th century that the United States came into wealth, power as well as world influence quite first as a result of the Union states that had a lot of wrangles in the 1860s. As a result, most historians labeled 20th century the “American Century” because of the greater achievements the United States had made by then. However, all the success, power, world influence and wealth America had gained was as a result of President Franklin D. Roosevelt influence and actions during his 12 years tenure as the president. During his tenure, he was able to pull the United States or America from the edge of social, economic as well as political disaster and developed a foundation where the future and current America could enjoy stability and prosperity. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was able to shape the American culture and society in that he transformed the federal government to assume more powerful and new roles in regards to the economy of the nation, the health and corporate life, welfare and the well-being of the people of America.
After the World War I the economy of America was left in the worst situation where millions of people were homeless and barely had sufficient resources to feed themselves. During this period, the confidence of the people of American began to weaken as a result of the depression. In 1932, the American people were hungry for change and needed a new leader with whom they elected Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In 1935, the federal government provided a guarantee for a collective bargain and right to organize by the unions as well as the “Fair Labor Statistics Act of 1938” which created a strategy for removal of under wages and introducing working hours that is still an effective policy to date. Also, under Franklin D. Roosevelt, the federal government was able to provide both financial aid and food to the unemployed, feeble and the aged in situations where they could not provide for themselves. In early 1933, the Franklin D. Roosevelt’s federal government assisted rural and agricultural development in America with programs for development and price supports in times when these sectors were on the verge of collapsing. Another contribution that Franklin D. Roosevelt brought in his tenure that helped shape American culture and society by the 20th century and to date is that after the year 1937, his federal government accepted the activist fiscal policy. As a result, the government began its duty to eliminating the issues that were hindering the prosperity of the American economy.
The major changes in the American history were the New Deal that was introduced by the President Franklin D. Roosevelt which constituted of three objectives: recover America from the depression, relief of the depression victims, and transformation of the American economic system (Florio 6). A lot of reforms regarding new legislations transpired that lead to improvement of the conditions of the Americans. For example, by 1935, the unemployed people in America had dropped by 2 million despite the fact that at least 9 million people were still jobless. The lives of American improved particularly in the agricultural sector in which policies to ensure that the prices of agricultural products were high with the aim of raising the income of farmers.
Another way in which Franklin D. Roosevelt shaped the society as well as the culture of America is the development of the nuclear bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the World War II 1945 (Bernstein 32). Franklin D. Roosevelt was forced into the war by Germany and Japan and as a result, he authorized the research on the feasibility of the usage of the nuclear fission. The decisions to begin the production of the nuclear bomb was a major step towards victory for the Americans with the consideration that they would act before the Germans. The bombing of the two cities of Japan that were believed to have political significance as well as an important industrial center and port city. As a result, the Japanese nation surrendered, and the war was over. The Victory left the United States of America as the full, supreme power.
Also, Franklin D. Roosevelt shaped the presidency of America via the “fireside chats” he passed to the American through radio technologies which resulted in a stronger bond between the public and the president. Thus, this shaped the figure of the president as the caretaker of the people of America. As a result, the duties of the president grew to include both policy implementation (chief executive) and policy drafting (chief legislator). In addition, Franklin D. Roosevelt ensured that there was a greater capacity for new responsibilities to be introduced for the presidency.
Thus, it is evident that Franklin Delano Roosevelt during his tenure as the president of the United States of America significantly influenced as well as shaped the culture and the society of America into the nation that it was by the 2000 millennium. It accrued through his three initial objectives that include: recover, relief, and reform. Also, the victory in the Europe brought a major impact in shaping the American society and culture.
Fdr’s Four Freedoms Speech, an Oratorical Masterpiece Which Reshaped the Future of the Whole World
Shortly after Franklin D. Roosevelt helped pull our country out of the Great Depression with his “New Deal,” he was re-elected for his third term, becoming the only president to serve more than two terms. This was before, and also the reason why, term limits were introduced. He was re-elected into office in 1940, and gave his speech “The Four Freedoms” on January 9, 1941 to Congress. The speech would be broadcasted across the country on radio for the American people to hear. In his speech, FDR says urgently to the American people that action must be taken to help out France and Britain in the War with Nazi Germany. Roosevelt gracefully implicates a number of rhetorical devices in order to persuade the American population that in order to keep our own freedoms and democracy safe, we must in turn help ally countries keep their values safe as well.
After signing a peace treaty and paying huge repercussions from the damage they caused in what was known at the time “The Great War,” (soon to be known as World War I) Germany needed to bounce back, and Adolf Hitler promised just. After gaining the German peoples’ trust, Hitler had taken over much of Europe and was looking to expand even farther. Great Britain was struggling to hold on to their borders with France as their ally, and it seemed like soon all of Europe would belong to Nazi Germany. It was clear that they needed more help to stop Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party, but the American people were heavily against war at the time because of our previous involvement in “The Great War.” This made it extremely difficult for our government and military to lend a hand to European countries who were in great risk of losing their freedoms to a dictator. Franklin D. Roosevelt had just become the first person to hold a third term in office, winning his re-election by a landslide, and it was obvious that America trusted him as a leader. This meant is was up to FDR and his “Four Freedoms” speech to talk the American people into helping our European neighbors stop the rise of Nazi Germany. A year after his re-election, Roosevelt would stand in front of congress and be broadcasted across the nation, to everyone’s radios at home, reinvigorating the American peoples’ gratitude for their freedoms with his skillful rhetoric.
FDR is a master of rhetoric in many ways, and is often thought to be our most persuasive president. He seems to be able to use rhetorical devices with great ease, and is a master of getting the people energetic and passionate about just about anything. He does so through many rhetorical devices, one of those being logos. Logos, meaning logic, is the rhetorical device of using logic and reasoning in order to convince or persuade an audience. For example, when FDR is trying to convince the American people that we should get involved in World War II he states, “Even when the World War broke out in 1914, it seemed to contain only small threat of danger to our own American future. But as time went on, as we remember, the American people began to visualize what the downfall of democratic nations might mean to our own democracy” (Roosevelt 2). Here, Roosevelt is giving the people a cause and effect scenario in order to persuade them to act. He is saying that many of the wars in the past didn’t have much of an effect on us directly, but if we just continue to sit back and watch other democratic countries fall, we could very well be next. This is a great use of logos, and he delivered it wonderfully, showing many Americans why it was our patriotic duty to get involved in the war. Another great method Roosevelt uses of delivering logos is using statistics to help back up what you are saying or make it more believable. “In the recent national election there was no substantial difference between the two great parties in respect to that national policy. No issue was fought out on this line before the American electorate” (Roosevelt 4). What Roosevelt is saying is that no matter the differences of political party in the election, everybody was pretty much on the same page about our national security, that we had to help outside of our borders. In saying this, he is showing the audience that his views and ideas on national policy are not coming from a bias of political party, furthering the American peoples’ belief in him.
A long with logos, Roosevelt relies heavily on the rhetorical device pathos. Pathos, meaning emotions, is the method of using your audiences’ emotions as a tool to persuade them. In this speech, the emotion that he taps in to mostly in this speech is fear. More specifically, the fear of what’s to come. The fear of the fall of our country’s democracy and the stripping of our rights and freedoms. In connection with that fear, he digs up our gratitude for said freedom. “The American people have unalterably set their faces against that tyranny” (Roosevelt 2). FDR says this in order to remind the American people of their strong and passionate opposition against foreign powers trying to establish dominance in the world and strip countries of their democracy. “I find it unhappily necessary to report that the future and safety of our country and of our democracy are overwhelmingly involved in events far beyond our borders” (Roosevelt 2). In saying this, FDR is trying to inform the American people of the dangers that await, but also is allowing himself to be vulnerable by sharing his feelings of discernment with what is going in. He is hoping to let the audience connect with him, and understand that he is just as worried about what is happening as any average person. I definitely find pathos to be Roosevelt’s most effective rhetorical device. He is extremely adept at putting emotions into words in ways that make the audience connect with him almost as if they can relate to him.
Ethos, meaning credibility, is a rhetorical device used to persuade the audience of the speaker’s credibility or character. Roosevelt is very effective in using ethos, although he doesn’t tend to rely on it as much as the other rhetorical devices. He uses ethos in this speech to establish a sort of self-confidence with the audience, making everything he says sound more credible. As if they automatically believe his words simply because of how sure of himself he sounds. The more he believes in himself, the easier it is for him to persuade. “These are the simple, the basic things that must never be lost sight of in the turmoil and unbelievable complexity of our modern world” (Roosevelt 7). When FDR says this, he is talking about the basic necessities that Americans expect of their political and economic system. He is very confident in his words to make sure that he delivers his message clearly. That no matter how high of a danger we are facing with our foreign affairs, maintaining jobs and a standard of living among other things for our population is still of very high importance. Without ethos, he may not have been as successful at convincing the people of what America’s priorities should be. By saying what he said boldly and without doubting himself or the truthfulness of his words, he was able to make the American people confidently put their faith in him as their leader.
11 months after Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered his “Four Freedoms” speech Pearl Harbor was surprise attacked by the Japanese, and America declared war on Japan. During those 11 months, however, his message resonated in the ears of the American people. Roosevelt’s speech succeeded in helping get our country out of the isolationist mentality we were in for so long. The people felt very strongly that we had no business getting into affairs outside of our own borders, but FDR easily convinced them that it was in our best interest to get out there and support our allies. Pearl Harbor, being the tragic day it was, was the beginning of our involvement in the War that most of the world was already fighting for a few years now. Europe was starting to lose sight of victory, belonging mostly to Nazi Germany, and at any moment they could be coming to our borders, trying to take away our freedom. He reminded the American people of how grateful they were for their freedoms, and of their fear of having those freedoms taken away. This greatly helped sway the peoples’ support in favor of involvement in the war, even if it just meant sending weapons and ammunition to countries that needed our support. Americans would not just stand back and watch as the world fell victim to a Nazi dictator. We had to do something. Once again, Franklin Roosevelt proved himself to be one of the most persuasive leaders this country has been led by.
Great Leaders Use Rhetoric to Instil Hope as Seen in the King’s Speech
During the film, The King’s Speech, Lionel Logue plays five different roles. Logue is a father (plays with his children in his office), husband (talks with his wife by the radio), therapist (sits with Bertie every day to help him overcome his stammer), family member (becomes close enough with Bertie that he is demanded to sit in the King’s box during Bertie’s coronation), and friend (has been with Bertie through every obstacle). Logue demonstrates rhetorical sensitivity throughout every role that he takes during the movie. Logue shows role flexibility when he is playing with his children in his office and is surprised when Bertie comes in unannounced. Logue has to change his role from father to therapist in an instant. Logue also demonstrates role sensitivity when he transitions from being Bertie’s therapist to becoming his friend and part of his family. Logue demonstrates “stating” what needs to be said during his role as Bertie’s therapist when he tells him exactly what needs to be done to fix his stammer despite the fact that Bertie doesn’t want to hear a single word he is saying. This is also demonstrated when Logue insists on using first names.
There are two instances when someone communicates to King George VI (Bertie) in a “non-rhetorically sensitive way.” The first instance was when Bertie’s father was telling George that he needed to get over his stammer. If Bertie’s father were rhetorically sensitive, he would be encouraging and tell him what needed to be done in order for him to overcome his speech impairment. Instead, he told him he was wrong and continually tore him down. Another instance is shown when Logue speaks out of turn to Bertie while they are going for a walk in the park. Logue tells Bertie that he could be King despite the fact that his brother currently holds the thrown. This is considered treason and it infuriates Bertie. Both these instances demonstrate people communicating to Bertie in a non-rhetorically sensitive way.
There are three reasons that I believe King George VI held for not allowing others to help him. They are his pride, his lack of faith in him self, and his lack of success in the past. I believe Bertie values his pride because he is a King and he believes he should not have to get help for his speech impairment. Bertie is supposed to be this all-powerful masculine role model to his country and it kills him that he can’t even give a speech to his people. Bertie also lacks faith in him self. This is mostly due to the fact that he grew up being belittled by his father, nanny, and other people in his life. Also, Bertie believes that it cannot be fixed, so why should he even let someone help him try to fix it? Another factor that adds to Bertie not letting people help him is the fact that he has had so little success in the past. He has seen countless doctors and gone through hundreds of treatments and therapies and none of them have worked. Any person would want to give up after so much failure. These are the reasons I believe King George held for not allowing other to help him.
The most interesting insight I took from Bitzer’s article was the concept that “In the best if all possible worlds, there would be communication perhaps, but no rhetoric – since exigencies would not arise,” (Bitzer IV). It is fascinating to think that the world invites change and scientific inquiry. I enjoyed learning that “rhetoric is distinguished from the mere craft of persuasion which, although it is a legitimate object of scientific investigation. Lacks philosophical warrant as a practical discipline,” (Bitzer IV).
Three speeches that I have found powerful/motivational are Martin Luther King’s speech “I Have A Dream,” Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1st fireside chat “On The Banking Crisis” and John F. Kennedy’s Inauguration Speech “Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You…” During Martin Luther King’s famous speech, the central message was based around his dream of civil rights and non-violence. I found this speech inspiring because he was determined to achieve equality for all Americans and he spoke out even though he was a black man in a “white country.” The central message in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1st fireside chat was to calm the fears of America during the bank holiday in the 1930s. I found this speech inspiring because FDR talked to the people of America like they were his personal friends. He eased their fears and convinced them to go back to the banks when they opened. He addressed his listeners personally and I love the fact that he was able to do that when America was in need. The last speech that I found particularly inspiring was John F. Kennedy’s inaugural speech. In his speech he says, “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” This really touched me because Kennedy called on our nation to combat “tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.”
I believe I am very conscious of the image that I present of myself on social media such as Facebook and Twitter. I am well aware of the impact that a single post could have in my future. It could negatively impact potential future employment, the relationships I make, and many other situations that will occur in my future. I am extremely careful what I post because I do not want to jeopardize the good person that people know me to be. One slip up and the opinion that people have on me could be irreversibly changed.
Analyzing the Talking Points in the First Inaugural Address of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address
Primary Secondary Source Assignment
Franklin D. Roosevelt became President of the United States in 1933. Many issues were going on in the country. The Great Depression was in full swing, many banks were failing, and millions of people were out of work and searching for jobs. Others were working, but barely had enough to live. America was in a crisis. Many people were becoming discouraged about the government making economic decisions that would benefit our country. Roosevelt delivered his First Inaugural Address on March 4, 1933, in Washington D.C. He discussed a variety of topics and how he would hope to govern and lead our country.
He takes leadership immediately and is ready to take on the challenges it brings. In his speech, he says, “With this pledge taken, I assume unhesitatingly the leadership of this great army of our people dedicated to a disciplined attack upon our common problems.” (Roosevelt 1933). Roosevelt prepared the American people for an increase in government power. He stated, “I am prepared under my constitutional duty to recommend the measures that a stricken nation in the midst of a stricken world may require. These measures, or such other measures as the Congress may build out of its experience and wisdom, I shall seek, within my constitutional authority, to bring to speedy adoption” (Roosevelt 1933). FDR knew it was important for people to be employed. Roosevelt focused on jobs and getting people back to work. He suggests, “It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the Government itself, treating the task as we would treat the emergency of a war, but at the same time, through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our natural resources” (Roosevelt 1933). Because of the stock market crash, he also wanted to focus on the regulation of banks. Roosevelt also knew that all his plans were not possible if the American people did not support him. He stated, “In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days” (Roosevelt 1933).
The Heritage Foundation views this speech as one of the most powerful American political addresses. They do not think this because of his specific ideas or proposals, but rather because he demanded the United States “to bow with military discipline to his authority” and asked them for war time executive powers. (The Heritage Foundation, 2007). They think Roosevelt cunningly uses the economic crisis to turn our gaze away from just money. He focuses on that social values are more important than just money, and when we realize that, we will be successful. The Heritage Foundation also points out that he starts and ends his speech with biblical references. “They have asked for discipline and direction under leadership. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes. In the spirit of the gift I take it” (Roosevelt 1933). This references to Acts 2:38 (The Heritage Foundation, 2007). He asks as a servant for the people and, therefore, The Heritage Foundation thinks that this speech was so powerful and moving to the American people.
Nate Sullivan viewed FDR’s First Inaugural Address as “declaring war on the Great Depression.” (Sullivan 2004). Sullivan said his goal was to comfort and reassure the American people by beginning with a very optimistic tone. Sullivan also pointed out that Roosevelt wanted an active federal government. Roosevelt proposed that the government would have to take on the role of regulation. Sullivan stated that he addressed a “war on poverty” and that Roosevelt proposed “the federal government must take the lead in fixing the Great Depression” (Sullivan 2004).
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Actions Helped Overcome the Great Depression
During the Great Depression, the American people started to lose hope and President Hoover just waited for things to right themselves, believing that the government should avoid interference with the economy. The American people were in dire need of rescue to pull them out of the widespread debt and disparity that gripped the nation. From the beginning of President Roosevelt’s first term as President, he was productive. Not only did he and his Administration shepherd 15 major bills through Congress in his first 100 days as President, but he also passed around 25 pieces of landmark legislation that worked to aid the country during the Depression. Though World War Two was eventually the event that overtook the Depression, President Roosevelt and his Administration’s were able to successfully respond to the problems of the Great Depression with legislation to reform the economy, establish workers’ rights, and assist the unemployed. These responses were successful in addressing reform and relief while also expanding the scope of the government, but the responses were unsuccessful in addressing recovery.
In his first “Fireside Chat” Roosevelt addressed the recent banking crisis and how he would respond to it. The first issue of the program was to explain to the American people exactly what happened and why it happened. He proceeded to explain why he called a National Banking Holiday, and what he hopes to accomplish. Roosevelt responded to Black Tuesday and the successive crisis with the Emergency Banking Act which shut down all banks across the United States and only allowed them to reopen upon government inspection. After emphasizing that most of the banks would open in the next few days, Americans began to restore their trust in the banking system and the next day people making deposits far outnumbered those making withdrawals. The Emergency Banking Act was an impressive demonstration of how government power was expanding under Roosevelt, as the program allowed the government to ignore states’ and businesses’ rights to shut down the banks. Later on in his Presidency, Roosevelt proposed the Second New Deal because his radical critics were becoming more popular and because the first wave of New Deal measures did not end the Depression. One critic in particular sparked the proposal of the Social Security Act. Dr. Francis E. Townsend was a California physician who argued that the New Deal did not do enough for older Americans, and his movement contributed to the congressional approval of the Social Security Act. Document E is an advertisement for the Social Security Program which guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at the age of 65, and this act proved to be the most far-reaching New Deal program. Roosevelt and his administration worked diligently to get people enrolled in the Social Security Program, as the poster says “applications [were] being distributed at all workplaces.” Not only were they making the applications accessible, they offered other means of support like the ability to obtain “information […] at any post office.” However, the effectiveness of the program was only satisfactory because it failed to assist farmers and domestic workers, but it successfully implanted hope into America. The Social Security program was also revolutionary in changing the government’s role to one that took responsibility for citizen’s welfare.
Not only did Roosevelt help the retired, he also aimed to establish workers’ rights. One of his programs was the Wagner Labor Relations Act which recognized labor’s right to bargain collectively. It created the National Labor Relations Board to protect workers from unfair practices and to arbitrate labor-management disputes. Document G is an NBC radio broadcast by a supporter of the Wagner Act John L. Lewis who believed workers had the right to join a union. He identifies that workers want “reasonable conditions” but the employers refused to “deal with their employees through collective bargaining.” The broadcast demonstrates that poor working conditions still existed for many workers, strikes were coming, and that businesses were at fault for the recent issues concerning labor. The Wagner Act was FDR’s response to “widespread labor unrest” and addressed the concerns workers had over their rights as union members and their ability to collectively bargain. His act was effective as labor unrest dwindled, and it also increased the government’s power by establishing the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to enforce the terms of Wagner Act. This showed a changed role of government since it implied that social justice was now on the government agenda. Not everyone was as joyful towards Roosevelt’s response to the worker’s rights debates. In Document B, the fear of growing government power is evident and the idea that the current policies supported communism and socialism. Primarily, the author of the letter disagreed with the New Deal programs by saying they “continually promot[e] labor troubles, higher wages, shorter hours, and less profits for business.” Portions of America saw the New Deal not as a helpful cause but a sly attempt by the government to expand its power, and these people thought that the government should interfere less with the economy.
Another problem that the Roosevelt Administration had to face was unemployment. In his New Deal, Roosevelt established many programs to aid the unemployed. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) revitalized the local relief programs by giving them funding and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) provided millions of jobs to unemployed workers to maintain and restore the environment. The Civil Works Administration (CWA) gave jobs to many people to build or repair roads, buildings and other structures. While the CWA was effective in dealing with the unemployment rates and improving parts of the country, it also increased the national debt. From Document J it is evident that the unemployment was up to 40% in 1933 and at its lowest in 1944, and that his restoration programs contributed to the unemployment drop. The First New Deal (FERA, CWA, CCC) was very effective in that it dropped unemployment about 25%. However, once Roosevelt saw the low rates, he decided to cut back on funding for the New Deal programs which led to the “Roosevelt Recession” from 1937 to 1938 in which the unemployment rate slightly spiked. Looking from another perspective at Roosevelt’s policies, he was not equal in which Americans he supported. Document A shows it was likely that as many women suffered from poverty as men, but the women sought assistance less than men. It also shows that the concerns of unemployed and poor women were overlooked, as can be seen when Lesueur says “There are no flop houses for women as there are for men.” Document I also shows how the New Deal affected the different races. African Americans were included in the New Deal, and were more supportive of government, though some segregation still existed in programs. One example of this was that the CCC camps were available to all of the unemployed men meeting the criteria, but the camps were segregated. Document D portrays the cost of Roosevelt’s New Deal programs, saying “An enormous outpouring of federal money for human relief and immense sums for public-works projects started to flow to all points of the compass.” In order to employ the many Americans needing assistance, Roosevelt had to put enormous funds towards the public-works projects, adding “Six billion dollars … to the national debt.” Such programs expanded the government because the government was able to have a large bureaucracy, as Document D also says, the “bureaucracy in Washington grew by leaps and bounds.” Document D is evidence that Keynesian economic theories of deficit spending were reflected in New Deal programs, and that these programs were suggested to be unrealistic and impractical.
Although the policies of Roosevelt were successful in addressing reform and relief and also expanding the role of government, they failed to address recovery. World War II initiated a large increase in military spending which jumpstarted the economy, not the New Deal programs. 2 chief recovery programs, National Industrial Recovery Act (June 1933) (NIRA) and the Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA) were repealed because they were seen as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, and in Document D, Garrison says that some New Deal programs “retarded the recovery of industrial activity.” This was true in the case of the NIRA, as it promoted a cycle of overproduction and underproduction and set many complicated codes. Document F shows that the government’s powers have been expanded too much, and that the Supreme Court ended up ruling against NIRA during its legal troubles because it attempted to expand government powers too much, saying it was unconstitutional and that “The authority of the federal government may not be pushed to such an extreme.” The NIRA crossed the line for many of the justices on the Supreme Court. The AAA was also one of the programs that “retarded the recovery of industrial activity” because it attempted to increase farm prices by paying farmers not to overproduce, thus keeping the prices stable. AAA was also deemed unconstitutional because it expanded the power of government too much. Under the AAA, the agriculture sector was viewed as a “creeping socialism”, as the government regulated what to produce and how much of it, a power the Supreme Court denied the government. Document B also reflects fears of creeping socialism, “that the Administration at Washington is accelerating it’s [sic] pace towards socialism.” Under FDR, Congress was made rubber stamp and FDR’s policies went through undisputed. Therefore, many of FDR’s “socialist” policies ended up becoming implemented. The judiciary branch reacted and shut down both the NIRA and the AAA because they not only proved impractical, but also tried to greatly expand the role of the government.
Roosevelt’s responses to the problems of the Great Depression often attempted to expand the scope of government. Document C shows how FDR gradually attempted to magnify the expanse of government. It shows that the New Deal was a natural progression, and that academics were a leading role in the New Deal like the “brains trust.” Under his policies, the power of government grew and expanded, as seen by the branching in the cartoon. Also, the quote “It is evolution, not revolution, gentlemen!” shows that FDR sneakily attempted to increase the scope of government in such a gradual way that it would be seen as “evolution” rather than radical “revolution.” Document H describes the policies of Roosevelt as the “efficient organization of the whole executive department,” meaning that America improved with the New Deal programs, and that the government had improved under Roosevelt.
Although WWII ultimately recovered America from its depression, it was FDR’s response with the New Deal programs that stopped America’s economic downfall, relieved hundreds of Americans, reformed many policies, and consequently expanded government power.
Speech Techniques in Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation”
On the seventh of December, 1941, the lives of many people drastically changed. In that particular afternoon, all American radio broadcasts were interrupted with important news. Pearl Harbor had been attacked by an unforeseen Japanese air raid. The results of the attack were devastating with over 2,000 people killed and over 20 military ships destroyed. The following day, December 8th, 1941, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the president at the time, gave an address to the distressed nation regarding the attack. His speech consisted of an explanation of what had taken place at Pearl Harbor, evidence that the attack was in fact predetermined, and a request for the United States of America to wage war against Japan. In his speech entitled the “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation” – also known as the “Infamy” speech – Franklin D. Roosevelt persuaded the government and the people through the appeals of pathos and ethos to declare war against Japan.
Throughout the speech, Roosevelt utilizes two rhetorical modes of ethos and pathos in order to further complete his argument as a whole. Looking at the speech in a larger context, it is evident how Roosevelt uses these appeals when writing his speech to the intended audience. Since he is speaking mainly to the citizens of the United States of America, one of the main appeals Roosevelt uses is Pathos which is the appeal or evocation of emotion. For example, Roosevelt mentions in his speech that “the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace”. By stating that the United States, which implies the nation as a whole, was deceived by Japan into thinking that the Japanese had similar goals of peace in mind, Roosevelt awakens the feeling of betrayal by Japan in the hearts of the American citizens.
Roosevelt also backs up his argument with the use of ethos, the appeal to ethics or morals. Towards the ending of his speech, Roosevelt asserted that, in regards to Japan, “the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory”. In this phrase, Roosevelt incorporates religion into the argument which further inspires the audience, and assures them that it is morally right to wage war against Japan.
The use of ethos and pathos greatly impacted Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation.” At the time that the speech was given, the USA had been recuperating from the First World War. Since the United States of America was trying to uphold a stance of neutrality in the Second World War, it was hesitant to engage in any warfare. Because of this, Franklin D. Roosevelt formulated his speech in such a way, with particular appeal, to not only reveal the evil of Japan’s deeds but also to persuade the nation to declare war. The USA was at its tipping point, and after the shocking news broke out that Pearl Harbor had been attacked, the United States of America finally entered the Second World War.
Strengths and Weaknesses in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1942 “State of the Union” Address
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1942 “State of the Union” address is known as a rhetorical and stylistic masterpiece which purpose was to declare war on Japan and to gain support from the citizens. Some events that shaped this address was because of the attack on Pearl Harbor when “the surprise attack by 350 Japanese aircraft sunk, badly damaged eighteen US naval vessels, including eight battleships, destroyed or damaged 300 US aircraft, and killed 2,403 men”. The president spoke on January 6th in front of Congress with one of his famous and memorable speeches. I believe that Franklin Roosevelt had strong contextual aspects in his address such as using patriotism and appealing to the audience’s emotions, but there were some weaknesses that were shown also. He came off as a very powerful speaker, but obviously there is no such thing as a perfect speech.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt used many emotional and vivid terms that expressed his vision clearly which was one of his strengths throughout this speech. When he first began his address, he reassured everyone that patriotism is what brings the country together. According to the address, President Roosevelt stated, “It is my duty to report upon the State of the Union, I am proud to say to you that the spirit of the American people was never higher than it is today – the Union was never more closely knit together – this country was never more deeply determined to face the solemn tasks before it.” He believed nothing was greater than having vigorous support for the U.S. and that we were who we were because of national pride. Not only that but, he used emotion appeal to catch the audience’s attention. He used empathy in the first section of the speech, “We have most certainly suffered losses — from Hitler’s U-boats in the Atlantic as well as from the Japanese in the Pacific- and we shall suffer more of them before the turn of the tide”. As you can see, Roosevelt brought back some incidents in the past which the listeners recalled and imagined again. After that, he mentioned patriotism and the love of this country again, “But, speaking for the United States of America, let me say once and for all to the people of the world: We Americans have been compelled to yield ground, but we will regain it. We and the other United Nations are committed to the destruction of the militarism of Japan and Germany. We are daily increasing our strength. Soon, we and not our enemies will have the offensive; we, not they, will win the final battles; and we, not they, will make the final peace” (Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley). He resulted in uplifting the mood and bringing back the audience from that gloomy state of mind. Roosevelt appealed to their emotions and imagination which helps the audience identify the message vividly. Another emotional appeal would be serious because he quoted, “We must all understand and face the hard fact that our job now is to fight at distances which extend all the way around the globe.” This shows the audience that it is a significant matter to work together as one. Roosevelt used plenty of emotional appeal to help the audience visualize all that is said. According to Robert A. Dallek an American historian, “Roosevelt, the impression he was tired or bored. FDR’s strengths – his ability to compromise, his regulatory program and awareness of the environment, his diplomacy and care for social well-being”. I believe that the patriotism and appealing to the audiences emotions helped his speech come across smoothly and showed the audience how much Roosevelt wants unity.
President Roosevelt also had imperfections when delivering his address. One of the weaknesses throughout his speech was generalizing the public as a whole. Roosevelt spoke on how the public was feeling but did not think about everyone as individuals. Other people react in their own way and have their own personal opinions, which he did not mention at all. For example, Roosevelt spoke, “I know that I speak for the mass of the American people when I say that we reject the turtle policy and will continue increasingly the policy of carrying the war to the enemy in distant lands and distant waters–as far away as possible from our own home grounds.” Here, he is speaking for the thousands of citizens who have their own opinion and views, but he pre assumed what they would want to happen.
Another weak aspect from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s did not use anything to refer back to support his statements. As stated in the speech, “In spite of the length, and in spite of the difficulties of this transportation, I can tell you that in two and a half months we already have a large number of bombers and pursuit planes, manned by American pilots and crews, which are now in daily contact with the enemy in the Southwest Pacific. And thousands of American troops are today in that area engaged in operations not only in the air but on the ground as well.” Basically, Roosevelt would report all of that but how does the audience believe whether he’s making it up or if this is a fact. Well, a way he could have improved to assure the audience with this statement is to use numbers and stats to back up everything he stated. According to Jeffrey Tucker, a former Director of Content for the Foundation for Economic Education, “The president has no access to the information he would need in order to know what he claims to know”.