Franklin Roosevelt

137

Roosevelt and His Program: Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Can you imagine what it’s like to live in a cardboard home, starve, and raise a family in poverty? Unfortunately, most Americans in the 1930s went through this on a day-to-day basis. In 1929 the stock market crashed and changed things forever. The Tennessee Valley Authority is a federally owned corporation in the United States created on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, as well as fertilizer manufacturing.

The New deal affected the U.S environmentally and socially. The Tennessee Valley Authority otherwise called the TVA is one of the largest public power companies in the United States. The TVA was one of Roosevelt’s many programs involved with the new deal. The TVA was used to provide jobs as well as electricity to those who were in need. Since the great depression hit Tennessee very hard, the TVA was founded to help Tennessee after the great depression. The TVA is still in use to this day, it is used to manage one of the largest river systems in the US.

May 18, 1933, the Tennessee valley flooded. Part of Roosevelt’s new deal was a program called the TVA. I believe that the Tennessee valley flooding was a huge Environmental impact as well as a Societal impact. I think that it was an environmental impact because The TVA helped clean up the environment after the floods, they gave people jobs as well as electricity to homes and businesses, they also replanted the forest. All of these reasons show how this was an environmental impact. I am strongly convinced that the TVA had a long-lasting impact on the society in the Tennessee Valley area as well as other areas nearby. The TVA aimed to help reduce the problems they were having in ways like teaching better farming methods, replanting trees, and building dams. Overall the TVA was very successful in what they wanted to accomplish. They had an impact on society by giving them what they needed and helping them constantly.

The New deal affected the U.S environmentally and socially. The TVA impacted the environment a lot and still is in use today. TVA created many jobs for people in need. Taught people better farming methods and conserved water power etc. The TVA was overall sometimes flawed and hated by many people in which the program aimed to help, the organization helped to bring modern goods to the region that had been devastated by the economic crisis of the Great Depression. In the end, The TVA encountered many setbacks and failures and was involved in many controversies, but it brought electricity to thousands of people at an affordable price. Overall the TVA was mostly successful in what they wanted to accomplish and how they accomplished it.

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129

Fdr’s Four Freedoms Speech, an Oratorical Masterpiece Which Reshaped the Future of the Whole World

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Shortly after Franklin D. Roosevelt helped pull our country out of the Great Depression with his “New Deal,” he was re-elected for his third term, becoming the only president to serve more than two terms. This was before, and also the reason why, term limits were introduced. He was re-elected into office in 1940, and gave his speech “The Four Freedoms” on January 9, 1941 to Congress. The speech would be broadcasted across the country on radio for the American people to hear. In his speech, FDR says urgently to the American people that action must be taken to help out France and Britain in the War with Nazi Germany. Roosevelt gracefully implicates a number of rhetorical devices in order to persuade the American population that in order to keep our own freedoms and democracy safe, we must in turn help ally countries keep their values safe as well.

After signing a peace treaty and paying huge repercussions from the damage they caused in what was known at the time “The Great War,” (soon to be known as World War I) Germany needed to bounce back, and Adolf Hitler promised just. After gaining the German peoples’ trust, Hitler had taken over much of Europe and was looking to expand even farther. Great Britain was struggling to hold on to their borders with France as their ally, and it seemed like soon all of Europe would belong to Nazi Germany. It was clear that they needed more help to stop Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party, but the American people were heavily against war at the time because of our previous involvement in “The Great War.” This made it extremely difficult for our government and military to lend a hand to European countries who were in great risk of losing their freedoms to a dictator. Franklin D. Roosevelt had just become the first person to hold a third term in office, winning his re-election by a landslide, and it was obvious that America trusted him as a leader. This meant is was up to FDR and his “Four Freedoms” speech to talk the American people into helping our European neighbors stop the rise of Nazi Germany. A year after his re-election, Roosevelt would stand in front of congress and be broadcasted across the nation, to everyone’s radios at home, reinvigorating the American peoples’ gratitude for their freedoms with his skillful rhetoric.

FDR is a master of rhetoric in many ways, and is often thought to be our most persuasive president. He seems to be able to use rhetorical devices with great ease, and is a master of getting the people energetic and passionate about just about anything. He does so through many rhetorical devices, one of those being logos. Logos, meaning logic, is the rhetorical device of using logic and reasoning in order to convince or persuade an audience. For example, when FDR is trying to convince the American people that we should get involved in World War II he states, “Even when the World War broke out in 1914, it seemed to contain only small threat of danger to our own American future. But as time went on, as we remember, the American people began to visualize what the downfall of democratic nations might mean to our own democracy” (Roosevelt 2). Here, Roosevelt is giving the people a cause and effect scenario in order to persuade them to act. He is saying that many of the wars in the past didn’t have much of an effect on us directly, but if we just continue to sit back and watch other democratic countries fall, we could very well be next. This is a great use of logos, and he delivered it wonderfully, showing many Americans why it was our patriotic duty to get involved in the war. Another great method Roosevelt uses of delivering logos is using statistics to help back up what you are saying or make it more believable. “In the recent national election there was no substantial difference between the two great parties in respect to that national policy. No issue was fought out on this line before the American electorate” (Roosevelt 4). What Roosevelt is saying is that no matter the differences of political party in the election, everybody was pretty much on the same page about our national security, that we had to help outside of our borders. In saying this, he is showing the audience that his views and ideas on national policy are not coming from a bias of political party, furthering the American peoples’ belief in him.

A long with logos, Roosevelt relies heavily on the rhetorical device pathos. Pathos, meaning emotions, is the method of using your audiences’ emotions as a tool to persuade them. In this speech, the emotion that he taps in to mostly in this speech is fear. More specifically, the fear of what’s to come. The fear of the fall of our country’s democracy and the stripping of our rights and freedoms. In connection with that fear, he digs up our gratitude for said freedom. “The American people have unalterably set their faces against that tyranny” (Roosevelt 2). FDR says this in order to remind the American people of their strong and passionate opposition against foreign powers trying to establish dominance in the world and strip countries of their democracy. “I find it unhappily necessary to report that the future and safety of our country and of our democracy are overwhelmingly involved in events far beyond our borders” (Roosevelt 2). In saying this, FDR is trying to inform the American people of the dangers that await, but also is allowing himself to be vulnerable by sharing his feelings of discernment with what is going in. He is hoping to let the audience connect with him, and understand that he is just as worried about what is happening as any average person. I definitely find pathos to be Roosevelt’s most effective rhetorical device. He is extremely adept at putting emotions into words in ways that make the audience connect with him almost as if they can relate to him.

Ethos, meaning credibility, is a rhetorical device used to persuade the audience of the speaker’s credibility or character. Roosevelt is very effective in using ethos, although he doesn’t tend to rely on it as much as the other rhetorical devices. He uses ethos in this speech to establish a sort of self-confidence with the audience, making everything he says sound more credible. As if they automatically believe his words simply because of how sure of himself he sounds. The more he believes in himself, the easier it is for him to persuade. “These are the simple, the basic things that must never be lost sight of in the turmoil and unbelievable complexity of our modern world” (Roosevelt 7). When FDR says this, he is talking about the basic necessities that Americans expect of their political and economic system. He is very confident in his words to make sure that he delivers his message clearly. That no matter how high of a danger we are facing with our foreign affairs, maintaining jobs and a standard of living among other things for our population is still of very high importance. Without ethos, he may not have been as successful at convincing the people of what America’s priorities should be. By saying what he said boldly and without doubting himself or the truthfulness of his words, he was able to make the American people confidently put their faith in him as their leader.

11 months after Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered his “Four Freedoms” speech Pearl Harbor was surprise attacked by the Japanese, and America declared war on Japan. During those 11 months, however, his message resonated in the ears of the American people. Roosevelt’s speech succeeded in helping get our country out of the isolationist mentality we were in for so long. The people felt very strongly that we had no business getting into affairs outside of our own borders, but FDR easily convinced them that it was in our best interest to get out there and support our allies. Pearl Harbor, being the tragic day it was, was the beginning of our involvement in the War that most of the world was already fighting for a few years now. Europe was starting to lose sight of victory, belonging mostly to Nazi Germany, and at any moment they could be coming to our borders, trying to take away our freedom. He reminded the American people of how grateful they were for their freedoms, and of their fear of having those freedoms taken away. This greatly helped sway the peoples’ support in favor of involvement in the war, even if it just meant sending weapons and ammunition to countries that needed our support. Americans would not just stand back and watch as the world fell victim to a Nazi dictator. We had to do something. Once again, Franklin Roosevelt proved himself to be one of the most persuasive leaders this country has been led by.

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143

Great Leaders Use Rhetoric to Instil Hope as Seen in the King’s Speech

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

During the film, The King’s Speech, Lionel Logue plays five different roles. Logue is a father (plays with his children in his office), husband (talks with his wife by the radio), therapist (sits with Bertie every day to help him overcome his stammer), family member (becomes close enough with Bertie that he is demanded to sit in the King’s box during Bertie’s coronation), and friend (has been with Bertie through every obstacle). Logue demonstrates rhetorical sensitivity throughout every role that he takes during the movie. Logue shows role flexibility when he is playing with his children in his office and is surprised when Bertie comes in unannounced. Logue has to change his role from father to therapist in an instant. Logue also demonstrates role sensitivity when he transitions from being Bertie’s therapist to becoming his friend and part of his family. Logue demonstrates “stating” what needs to be said during his role as Bertie’s therapist when he tells him exactly what needs to be done to fix his stammer despite the fact that Bertie doesn’t want to hear a single word he is saying. This is also demonstrated when Logue insists on using first names.

There are two instances when someone communicates to King George VI (Bertie) in a “non-rhetorically sensitive way.” The first instance was when Bertie’s father was telling George that he needed to get over his stammer. If Bertie’s father were rhetorically sensitive, he would be encouraging and tell him what needed to be done in order for him to overcome his speech impairment. Instead, he told him he was wrong and continually tore him down. Another instance is shown when Logue speaks out of turn to Bertie while they are going for a walk in the park. Logue tells Bertie that he could be King despite the fact that his brother currently holds the thrown. This is considered treason and it infuriates Bertie. Both these instances demonstrate people communicating to Bertie in a non-rhetorically sensitive way.

There are three reasons that I believe King George VI held for not allowing others to help him. They are his pride, his lack of faith in him self, and his lack of success in the past. I believe Bertie values his pride because he is a King and he believes he should not have to get help for his speech impairment. Bertie is supposed to be this all-powerful masculine role model to his country and it kills him that he can’t even give a speech to his people. Bertie also lacks faith in him self. This is mostly due to the fact that he grew up being belittled by his father, nanny, and other people in his life. Also, Bertie believes that it cannot be fixed, so why should he even let someone help him try to fix it? Another factor that adds to Bertie not letting people help him is the fact that he has had so little success in the past. He has seen countless doctors and gone through hundreds of treatments and therapies and none of them have worked. Any person would want to give up after so much failure. These are the reasons I believe King George held for not allowing other to help him.

The most interesting insight I took from Bitzer’s article was the concept that “In the best if all possible worlds, there would be communication perhaps, but no rhetoric – since exigencies would not arise,” (Bitzer IV). It is fascinating to think that the world invites change and scientific inquiry. I enjoyed learning that “rhetoric is distinguished from the mere craft of persuasion which, although it is a legitimate object of scientific investigation. Lacks philosophical warrant as a practical discipline,” (Bitzer IV).

Three speeches that I have found powerful/motivational are Martin Luther King’s speech “I Have A Dream,” Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1st fireside chat “On The Banking Crisis” and John F. Kennedy’s Inauguration Speech “Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You…” During Martin Luther King’s famous speech, the central message was based around his dream of civil rights and non-violence. I found this speech inspiring because he was determined to achieve equality for all Americans and he spoke out even though he was a black man in a “white country.” The central message in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1st fireside chat was to calm the fears of America during the bank holiday in the 1930s. I found this speech inspiring because FDR talked to the people of America like they were his personal friends. He eased their fears and convinced them to go back to the banks when they opened. He addressed his listeners personally and I love the fact that he was able to do that when America was in need. The last speech that I found particularly inspiring was John F. Kennedy’s inaugural speech. In his speech he says, “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” This really touched me because Kennedy called on our nation to combat “tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.”

I believe I am very conscious of the image that I present of myself on social media such as Facebook and Twitter. I am well aware of the impact that a single post could have in my future. It could negatively impact potential future employment, the relationships I make, and many other situations that will occur in my future. I am extremely careful what I post because I do not want to jeopardize the good person that people know me to be. One slip up and the opinion that people have on me could be irreversibly changed.

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184

Speech Techniques in Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation”

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

On the seventh of December, 1941, the lives of many people drastically changed. In that particular afternoon, all American radio broadcasts were interrupted with important news. Pearl Harbor had been attacked by an unforeseen Japanese air raid. The results of the attack were devastating with over 2,000 people killed and over 20 military ships destroyed. The following day, December 8th, 1941, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the president at the time, gave an address to the distressed nation regarding the attack. His speech consisted of an explanation of what had taken place at Pearl Harbor, evidence that the attack was in fact predetermined, and a request for the United States of America to wage war against Japan. In his speech entitled the “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation” – also known as the “Infamy” speech – Franklin D. Roosevelt persuaded the government and the people through the appeals of pathos and ethos to declare war against Japan.

Throughout the speech, Roosevelt utilizes two rhetorical modes of ethos and pathos in order to further complete his argument as a whole. Looking at the speech in a larger context, it is evident how Roosevelt uses these appeals when writing his speech to the intended audience. Since he is speaking mainly to the citizens of the United States of America, one of the main appeals Roosevelt uses is Pathos which is the appeal or evocation of emotion. For example, Roosevelt mentions in his speech that “the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace”. By stating that the United States, which implies the nation as a whole, was deceived by Japan into thinking that the Japanese had similar goals of peace in mind, Roosevelt awakens the feeling of betrayal by Japan in the hearts of the American citizens.

Roosevelt also backs up his argument with the use of ethos, the appeal to ethics or morals. Towards the ending of his speech, Roosevelt asserted that, in regards to Japan, “the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory”. In this phrase, Roosevelt incorporates religion into the argument which further inspires the audience, and assures them that it is morally right to wage war against Japan.

The use of ethos and pathos greatly impacted Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation.” At the time that the speech was given, the USA had been recuperating from the First World War. Since the United States of America was trying to uphold a stance of neutrality in the Second World War, it was hesitant to engage in any warfare. Because of this, Franklin D. Roosevelt formulated his speech in such a way, with particular appeal, to not only reveal the evil of Japan’s deeds but also to persuade the nation to declare war. The USA was at its tipping point, and after the shocking news broke out that Pearl Harbor had been attacked, the United States of America finally entered the Second World War.

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283

Strengths and Weaknesses in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1942 “State of the Union” Address

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1942 “State of the Union” address is known as a rhetorical and stylistic masterpiece which purpose was to declare war on Japan and to gain support from the citizens. Some events that shaped this address was because of the attack on Pearl Harbor when “the surprise attack by 350 Japanese aircraft sunk, badly damaged eighteen US naval vessels, including eight battleships, destroyed or damaged 300 US aircraft, and killed 2,403 men”. The president spoke on January 6th in front of Congress with one of his famous and memorable speeches. I believe that Franklin Roosevelt had strong contextual aspects in his address such as using patriotism and appealing to the audience’s emotions, but there were some weaknesses that were shown also. He came off as a very powerful speaker, but obviously there is no such thing as a perfect speech.

Patriotism/Emotional Appeal

Franklin Delano Roosevelt used many emotional and vivid terms that expressed his vision clearly which was one of his strengths throughout this speech. When he first began his address, he reassured everyone that patriotism is what brings the country together. According to the address, President Roosevelt stated, “It is my duty to report upon the State of the Union, I am proud to say to you that the spirit of the American people was never higher than it is today – the Union was never more closely knit together – this country was never more deeply determined to face the solemn tasks before it.” He believed nothing was greater than having vigorous support for the U.S. and that we were who we were because of national pride. Not only that but, he used emotion appeal to catch the audience’s attention. He used empathy in the first section of the speech, “We have most certainly suffered losses — from Hitler’s U-boats in the Atlantic as well as from the Japanese in the Pacific- and we shall suffer more of them before the turn of the tide”. As you can see, Roosevelt brought back some incidents in the past which the listeners recalled and imagined again. After that, he mentioned patriotism and the love of this country again, “But, speaking for the United States of America, let me say once and for all to the people of the world: We Americans have been compelled to yield ground, but we will regain it. We and the other United Nations are committed to the destruction of the militarism of Japan and Germany. We are daily increasing our strength. Soon, we and not our enemies will have the offensive; we, not they, will win the final battles; and we, not they, will make the final peace” (Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley). He resulted in uplifting the mood and bringing back the audience from that gloomy state of mind. Roosevelt appealed to their emotions and imagination which helps the audience identify the message vividly. Another emotional appeal would be serious because he quoted, “We must all understand and face the hard fact that our job now is to fight at distances which extend all the way around the globe.” This shows the audience that it is a significant matter to work together as one. Roosevelt used plenty of emotional appeal to help the audience visualize all that is said. According to Robert A. Dallek an American historian, “Roosevelt, the impression he was tired or bored. FDR’s strengths – his ability to compromise, his regulatory program and awareness of the environment, his diplomacy and care for social well-being”. I believe that the patriotism and appealing to the audiences emotions helped his speech come across smoothly and showed the audience how much Roosevelt wants unity.

False generalization

President Roosevelt also had imperfections when delivering his address. One of the weaknesses throughout his speech was generalizing the public as a whole. Roosevelt spoke on how the public was feeling but did not think about everyone as individuals. Other people react in their own way and have their own personal opinions, which he did not mention at all. For example, Roosevelt spoke, “I know that I speak for the mass of the American people when I say that we reject the turtle policy and will continue increasingly the policy of carrying the war to the enemy in distant lands and distant waters–as far away as possible from our own home grounds.” Here, he is speaking for the thousands of citizens who have their own opinion and views, but he pre assumed what they would want to happen.

No credibility

Another weak aspect from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s did not use anything to refer back to support his statements. As stated in the speech, “In spite of the length, and in spite of the difficulties of this transportation, I can tell you that in two and a half months we already have a large number of bombers and pursuit planes, manned by American pilots and crews, which are now in daily contact with the enemy in the Southwest Pacific. And thousands of American troops are today in that area engaged in operations not only in the air but on the ground as well.” Basically, Roosevelt would report all of that but how does the audience believe whether he’s making it up or if this is a fact. Well, a way he could have improved to assure the audience with this statement is to use numbers and stats to back up everything he stated. According to Jeffrey Tucker, a former Director of Content for the Foundation for Economic Education, “The president has no access to the information he would need in order to know what he claims to know”.

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140

The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States of America. He ascended to power in 1933 and ruled for three terms up to 1945. Roosevelt succeeded the Republican Herbert Hoover in the November 1932 elections and was re-elected two more times as president of the United States (Polenberg 52).

He was the party leader of the Democratic Party and during his tenure as the president of the United States; he influenced a number of policies that laid the foundation for the American liberalism in the 20th century. When he took office, America was undergoing a tough economic meltdown and the entire world was affected.

President Roosevelt made a number of promises before taking office and most of his credits as a good leader are pegged on his ability to keep his word. During his first hundred days in office, Roosevelt had already created the National Recovery Administration,

The Agricultural Adjustment Administration the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Civilian Conservation Corps (Polenberg 39). By September, he had a revolving pension plan functioning to cater for the aging population. Most importantly, Roosevelt ascended into law the spending meant to combat the ‘Roosevelt recession’ (Polenberg 39).

His fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt whom he admired, influenced his political ambitions (Polenberg 39). Nonetheless, he was a good leader and his policies are one of the most evidences that prove is worth. Although his presidency suffered a number of challenges, Roosevelt proposed and supported policies that led the nation to recovery.

In his first hundred days in office for instance, almost every bank was closing up and almost 13 million people were unemployed. His proposal and enactment of the Tennessee valley authority helped the nation to recover the economic depression as well as bringing relief to the unemployed (Polenberg 40).

Although the nation was gradually recovering out of the looming economic depression, some businesspersons and bankers were casting aspersions on the sustainability of Roosevelt’s programs. However, Roosevelt responded by formulating new programs including the social security program.

Taxation was part of Roosevelt’s plan to restructure economic stability in the United States. He placed heavier taxes on the wealthy and introduced controls and regulations in the banking industry as well as in the public utilities (Polenberg 39). In addition, he also introduced a work relief program that was meant to benefit and cater for the unemployed.

In his second re-election, Roosevelt sought to enlarge the Supreme Court but his proposal was defeated (Polenberg 53). He wanted to gain the authority so that the government would legally be mandated to regulate the economy (Polenberg 48). To keep the economy at a recovering speed, Roosevelt worked very hard to maintain neutrality during the war in Europe.

He was instrumental in the planning of a united nation, which was meant to resolve international conflicts. Roosevelt valued peaceful interactions between countries looking at it as the best way to build a better economy.

The decision of President Roosevelt to imprison 100,000 Japanese American civilians led a 2% drop in unemployment (Polenberg 39). This also led to the drop of relief programs causing the industrial economy to rise at a very high rate. Other opportunities arose because of the war centers as a number of Americans joined the military (Polenberg 52).

A record 16 million men and 300, 000 women were engaged in the military as either militants or volunteer. Roosevelt is considered one of the most highly rated presidents in the history of America.

Roosevelt economic plans were very successful in helping the United States of America to recover the economic disaster that had befallen it. On the onset of his first term, he went into office oblivious of the challenges ahead and as the records have shown, he seemed to have been quite prepared for the task. Herbert Hoover was accused of poor leadership and blamed for the economic failure.

By the end of his term, the American people were eager for a new type of leadership and government that would work for them. Roosevelt understood the needs of the people and was fully prepared to fix the problems caused by his predecessor.

This paper has discussed some of the measures taken by the 32nd president of the united states, who is also one of the most celebrate president of all times, to fix the economy. The easy has discussed widely the events that led to his success in helping the United States to recover from the worst economic meltdown in the history of America.

As discussed in the essay, Roosevelt was very practical in dealing with the economy that he championed very unpopular programs that helped to bring the economy back in shape. Although he ascended to power at the depth of the greatest economic downfall, he left office with a good record of having revived the economy to better heights than he found it. This gave him the unique opportunity to rule as president for three consecutive terms an event that has never happened before and ever since.

Works Cited

Polenberg, Richard. The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945: A Brief History with Documents (Bedford Series in History & Culture), New York, NY: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000. Print.

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265

Four Freedoms by President Roosevelt Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The study of our history marks the first step in understanding our earlier period which usually helps us to have a perceptive of the happenings and events that have taken place over years which can also facilitate improving the future. In this research paper we shall review the four freedoms which were articulated by President Roosevelt in the year 1941 (Crowley, 2010)[1].

Throughout the discussion we shall elaborate the four freedoms in a broader way for better understating; we shall also describe the several measures that were put in place in order to ensure the four freedoms are fully achieved for the better of US administration and for the wellbeing of the entire population as well.

Discussion

The four freedoms reflect the goals and objectives of the American state. The four freedoms were spoken by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on 6th January the year 1941 (Crowley, 2010)[2]. During a gathering of the State of the Union Address, when President Franklin Roosevelt was giving his speech he mentioned the four freedoms which he argued are basic for the humanity and all the population in the world ought to enjoy them across the planet.

At this particular time the congress had made a gathering to discuss the necessary measures of protecting the state of America which they argued had been facing the worst security threat of all times. In the speech, Roosevelt started by declaring that there is a greater need to tighten the means of security for America because of protecting its citizens in the future days to come.

In fact, he said that “in the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms” (Crowley, 2010)[3] which according to the US administration is the only ultimate solution for a better secured future. The four chief freedoms are; freedom of speech and expression, freedom to worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear (Wwnorton.com, 2011)[4].

The first freedom of speech and expression advocates that, all human-beings should be able to expresses themselves through speech freely anywhere in the world without any restrictions, while the second freedom represents the freedom to worship; it advocates that any individual should be at liberty to worship based ones believe any where in the world regardless of nationality (Wwnorton.com, 2011)[5] .

The third freedom from want is a freedom policy seeking humanity liberation which if when translated into earthly terms it refers to the world-wide or global economic unity which when put in place can be able to secure economical stability, peaceful life and health life among others necessities for the entire humanity in the world (Wwnorton.com, 2011)[6].

Lastly, the fourth freedom policy is the freedom from fear which also when described in worldly terms it calls for global reduction of weapons such as missiles, military force, and nuclear arms among other deadly armaments of mass destruction to such a point that, no nation or state can be in any position of committing national threat or actual physical damage to their neighbors around the planet (Wwnorton.com, 2011)[7].

As elaborated the four freedoms are policies to promote national unity, international peace and enable human development for a better society. As such, the four freedoms were accepted and welcomed unanimously by the congress based on the fact that they would improve the lives of the citizens and make progressive changes to the administrative system. Most importantly, the four freedoms can be argued as the basic liberty policies which when implemented will enhance the world wide security since they oversee harmony.

Based on the fact that the four freedoms were seen as a positive quantifier in the attempt to integrate safety measures in the planet, the US administration took this as a challenge in a way of fulfilling its promise to the humanity and as a mark of loyalty to the peace mission by keeping Franklin Roosevelt’s dream alive and honoring it (Eggers, 2010)[8].

Up to date the four freedoms have been honored for social change. The following discussion will broadly elaborate the numerous means and ways which Roosevelt’s dream was honored during those days and how it has continually been kept alive up to date both at the international and domestic levels.

Immediately after implementation of the four freedom speech in the 1941, America was now under a new order. To honor the four freedoms, President Roosevelt influenced the introduction of the United Nations Honor Flag which marks the first step to honoring the freedom speech by Roosevelt in his execution of the duty to the citizens. As such, the “The Four Freedoms Flag” (Eggers, 2010)[9] was adopted in the year 1948 and was declared to be a universal mark to symbolize all allies of the Second World War and their commitment to the goals of the Four Freedoms.

In honoring this progress, the flag was designed and accorded the name United Nations Flag which was unanimously accepted world wide as a way to promote unity and peace (Crowley, 2010)[10]. Additionally, with the implementation of the Flag of The United Nations, all the associates’ nations made an agreement in which they also signed a treaty as a sign of commitment to the Four Freedom goals (Raskin and Spero, 2007)[11].

Furthermore, to indicate the level of commitment to the goals and meeting the objectives of the Four Freedoms, the US administrations and other associates nations made a universal crusade across the globe to advocate for the freedom policy. One such way is through keeping the recordings of President Roosevelt speech which have been preserved up to date (Crowley, 2010)[12].

The recordings were also distributed for communication through the various forms of mass media such as the print media, the TV and even through the internet to ensure that every individual could at least have an access to the message of freedom.

Apart from this, the Four Freedoms were also widely communicated through work of art by several individuals in an attempt to ensure effective communication of the message to promote the concept of liberty; a factual example of the case is the paintings of the freedom of speech, freedom from fear, and freedom of worship by one renowned artist known as Norman Rockwell among others who carried the art as a campaign strategy and as a way of thanks giving to the liberty policies (Bhikkhu, 2002)[13].

Today, the magnificent paintings are available in the library, museums, and national archives and even in the mass media to facilitate universal access.

The foundation of the modern America was formed from the comprehensive struggle and determination to honor the freedom from fear which the civilians and US federal army schemed a strategy although it was painful considering what the commanders and the state men went through in order to conquer the fear of the ordinary Americans and achieve the numerous victories (Bhikkhu, 2002)[14].

Today, the US is enjoying the same freedom which can be attributed to Roosevelt’s motivational speech and the war victories America has achieved over years.

On the other hand, the Americans have always honored the liberty policies by keeping every freedom alive. For instance, the freedom of speech and freedom to worship is one notion that has been endorsed over time. In America people are at liberty to worship according to ones believes.

In fact, the modern America has a variety of religions raging from Christians, pagans Buddhist, and even American Muslims among others. Alternatively, the freedom of speech and expression is one among the other freedoms that has been honored and is very crucial in US up to date (Raskin and Spero, 2007)[15].

Conclusion

Generally, the speech by President Franklin Roosevelt marks the first step towards global realization regarding humanity and rights. To the US, the speech was a mark of tribute to the many struggles by fearless individuals who seek independency.

Today, America has continually honored the goals of the four freedoms by the fact that US administration stands in the front line to integrate peace; as such American government has always campaigned for the world wide peace by ensuring that mass weapons and other deadly armaments are not among the technological changes in the planet. The recent sanctions against Iran and Korea mark the signal that US is still committed to the four freedoms for a better society.

References

Bhikkhu, T. (2002). Freedom From Fear. Web.

Crowley, J. (2010). Four freedoms: A Novel. New York: HarperCollins.

Raskin, M & Spero, R. (2007). The Four Freedoms under Siege. California: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Wwnorton.com (2011). The four freedoms. Web.

Eggers, D. (2010). Zeuton. New York: Vintage books Press.

Footnotes

  1. Crowley, J. (2010). Four freedoms: A Novel. New York: HarperCollins.
  2. Ibid., p. 37.
  3. Crowley, op. cit., p. 62.
  4. Wwnorton.com (2011). The four freedoms.
  5. ibid
  6. ibid
  7. Op.cit
  8. Eggers, D. (2010). Zeuton. New York: Vintage books Press.
  9. Op. cit p.78.
  10. Crowley, 2010.
  11. Raskin, M & Spero, R. (2007). The Four Freedoms under Siege. California: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  12. Crowley, 2010.
  13. Bhikkhu, T. (2002). Freedom From Fear.
  14. ibid
  15. Bhikkhu, T. (2002).
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134

Franklin Roosevelt and Veto Power Research Paper

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

The United States of America has enjoyed independence since 1796, the year that she was freed by the British colonial government. Since then, the country has continued to grow in all sectors of economy to become the world’s only super power.

On the same note, it has had many presidents, some of which are remembered for their good legacy; while others are remembered for their bad leadership especially in matters pertaining to economy. One of the famous and remembered presidents is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was the United States of America president prior and during the outbreak of the World War II.

Why did President Franklin Roosevelt veto more bills than any other president of the United States of America?

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the thirty second president of the United States of America. He became the United States President in 1933, having succeeded Herbert Hoover. Prior to becoming the President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had served as the 44th governor of New York from January 1929 to December, 31st 1932.

According to Pfiffner (21), in order for a bill to pass through, it has to receive a simple majority of votes in both the House of Representatives and in the Senate. He has claimed that in the House of Representatives, at least two hundred and eighteen of the four hundred and thirty five members must vote in favor of such a bill. On the other hand, the Senate has to have at least fifty one members out of the hundred supporting the bill.

In the United States, and as per the constitution, every bill passed by the House of Representatives is given to the president for assent. The president is supposed to approve the bill and sign it before it is made law. If the president does not approve the bill, he should return it to the house, stating his objections, for more debate.

The presidential assent must be done within 10 days without counting Sundays. In case he does not approve and sign the bill by this period, the same bill will become a law. It will fail to become a law if the congress, by their adjournment provides otherwise.

One of the main reasons why President Franklin Delano Roosevelt vetoed many bills during his tenure compared to other presidents is because during his time, the United States of America went through some of the most challenging events in history, that is the Economic Recession of 1929. This therefore called for bills addressing the plight of the people and the country so that adequate measures can to be put in place to protect the whole country. He vetoed a total of six hundred and thirty five bills.

By the time Franklin became the United States president, Pfiffner (21) has argued that the country was still recovering from the 1929 Great Depression that continued to persist until the United States went to war after the attack at the Pearl Harbor. He notes that the attack on Pearl Harbor made the United States of America participate in the World War II.

Therefore, in an attempt to rebuild the United States ailing economy, President Roosevelt initiated a New Deal Concept. This was meant to try and provide relief for all the members of the public and especially the employed ones from loosing such employment opportunities. He noted that, this deal was very complex because it involved other aspects of economy that were all intertwined.

In addition, Conley (20) argues that Roosevelt had established well informed advisors who would help him on when to veto a certain bill. He gave an instance in 1944 when Roosevelt vetoed the tax measures in the Senate. He has observed that Roosevelt vetoed the bill and termed it as a bill not meant to help the poor people but one meant to help the greedy in the society.

He has further stated that Roosevelt wanted to preserve the integrity of the United States of America. He notes that by vetoing some of the bills, Roosevelt wanted them to be taken back to the Senate so that they could be deliberated upon in details so that such bills did not provide obstacles in future.

On the other hand, Henderson (20) has stated that Roosevelt did not want the United States of America citizens deprived of the benefits of areas that had been regarded as historic and recreational. This point has been illustrated by the president refusal to assent to a bill seeking to abolish the Jackson Hole National Monument in 1943. In his remarks, he noted that his predecessors had not abolished the national monument and therefore he would not be exceptional.

Another reason why Franklin Delano Roosevelt vetoed most of the bills was to make sure that the Congress was run by his fellow democrats. This is according to Karlyn (28), who has observed that Franklin Roosevelt had initiated a plan that would help the subsequent Congresses be controlled by the democrats. To make sure his intentions worked as planned, he says that Franklin Roosevelt vetoed most of the bills brought by the Republican members of the Congress for him to assent to.

According to Pfiffner (20), Franklin Delano Roosevelt has been the longest serving the United States of America president in history. He says that some of his predecessors and successors have been serving utmost a period of two terms. However, Franklin Roosevelt served for four terms, that is from 1935 to 1945, when he died while he had just begun his fourth term. As a result, Pfiffner (20) says that this is enough time for him to have vetoed such a huge number of bills.

In addition, Deen (22) has observed that during his tenure, the number of Democrats in the Congress and in the Senate was not enough to counter that of the Republicans. Therefore, whenever a bill was presented to the senate or Congress it sailed through quickly through the simple majority vote.

This left Democrats without any significant influence in both houses. As a result, Franklin Roosevelt had to use his power to veto most of these bills to tame the influence of the Republicans on the Democrats. Moreover, he has claimed that Franklin Roosevelt vetoed some of the bills because they failed to reflect the wishes of many people in the society.

He has argued that Roosevelt’s failures to assent to some of the bills were informed by the public opinion on certain bills. He claims that Roosevelt had been elected as a very popular president and would therefore do all within his powers to make sure that the people are served according to their expectations. He says that during his entire period, Roosevelt remained and died as a popular president.

In 1944, Karlyn (28) noted that President Franklin Roosevelt declined to assent to the Revenue Bill because it was in a way contradicting itself. He says that in his remarks after declining to assent to it, he said that the bill had purported to increase the national revenue by over two billion dollars. However, Roosevelt said that the bill itself would provide less than one billion dollars to the economy. As a result of that, Roosevelt said that he was compelled in deciding that the bill itself was ineffective in realizing its objective.

The other reason why Franklin Delano Roosevelt vetoed some of the bills presented to him for assent was because he wanted to keep the United States of America away from the European affairs. Prior to the attack of the Pearl Harbor by the Japanese navy, many people had requested the President to allow the military to help Europe end the war to no avail. However, soon after the attack, Franklin Roosevelt declared war on Japan and her allies. The United States therefore joined Britain and her allies in the war.

The failure by Roosevelt to assent to bills presented to him was as a result of huge division by the members of the Congress and the Senate. This is according to Miller Center (2), which says that Roosevelt wanted to remain neutral so that he could not be seen as inclining on one side of the debate.

It says that the president would return such bills to the Senate and the Congress so that they could be debated further and an amicable agreement is found. This would go along way in making sure that there is peace and tranquility after he has assented to such bills. Although, some of the bills he vetoed were later assented to, many people have regarded him as one of the best United States of America chief executives.

Roosevelt goes down in history as the longest serving president in the US, after being elected for a fourth term. This means he came across the number of bills than any other president. Was he to serve for the two terms that most presidents were subjected to, president Grover Cleveland would have passed him for he vetoed the most number of bills than any other president for the full two terms.

Roosevelt is therefore favored by the length of time he served in the office. Coupled with this is also the rate of happening of events at that particular time. This long tenure in the office was characterized by turbulent events of the depression and the World War, meaning a big deal of bills had to be proposed by congress than during normal times.

Conclusion

Franklin Delano Roosevelt has remained the longest serving presidents of the United States to date. Although, he has remained as the President who vetoed most of the bills, his contribution to shaping the modern day United States of Americas’ society has lived on.

Therefore, the subsequent governments should have made sure that his legacy continues to live on by carrying on with all the projects he had initiated. This would be a positive initiative because it will ensure that those born after his death continue to learn about his achievements. In terms of vetoing bills, the subsequent presidents should make sure that the bills are well scrutinized to avoid negative consequences in future arising from such bills.

Works Cited

Conley, Richard. “Toward a New Typology of Vetoes and Overrides.” Political Research Quarterly 54 (2001): pp. 31.

Deen, Rebecca. Veto Threats as a Policy Tool: When to Threaten? Presidential Studies Quarterly 32 (2002): 30-45.

Henderson, Phillip. The presidency then and now. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Karlyn, Kohrs. Presidents creating the presidency: deeds done in words. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Miller Center. “American President: A Reference Resource. Key Events in the

Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.” Boston Cengage Learning. n. d. Web.

Pfiffner, James. The Modern Presidency. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2011.

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115

Rhetorical Analysis: Roosevelt’s Inaugural Address Research Paper

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Roosevelt’s inaugural address (in 1933) can be regarded as one of the most memorable moments of persuasion in the American history. F.D. Roosevelt had a difficult task. He had to solve loads of problems in the country which was enduring outcomes of the Great Depression.

The major aim of the President was to encourage people to take certain steps. The President asked for patience and discipline. His speech was aimed at evoking people’s faith, loyalty and determination. The President’s speech was successful as Roosevelt obtained the necessary support of the Americans.

Admittedly, 1933 was one of the hardest years in the history of the United States. The US economy was literally ruined. The rate of unemployment as well as inflation was very high. People were anxious and disoriented. They lost their faith and the government also lost its authority.

Of course, Roosevelt had a really difficult task. It is possible to state that the entire future of the country was at stake. Of course, the country would not cease to exist, but the USA which people know now could never exist.

Roosevelt understood that the country needed dramatic changes. He also understood that he could do nothing without the Americans’ support. The President knew that many steps were too hard to make, but they were to be made. Therefore, the President had to make people ready for the policies he was about to introduce.

Notably, Roosevelt managed to encourage people and give them hope. Roosevelt made a strong start saying that it was not the time to give promises as it was “the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly” (History Matters n.p.). Therefore, from the very start the President made people understand that he meant what he was saying. People understood that it was not a mere speech to listen to, but it was a particular report and a specific plan of action.

It is also important to emphasize that Roosevelt stressed that the country’s problems were purely financial. The President claimed that the problems concerned “thank God, only material things” (History Matters n.p.). F.D. Roosevelt made people understand that those problems could be solved and there was no time to feel at a loss. Roosevelt highlighted the major measures he wanted to implement.

Nonetheless, the most memorable parts of the speech are concerned with discipline and trust. The President stated

With this pledge taken, I assume unhesitatingly the leadership of this great army of our people dedicated to a disciplined attack upon our common problems. (History Matters n.p.)

Admittedly, such strong claims and such an inspirational speech made people follow their leader. Importantly, Roosevelt kept saying that it was him and the Americans who were responsible for the future of their country. The president kept saying that he along with the entire nation would work hard to solve the problems and bring the country to prosperity.

It is very important that the leader does not alienate himself from the nation. Roosevelt became the model for many people. Americans entrusted him their lives. From the very beginning of his presidency Roosevelt stated that he needed the Americans’ support.

Notably, He did not say he could do everything, or he did not say people should have worked hard. Roosevelt managed to create a great team which consisted of every citizen of the country. Admittedly, the inaugural speech played an important role in the creation of this team.

Works Cited

History Matters. “Only Thing We Have to Fear Is Fear Itself”: FDR’s First Inaugural Address, 2012. Web.

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154

Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Plans to Combat the Great Depression Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) is one of the most celebrated presidents of the United States of America. He came to power in 1933 when the United States was in the middle of the Great Depression, and left in 1945 when the world, including the USA, was grappling with the effects of the World War II.

This means he led the USA through the great depression and World War II, and remains the only US president to have stayed in the office more than two terms. During his first term in office, the Americans were grappling with economic depressions, and consequently they looked upon FDR as their savior. This paper will argue that FDR had a definite plan to fight economic depression during his first term in office.

Proofs FDR Had a Definite Plan to Fight the Great Depression

The great depression was a thorny issue by the time FDR was ascending to the presidency. As a consequence, he was fully aware of the issue, meaning he had a proper plan for fighting the depression. During his inaugural address on 4th March 1933, FRD outlined that the great depression was in his mind as he was a true American (Polenberg 39).

He admitted in his speech that Americans were experiencing solvable economic problems. He told the Americans to dread fear. This means there was nothing impossible if they were bold enough to face economic depression.

FDR promised he would put those plans before the Congress for deliberations. FDR termed the great depression as a national disaster that required emergency response. He said he has an emergency plan in place to combat the situation (Polenberg 40).

On 8th March 1933, FDR held his first press forum. In his speech, FDR outlined monetary reformations they were undertaking to combat the great depression. This means FDR had definite plans to combat the great depression, and he had already put them in place. FDR claimed that his primary task was to engage people to task; implying that job creation was his agenda.

He claimed that the major step toward a meaningful solution to the great depression was willingness from the Americans (Polenberg 45). This means he had definite plans to fight the great depression and wanted cooperation from the Americans. His address indicated plans he had toward ending the economic depression. He claimed he had a mental picture, which was more than a mere pledge.

It was a vision with an objective to address poor working conditions, to fight capitalism, to reduce inflation, and to find markets for agricultural produce from farmers in the rural community. FDR further outlined his plan to fight joblessness, promote education, and ensure there is peace, and stability in the country (Polenberg 46).

A First Set of Economic Recovery Plans by FDR

On 4th January 1935, during his annual message to the Congress, FDR outlined what the government had done to combat the great depression, and the plans he had to further deal with the issue (Polenberg 47). During his two years in office, he had tabled to the Congress economic recovery plans called the New Deal.

The New Deal focused on providing emergency relief to the Americans in dire need, recovery of the economy, and reformation of monetary programs, and agriculture. The program was put in place within the first 100 days FDR was in office. In his 4th January 1935 annual message, FDR clearly outlined terms of the New Deal.

He said the new deal will deliver relief to the thousands unemployed, and those faced with the risk of losing their homes as a result of lack of means for paying the mortgage.

The new deal would further recover dwindling agricultural sector, and reform the business in general. FDR reiterated his plans to oust unemployment following the Civilian conservation Act that paved way for establishment of civil jobs for about three million youths (Polenberg 48).

A Second Set of Economic Recovery Plans by FDR

FDR further gave additional programs of the New Deal in his 4th January 1935 annual message. He tabled plans to abolish gold standards, and introduced banks reforms act called ‘Glass Steagall Banking Act’ to introduce insurance in the federal bank. He also introduced the National Industrial Recovery Act to recover failing industries.

FDR also introduced the Farm Credit Act to finance farm mortgages. He also introduced the Home Owners Refinancing Act to pave way for the establishment of institutions to finance non-farm mortgages. Also, FDR introduced the National Employment System Act that led to the establishment of employment service in the US.

Conclusion: Environmental Conservation and Future Plans

Among the New Deal agendas was the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). During his address on 28th September 1937 at Bonneville Dam in Oregon, FDR outlined that the government had plans to reform the environment thereby boosting agriculture (Polenberg 66). Through TVA, the Federal government had constructed dams, hydroelectric power plants, and various industries in the Tennessee valley.

During his 31st October 1936 campaign at Madison square, FDR recounted the achievement he had through in recovery programs. At the same time, he pledged to implement further programs if re-elected. Based on his new deal programs, it is evident that he had definite plans during his first term in office.

Works Cited

Polenberg, Richard. The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945: A Brief History with Documents. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Print.

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