Concepts of Truth in Mathematics, the Arts and Ethics Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Philosophically many issues have a close relationship to truth, whereby they either follow theories of truth or mean theories regarding truth. It is never easy to exactly determine what truth is due to many controversies that arise depending on the field of study. This is to say, depending on prevailing metaphysical conditions, truth has varying meanings, which primarily depend on a specific case, body of knowledge, reality of things, or standards.

Before stating that something or some occurrences are true, it is important for all individuals to ask themselves the following questions; what are the building blocks of truth?, which mechanisms are good for identifying truth?. In addition, it is important for individuals to ask themselves where their definition of truth falls. This is to say, is their definition of truth complete, relative, subjective or objective? This paper will discuss the degree to which truth is different in mathematics, ethics and arts.


Depending on prevailing conditions, different individuals have varying definitions of what truth means. Truth encompasses qualities such as allegiance, sincerity, fidelity, and authenticity. Truth does depend on what single individuals or an entire community knows, but rather it depends on what holds theoretically. These theories are formal, substantive or minimalist. Examples of these practical theories include the consensus theory, correspondence, pragmatic, coherence, and the constructive theory (Prior pp.223-224).

Truth in Mathematics

In most cases, individuals take mathematics as the clearest discipline, but as any other field of knowledge (philosophically), it has associated problems. To understand the nature of mathematics, it is necessary for individuals to question the real nature of mathematics’ existence. In addition, individuals also must ask themselves, what most mathematical propositions mean, owing to the fact that in most cases these propositions seem to lack meaning.

On the other hand, many mathematical concepts have varying features depending on what an individual centres on; hence need to include these concepts before ascertaining the truth in mathematics. For example, to say that an axiomatic-deductive formula is true, then individuals must endeavour to deduce a mechanism of proving such a formula under specific prevailing conditions.

In this regard, one can say that such a proof of applied formulae falls within the set classic logic standards if it is provable. It is important to note also that, such a definition of truth is natural, hence takes less consideration of mathematical objects but lays emphasis on syntax (Lemanska p. 1).

For proper understanding of truth in mathematics, it is necessary for individuals to consider all features of mathematics. Giving specific formulae in form of mathematical theories makes the definition of truth to apply to the entire mathematical theory’s consistency.

Occurrence of this like a scenario makes it easy to ascertain the truth in a theory, in that if a theory is inconsistent, then it lacks some sense of truthfulness. At this point, it is important to note that, it is never easy to prove the consistence of a theory using a direct approach, but rather individuals can prove consistence by use of mathematical models. This is to say, mathematicians can prove the consistence of a theory, hence not wrong to argue that its only by application of learnt experience can individuals prove the truth in mathematical presumptions and their theorems.

Acceptance of mathematical axioms is also debatable owing to the fact that some are logical tautologies. This again puts forward another question: which logic mode is the best to use in mathematics? For example, following beliefs of intuitionists, the rule of double negation is never correct hence, when proving mathematical concepts truth depends on the system of logic that individuals apply.

Truth in Ethics

To some extent, ethics and mathematics share the same premises in defining truth. Although this is the case, the nature of data in these two fields differentiates the nature of truth, whereby ethics uses moral intuitions, where as mathematics calculations. It is very hard philosophically to set clear definitions of what truth is, considering the nature of moral intuitions.

Under ethics most individuals have believes that, once somebody opposes some concept, it means they have specific attitude towards such actions. This makes it hard to define what is true or false, depending on the philosophical stand of an individual. To apply moral language in determining what is true or false, makes it necessary to state genuine propositions or ethical facts.

Therefore, ethically it is not wrong for one to argue that, truth is not what individuals or the society considers morally right but rather, justifiable actions that foster good relationships among individuals.

Truth in Arts

As in mathematics and ethics, many complications also occur in arts concerning the correct definition of truth. This because in ethics many opposing meanings arise on what truth is all about. When studying truth in arts, it is important for individuals to ask themselves whether what they consider true artistically clearly depicts what comprises the external environment. In addition, it is important for individuals to ask themselves whether their artistic internal definitions of truth are culturally or emotionally determined (Addiss p.1).

To some extent, art is truth, because in artistic work many external forces never affect the nature of its outcomes. Art is like a societies mirror; hence depicts both morally correct and wrong acts. On the other hand, it is important to note that although art some has some truth in it artistic tools such as literature and speech sometimes can pass messages that are outright lies. Other tools of art such music and visual art lack a language of expression, hence determination of truth in them depends on individuals’ perceptions Art and Truth p.1).

Similarities and Differences of Truth in Art, Mathematics and Ethics

Although to some extent the procedures, premises, and rules of expressing the truth in mathematics, ethics and arts seem the same many differences are clear, hence defining truth in these three cases is different. For example, it not possible to define truth of a certain fact geometrically using words, which is a main form of expressing truths in ethics.

On the same case, it is not possible to use the same mathematical expressions to express truth in artistic work, because humans determine mathematical calculations, where as artistic work is a depiction of human existence and lifestyle.

Ontologically it is never wrong for an individual to argue that truth in these three fields is subjective, owing to the fact that human existence determines the existence of other things. Using this analogy, one can also argue that, it is a little bit different to determine the truth of different occurrences and objects considering the nature of concepts epistemologically.

Another main difference between these three fields is that, mathematically one has to discover truth; artistically truth depends on perceptions, whereas ethically truth is a mediation process. In this context, although it is possible for computers to create mathematical expressions that are artistically interesting, still one-question lacks an answer, are these patterns pleasing?

Although mediation, discovery and human perceptions are three different concepts, it is important to note that, all these concepts results due to evolution of thoughts and knowledge.

It is important to note that, although some differences arise, to some degree these three field’s definition of truth can sometimes be the same because some concepts of their truth definition may depict relative, absolute or subjective truth. For example, it may never be wrong for one to argue that mathematical truth is generally absolute.

This argument is defendable because since time memorial all mathematical laws are invariable. In addition, algebraically mathematical laws are provable, hence concreting the concept that truth in mathematics is absolute. On the other hand, someone else who argues that truth in mathematics is relative may not be wrong. This is because although individuals can use mathematical formulae to prove concepts, sometimes they too fail, primarily because they have their own limits.

In arts, truth can also be relative, in that human perception of beauty and quality depends on ones cultural background and age group. In addition, depending on one’s views, it is not wrong for one to argue that, truth in arts is subjective, owing to the fact that, individuals have the liberty of choosing what they consider good-looking. In ethics, truth can also be relative, absolute or subjective. This is because globally there is a set of ethics, which all individuals consider right or wrong.

Truth in ethics is absolute if individuals choose to believe that, rules determining human existence are fixed. Ethics can be subjective, depending on one’s belief of what is morally correct or wrong. On the other hand, ethics may be relative if viewed from a cultural variation or situational context, considering the fact that, different societies have varying cultural beliefs and values.

In this regard, all these fields share common concepts of truth, hence almost same definitions, although differences in application context vary

To some level, truth stretches far beyond the mathematical, ethical and artistic knowledge held by human beings. This is because; it mainly determines the existence of these three concepts, hence defines premises under which they exist. In terms of validity, truth depends on views held by different individuals, hence offering individuals a chance to discover what exactly truth means.

To Plato, truth pertains to what the world holds to be right. For Plato truth transcends beyond the human sense perception, but rather encompasses what is correct universally.

In this regard, it is important when defining truth in any these fields to include universally accepted principles. This can help to give a clear meaning of what truth is considering the fact that human beings have different perceptions of ideas depending on their cultural or social backgrounds.


In conclusion, although this three fields share common aspects, their definition of truth varies in that mathematical can be a language of expression, art applies language to pass messages, where as ethics combines both in expressing themselves outwardly.

Works Cited

Adiss, Stephen. Truth in arts and science. 2009. Web.

Prior, Arthur. Encyclopaedia of philosophy. New York: Macmillan, 1969. Print.

Lemanska, Anna. Philosophy of mathematics: Truth and existence in mathematics. 2003. Web.

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Wall Street (1987): Ethics Analysis Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


Wall Street film is a well-crafted story giving insights to the kind of morality found in the Wall Street. Oliver Stone sheds light on greed and corruption that dominated the Wall Street. Coincidentally, this masterpiece hit the markets exactly 60 days after the famous stock market crash of 1987.

The movie revolves around Bud, a young and ambitious stockbroker who is out to make it big in life. The other character of interest here is Gekko, a corporate raider who knows when to make a move and when to stay put. Gekko happens to be Bud’s hero probably due to his successful history in the stock market.

This paper focuses on the moral side of the story not the financial dealings that surround the Wall Street. It focuses on the scene where Bud meets Gekko for business dealings until Bud reevaluates his decision to continue with the dealings that Gekko gets him in.

Scene Analysis

We meet Bud as the movie opens trying to squeeze his way past a crowded work place in Jackson & Steinham securities firm. Immediately we realize that of late, he has been tirelessly trying to meet Gekko; a smart broker who knows what happens where in the stock markets.

It is important to note that Gekko will pursue his selfish ambitions regardless of what happens to other people even if they are his friends. Bud calls Gekko’s office relentlessly for thirty-nine days until he finally secures an appointment. To set things in motion, Bud looks for a gorgeous birthday gift, which he delivers personally to Gekko.

Unfortunately, Bud makes the first mistake; he gives some inside information about Bluestar Airlines Company, run by his Carl, his father. This information makes Gekko have some interest in Bud and given the hero that Bud sees in Gekko, a long term strong alliance between the two is inevitable.

As anticipated, Gekko takes Bud in and offers him a big opportunity to make good money; however, Bud has to play the game according to rules. Nevertheless, due to his hunger to make it big in life, Bud does not think much of what he has to lose to gain the good life he badly craves.

The alliance takes off immediately and Bud spends a lot of time with Gekko; a feat that earns Bud large perks. Bud is now entitled to expensive meals, fat cheques, and even beautiful lass by the name Darien. Bud is so carried away in this flush life that he forgets hustles and bustles of this life.

Within no time, Bud becomes a partaker of corporate avarice and corruption. Bud engages in slash-and-burn exploits courtesy of Gekko; this approach to business is more adventurous, thrilling and rewarding than the more principled prosaic business dealings championed by Lou Mannheim; a veteran trader. Life to Bud is at least now bearable for he can afford an up market apartment and take Darien to expensive outings.

Nevertheless, there is a price to pay for everything in this life and good things in life are not free. Someone has to either work very hard or deal very hard. Bud chose the latter and soon he is to pay the price. Bud had introduced Gekko to Bluestar Airlines owned by his father Carl.

However, due to his greed, Gekko suggest to Bud that they should sell Bluestar Airline assets, an incidence that will leave them immensely rich. Unfortunately, this move will leave Carl, Bud’s father and all workers in this company, who happens to be Bud’s friends, jobless. This is a decisive moment for Bud who has to choose between his father’s well being and his fortunes.

Luckily, Bud chooses to protect his father and friends working in Bluestar Airlines. He sets out to scuttle Gekko’s plans to salvage his father’s business. After approaching Darien, she refuses to betray Gekko leading Bud to dispose her marking the end of their relationship.

These events act as a revelation to Bud who painfully realizes that the price required to sustain his flush lifestyle is too expensive for him to pay. After breaking ties with Gekko and Darien, Bud strategies on how to save this company and he succeeds even though he ends up in prison.

In relation to God’s call to worship him alone, Bud made a mistake. He went against this sanctimonious call and worshiped idols; that is, money. The fact that he knew what he was doing was wrong and did not stop it before it began, is a clear indication that he was not willing to own up to this call from God. However, Bud has some morals left in him as he chooses to spare his father and friends.

However, this portrays partiality because all along, he has been hurting other people but it did not matter as long as it was not his father or friends. God calls us to act without partiality, letting his love dwell in our hearts, something that Bud went against. All this is because of money: the root of all evils.


Wall Street reflects the relationship between evil, coming from greed of money and upholding moral principles. People have the free will to choose between good and evil. Bud represents this clearly. As the movie starts, he uses his freewill to choose evil and engage in dirty business dealings. As the movie proceeds, he still uses freewill to choose good over evil as he breaks ranks with Gekko and Darien. Bud does not honor God’s call to get id of idols and worship him alone.

Works Cited

Stone, Oliver._The Wall Street_. IMDb, 1987.

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Business Code of Ethics Vs Employees Code of Ethics Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Business Code of Ethics Vs Employees Code of Ethics

Code of ethics can be defined as guidelines which are established to help people in an organization behave in a manner that is acceptable. It is very significant in decision making process as it helps in deciding between right and wrong (Shaikh, 2006).

A lot of organizations are governed by a code of ethics and although it is important in all organizations, it is most important in the organizations that deal with sensitive issues like healthcare.

A code of ethics is very significant not only due to the fact that it establishes a favorable working condition and standard, but also due to the fact that it helps members of the public build confidence with a particular organization.

Although there are different codes of ethics, there are certain issues that are covered in each like goals of an organization as well as some ethical issues and behaviors that are adopted by every organization. It should therefore be explicitly written and easy to follow for it to accomplish its ultimate goal of setting the right standard for people in an organization.

Some of the different codes of ethics include, business, employee, personal and professional codes of ethics, to mention just a few. There is much concerning codes of ethics and due to that, this essay shall narrow down to comparing and contrasting business and employee codes of ethics.

Since the goal of different codes of ethics is the same, there are a number of similarities between different codes of ethics. However, there are still some notable differences. Many organizations have got an employee code of ethics that stipulates the expected behavior of employees in that particular organization.

For instance, studies of Employee Code of Ethics (n.d. ) illustrate that a company may tolerate mistakes but cannot put up with an employee that violates its code of ethics. The main goal is to ensure that the reputation of the company is not affected by the behavior of an employee in and out of the company’s environment.

The company code of ethics contains the internal and external guidelines to govern the behavior of each and every employee. Similarly, a business code of ethics contains the values and the goals of the entire business organization. It is also inclusive of an employee code of conduct since it stipulates the expected behavior of each and every employee.

As much as business code of ethics and conduct is related to the employee code of ethics, there are some differences of the same. According to Craven & Mills (2004), the business code of ethics for Lonmin Plc is very different from the code of ethics for employees.

Further studies illustrate that a business code of ethics contains not only the code of conduct for the employees but also a fame work for conducting business practices.

For instance, the framework incorporates such issues such as the responsibility of the business entity to the environment as well as other issues related to the business itself like protection of its assets, relationship with the government, its social responsibility as well as health and safety issues.

Business code of ethics and employee code of ethics are very important to ensure that ethical issues are taken care of in each and every organization. Apart from developing a code of ethics, it is very important to ensure that it is adhered to, failure to which the business, society and the employees can be greatly affected.

All codes of ethics are similar since they contain goals and the set standards of behavior. However, the main difference between business code of ethics and employee code of ethics is due to the fact that a business code of ethics is more comprehensive.

Moreover, the two are not only related, but business code of ethics gives rise to an employee’s code of ethics. Whichever the case, both are important documents in every organization and should not be done away with at any particular time.


Craven, J. & Mills, B. (2004). Code Of Business Ethics. Web.

Employee Code of Ethics. (n.d.). Web.

Shaikh. (2006). Business Environment. Delhi: Pearson Education India .

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Bankruptcy and Ethics Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

According to Sandage (2006), bankruptcy can be described as the inability of an individual or business entity to pay debts owed to them. When an individual or entity files for bankruptcy and they are declared so, they can be exonerated from major debts that they owe. There are times in history when cases for bankruptcy have been high, depending on the economic status at the time.

For example, according to Irby (2010), bankruptcies increase during times of economic hardships.

There are different types of bankruptcies in the United States of America and elsewhere in the world. In the United States of America, bankruptcies are named according to the chapter of the bankruptcy law that they fall under (Balleisen, 2001).

There are three main classifications of bankruptcies under this classification. These are chapter 7 bankruptcy, chapter 11 and chapter 13 bankruptcies. There are different eligibilities for these bankruptcies.

Chapter 7 is the most common of these bankruptcies, and it is what most people refer to when they talk of personal bankruptcy. Silverman & Grabianowski (2010) also refer to this as the straight bankruptcy.

In this type of bankruptcy, the assets of the debtor are sold and the proceeds are used to pay the creditors (Silverman & Grabianowski, 2010). When this happens, the creditors hold no right pertaining to the earnings that may be made by the debtor in the future.

For a person to file for chapter 7 bankruptcy, several criteria must be met. An individual residing in the United States, or who owns property or business in the country, is eligible for this bankruptcy (Reeder, 2010).

The intentions of the individual filing for bankruptcy under this chapter should not include getting out of debt. An individual who has no residual funds apart from expenses of his basic living is also eligible for this bankruptcy, given that they are indebted (Sandage, 2006).

Balleisen (2001) is of the view that a borrower with history of chapter 16 or 7 bankruptcies in the past six years is not eligible for this bankruptcy. Also, if the individual have tried to file for the same bankruptcy but which was unsuccessful in the last six months, they become automatically ineligible for this bankruptcy (Sandage, 2006).

There are many reasons that make people file for bankruptcy in the United States and other countries in the world. The borrower may do so if they wish to exonerate themselves from legal obligations to settle their debts. If the debt involves mortgage on a house, the individual may file for bankruptcy to avoid foreclosure of the same (Irby, 2010).

The borrower may also have the intention of stopping the creditor from repossessing their property. A person who was in debt when in employment, and after losing their employment feels that they may not be able to settle their debt, may also file for this bankruptcy (Reeder, 2010).

Bankruptcy has far reaching effects on the individual’s interest rates on loans and credit cards. This is given the fact that the borrower’s credit score card is negatively affected by a bankruptcy history (Sandage, 2006).

This is especially so considering the fact that the records of a bankruptcy remain on the individual’s credit file for at least ten years. This being the case, the individual is labeled as a high risk for future defaults, this means that interest rates on loan and credit cards are high to cover for this risk.

Irby (2010) is of the view the interest rates on credit cards may surpass 25% levels. For other loans, such incentives such 0% pay on APR is eliminated (Sandage, 2006).

In conclusion, it should be noted that individuals and organizations file for bankruptcy to prevent creditors from taking legal actions against them. While the idea behind the introduction of bankruptcy laws to protect the borrower may have been noble, there are cases where borrowers abuse the same.

This is for example when an individual files for bankruptcy after every seven years (Irby, 2010). This abuse makes it hard to recognize individuals who are genuine about bankruptcy filings.


Balleisen, E. (2001). Navigating failure: Bankruptcy and commercial society in Antebellum America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Irby, L. (2010). Basic types of personal bankruptcy: Personal bankruptcy options for consumers. Web.

Reeder, C. (2010). How bankruptcy affects interest rates on loans and credit cards. Web.

Sandage, S. A. (2006). Born losers: A history of failure in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Silverman, J., & Grabianowski, E. (2010). How bankruptcy works. Web.

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Code of Conduct and Ethics in School Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


The core mission of the school is to ensure the future success of our students. This is to be achieved though understanding them better and catering for their needs so as to help them achieve the best at a socially, intellectually, and ethically level. Our school has as its guiding principles the values of reasonable transactions and veracity in the conduct of its activities.

This guiding principles, which are sanctioned by the school’s Board of Directors, are based on the tenets that school based activities should be conducted in an honest, just and legal manner. The Board expects its entire staff as well as the students to commit and conform to the stipulated moral, ethical and legal obligations.

This code is aimed at ensuring that all students and employees develop and maintain an acceptable level of self control and respect, conduct themselves in a civil manner and create an awareness of the importance of safety and the consideration of one’s community welfare (Rosen, 2005). To facilitate this, an ethics and conduct program has been developed to provide the necessary guidelines towards the implementation of the same.


This ethics and conduct program applies:

  • Equally to all students, educators, management staff, employees, including temporary workers, representatives, and contractual employees who work in or for the school.

Conformity with the Set Rules, Laws and Regulations

Students and all members of staff are expected to abide by all laws and regulations which pertain to the endeavors they partake for and on behalf of the school (Jimerson & Furlong, 2006).

  • Actions that break the law or unscrupulous business dealing by students or members of the staff will be punished. Failure to comply may lead to termination of suspension, expulsion, employment and or initiation of civil or criminal proceedings in a court of law.

Code of Ethics

These are the personal code of conducts that must be adhered to by all members of the school’s community.

Punctuality and Attendance

  • Students are expected to remain within the school institution for the whole day.
  • They are supposed to arrive and attend their classes or other appointments on time.
  • Educators and other employees are expected to be punctual and vigile at all times.

Safety and Order

  • All members of the school fraternity are hereby expected to conduct their duties responsibly with regards to their own safety and that of others.
  • Fighting, throwing things and bullying are strongly discouraged in this school. Perpetrators of such heinous acts will be severely punished.


  • All members of the school are expected be to respectful of their personal properties and those of the school.
  • Littering, mistreating furniture (computers, desks books and lockers) and vandalism will not be tolerated and will attract heavy penalties and punishments.
  • All members are expected to use appropriate and respectful language. The use of profane, sexually suggestive or abusive language will not be accepted.

Welfare policy

  • Students and employees are to refrain from soliciting, using or possessing illegal drugs within and around the school and on school sponsored events.
  • Employees must not enter school premises or conduct their duties while under the influence of any drug.

The School has in its power, the right to suspend or expel a student or employee at any given time if the school’s administration deems the conduct and influence of the student as contravening to the set guidelines (Brownlie & King, 2000).

This also applies to those students whose direct associates (parents/guardians) are not compliant to the required standards of the school (Hall & Aimone, 2008).


Brownlie, F., & King, J. (2000). Learning in safe schools: creating classrooms where all students belong. USA: Pembroke Publishers Limited.

Hall, H., & Aimone, L. (2008). High School Journalism. USA: The Rosen Publishing Group.

Jimerson, S., & Furlong, M. (2006). The handbook of school violence and school safety: from research to practice. LA: Routledge.

Rosen, L. (2005). School discipline: best practices for administrators. USA: Corwin Press.

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Ethics in Public Administration. Case 2 – Paul’s Scenario Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


  1. Introduction.
  2. Main Body
  3. Principles defining each character.
  4. Implementation of the traditional ethical thinking skills.
  5. Utilization of the ethical triangle.
  6. Conclusion.

The ethical approaches need to be combined for the purpose of more effective decision-making in public administration. The elements of the ethical triangle may be used as filters for ethical analysis of the situations and appropriate decision making. Kent Chartwell, Marion Meriwether and Winston Battle in case 2 Paul’s scenario are examples of Peter, Mary and Paul schemes of human behavior.

Only combining the three traditional ethical approaches (virtue, principle and consequences) and acting in accordance to the ethics triangle, the mayor could achieve the greatest good for the greater number.

Interacting with Marion Meriwether and Winston Battle, Mayor Chartwell had to deal with specialists possessing Mary and Paul charts of competence. Thus, being competent, enthusiastic and creative but not promoted, Marion is an example of Mary scheme of professional behavior.

Actually, she retrains, knows all the angles of the sphere, generates brilliant ideas, and does all the work, but her contribution seems to remain unnoticed because she is offered to be an assistant or co-director but not to take the lead.

Winston Battle is an example of Paul competence chart. On the one hand, this employee lacks creativity and enthusiasm. On the other hand, he is reluctant to work on the project and seems to be tired and over burnt. It is possible that he has performed well in the past but he is absolutely useless, running the summer recreational program.

The virtue, principles and consequences approaches have been implemented by the participants of the scenario. Mayor Chartwell decides on the principle approach, insisting on leaving Battle as the director of the program, supposing that if an individual has been appointed for the position, he must have deserved it and can do his best, contributing to the greatest good.

Marion Meriwether used the virtue approach, intuitively defining measures that can be beneficial for improving the project and enhancing its effectiveness. The consequences approach has been chosen by Battle as he was not interested in the process and its details.

He used the summer program for padding his personal payroll and being informed that he would have to make some efforts for making the program more effective, decided to leave the project. Thus, overutilizing a single model, each of the characters would have failed to reach the greatest good.

Only using the ethic triangle can help to balance virtue, balance and consequences approaches and to promote the public interest. Thompson & Leidlein (2009) noted that „using the ethics triangle helps to prevent the problems associated with using any of the models alone” (p. 67).

Overutilizing the principle approach, Mayor Chartwell could decrease the effectiveness of the project. But thinking over reaching the greatest good and consequences of his decisions, he rated Marion’s contribution at its true value and decided to involve her into the project.

However, following the principle-based approach, he offered her only the position of an assistant. Mayor failed to use the ethical model overestimating the principle of leaving the employee who has been performing well in the past on the position occupied.

“Operating inside the triangle helps prevent the shortcomings of each approach as its angles inform and limit one another” (Bowman, West, & Berman, 2004, p. 71).

Thus, the principle side of the triangle could reduce the benefits of the virtue and consequences-based approaches. It was only due to the juncture of the events that Marion Meriwether was promoted and the greatest good for the greatest number has been achieved.

Reference List

Bowman, J.S., West, J.P., & Berman, E.M. (2004). The professional edge: Competencies in public service. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

Thompson, W.N. & Leidlein, J.E. (2009). Ethics in city hall: Discussion and analysis for public administration. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

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A Comprehensive Code of Ethics Plan Report

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


Code of Ethics is an important investment undertaking by any organization today as it helps to determine and define acceptable undertakings within these firms. A firm or an institution normally lays down this code to govern how it is supposed to conduct business in a manner that is acceptable both internally and externally according to the agreed regulations making it an all-encompassing document that covers employees as well as other stakeholders (Mc Namara, 2010).

Most importantly, the code should clearly cover the scope and duties for all the employees as it helps to tackle problems that occur within their operations.

For example, should the firm face any difficulty on how business runs, it management can rely on the code of ethics to determine whether the procedure adopted is appropriate or whether there is a better approach that can be used. This paper is a detailed write up of code of ethics documents for Steelox Manufacturing Company.

Necessities of A Code of Ethics Document

One great necessity for a Steelox’s Code of Ethics document is that the document has to have constant review and updating just like any other document in a dynamic business environment (Payne, Raiborn & Aswik, 1997).

Once the code of ethics is in place it is important to realize that the business proceeds by the governance of this document and any lapse or failure in its implementation may result in mix-ups within the company that can ultimately affect the business. Customers are the primary shareholders that make the business thrive in the market and therefore the document is especially designed to appeal to their special needs and preferences.

It has therefore been known to be a good practice for companies to have an updated code of ethics although there have been myths claiming that companies always hire ethically fit employees and deal with ethically conscious suppliers; a factor that may not always be the case.

A code of ethics is an important document that every company eventually needs for smooth running. This is seen in the way the government has employed the Sarbenes – Oxley Act 2002 (SOA) to force compliance into good work ethics. The SOA extensively covers corporate financial matters highlighting requirements of compliance in various areas such as company tax returns, fraud, and accountability.

It also covers auditor independence, financial statements, and corporate responsibility. The Act also mentions the bodies charged with the responsibility of arbitration in the event where there has been violation of the code of ethics and where the firm’s conduct is under question.

Therefore, with government Acts such as SOA in place to push for compliance for firms towards corporate financial obligations, there is a need to define the steps in the implementation of the code of ethics that which is workable.

Steelox Manufacturing Company is a medium sized company that specializes in the manufacture of steel ramps of various specifications used in the construction industry and its mission is to supply high quality steel ramps to construction firms’ at the most competitive price.

Steelox ensures high quality through a collaborative effort with raw steel suppliers whose materials must be of a specified standard.

Additionally, the highly automated manufacturing processes at their main plant are calibrated to international standards to ensure quality. Finally, the employees follow a set of laid down rules during production to maintain these standards. As a result, Steelox has drafted a Code of Business Ethics listed below to govern the way it conducts its business in an acceptable manner.

Steelox Manufacturing Company Code of Business ethics

Our Responsibility to Shareholders

Steelox greatly depends on its shareholders for the proper running and management of the corporation. It wants to remain a formidable competitor in the manufacture of steel ramps therefore; we are committed to laying down a strategy towards achievement of this goal that will also incorporate a code of business ethics for its success. Having understood the importance of having a code of business ethics, the management has undertaken the task of enforcing a code of business ethics in order to align the firm’s processes to its mission and vision.

The management is tasked with ensuring that Steelox continues to produce high quality steel ramps for the ever-growing construction industry while still maintaining the organization’s profitability. Therefore, the Code of Business Ethics will clearly pinpoint our employees and shareholders to the areas that need input to ensure that the company succeeds.

Responsibility to our Customers

Steelox Manufacturing Company has its mission to remain the most dependable steel ramps provider for the construction industry both locally and internationally.

Steelox values high quality production processes measuring up to internationally acceptable standards combined with encouraging innovation within the firm to offer an avenue for the employees to express their innovativeness.

Steelox also values its relationship with its customers who are mainly from the construction industry thus; they critically evaluate and cherish client feedback concerning their products to improve more on their services.

Education and Training

Steelox’s Code of Business Ethics education and training is taken seriously because it ensures that there is standardization across the firm concerning processes in steel ramps manufacture. There will be initiation of education and training through induction and orientation exercises that will be carried out after every two years.

This education and training will also define Steelox’s social responsibility, which will allow the company to understand the responsibility they have towards the community through supporting communal activities for a noble course.

The area of specific interest will be expertise provision and construction using Steelox products as well as other charitable engagements. Finally, the new employees at Steelox will be oriented using the Code of Ethics as a guideline where clearly defined structure of redress after a likely violation is explained under this section on training and education.


The monitoring of the code of business ethics will run across all the manufacturing processes within Steelox. The process will be enforced within different departments that will typically involve the Human Resources, Financial, and Supplies departments.

Acceptable practices on how to tender for the raw materials from steel suppliers and other procurement procedures will be defined to ensure transparency and competitiveness within procurement processes. Steelox will take the necessary responsibility to ensure that continued training is provided for the implementation of the business code.


The Steelox code of business ethics defines the obligation Steelox has towards corporate and private data and information therefore any data or information that is likely to benefit their competitors must be kept confidential. Additionally, personal data and information about Steelox’s employees and shareholders must remain confidential as is required and governed by the Privacy Act.

All other stakeholders’ information should be kept in confidence with any violation of this requirement being liable to dismissal and eventual prosecution.


The standard procedure for reporting of the violation of the Code of Business Ethics will be outlined by a review that must be applied to each particular case to determine whether there was a violation. The heads of the respective departments will be expected to receive any reports and present them to the board for arbitration and conclusion.

Special Ethical Obligations

Steelox incorporates the zero tolerance policy to a number of issues:

  1. Company information espionage: No information relevant to Steelox’s current operations should otherwise be disclosed to competitors or other parties without the management’s approval
  2. Bribery or financial inducements: The employees shall provide services and products to the clients as required of them without any demand or acceptance of any kind of inducement or bribe. In such an event, Steelox reserves the right to retract the product, terminate, or dishonour the service while appropriately indicting the employee involved.
  3. Gender or racial discrimination: The firm offers an indiscriminately free environment to encourage employee innovation. Steelox also offers career advancement opportunities that are zero tolerant to gender or racial discrimination.
  4. Unfair competition policies: Steelox as a firm or any of its employees or shareholders does not tolerate any type of engagements that are deemed inappropriate within the manufacturing industry. Sourcing from government and corporate world black lists is not tolerated at Steelox.

Conclusion and Recommendation

Nowadays firms are being compelled to have a code of business ethics to ensure their credibility. This means that the process of formulating a code of ethics for any company, Steelox included is an important undertaking. The code will ensure that the vital areas of the company’s values are well catered for during the company’s daily activities.

The Code of Business Ethics also ensures that the firm can transact across board with other firms in similar industry without conflict. Steloox as a manufacturing company is already deriving the benefits of the implementation of this all-important document seen in streamlined processing and increased profitability.


Mc Namara, C. (2010). Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers. Web.

Payne, D., Raiborn, C., & Askwik, J. (1997). A Global Code of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 16 (16), 1727-1735. Web.

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Consumer Protection with Regard to the Ethics Code Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

As psychology has developed, the efforts to provide consumer protection have promoted the establishment of specific rules, principles, and standards.

In particular, the present set of standards and ethical issues has created the ground for analyzing the difference between consumer protections in such settings as assessment/testing and therapy/counseling. These settings undertaken by psychologists have certain differences and similarities with regard to consumer protection.

The APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct is a set of rules and standard aimed at sustaining favorable relationships between a psychologist and a patient/client and introducing the basis for customer protection.

Discussing the field of psychotherapy/counseling, all roles and aspects of psychologists’ services are based on treating patients with regard to informed consent.

In this respect, all clauses presented in the standards are aimed at minimizing the conflicts between a patient and a psychologist. Psychologists should inform their clients about all possible treatment techniques and methods to avoid ambiguity in future.

In addition, they are prohibited to be engaged in sexual relationships to establish an objective ground for the course of therapy. The primary concern of a therapist, therefore, is to take reasonable efforts for supporting client’s privacy and objectivity of treatment (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2010b).

All these measures are created for preserving confidentiality and eliminating conflicts. Finally, the clauses related to the termination/interruption of therapy are designed for eliminating conflicts with the clients and minimizing the risk of confidential information leakage.

Apart from similarities, there are some differences between consumer protections for therapy/counseling. The major difference in assessments lies in a number of clients resorting to professional help. In particular, if a psychologist involves one person in the course of therapy, he/she should not be engaged in several setting and roles.

The main goal of a psychologist, therefore, is to choose an individual approach and ensure his/her client for quality of the treatment techniques. It should also be stressed that the number of people involved into treatment also identifies the extent of risk to be taken by a patient.

In particular, the therapist should be aware of all nuances of relationships and the major aspect for assessing the conflict. Furthermore, psychologist should be able to identify the type of relationships he/her should have with each person (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2010b).

Finally, the differences in number of patients participating in similar therapeutic sessions also influence the circumstances under which psychologists should terminate the treatment. It involves such aspects as duration, nature of a problem, and techniques used for conducting a therapy.

Discussing similarities between consumer protections for assessment/testing, all clauses are aimed at discussing the level of credibility and validity of methods, techniques, and information applied for the process of treatment. In particular, the aspects of validity and reliability are discovered through empirical, theoretical and evaluative evidence obtained in the course of therapy and through limits they created for a client.

In other words, all data available for analyzing, testing, and assessing have been viewed through the prism of limitations and implications for a patient in terms of therapy efficiency, patient’s satisfaction, and appropriateness of techniques applied.

The similarity is explicitly viewed when referring to first passages of clauses 9.01 and 9.02 where the first one states that “…psychologists documents the efforts they made and the result of these effort, clarify the probable impact of their limited information on the reliability and validity of their opinions, and appropriately limit the nature and extent of their conclusions or recommendations” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2010a).

Similarly, clause 9.02 (b) reveals, “[p]sychologists use assessment instruments whose validity and reliability have been established for use with members of the populated tested.

When such validity or reliability has not been established, psychologists describe the strengths and limitations of test results and interpretation” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2010a).

The major difference between consumer protections for assessment/testing setting lies in the nature and character of information obtained from the client. This aspect greatly affects the results and further process of treatment.

In particular, depending on the type of information received (either qualitative or quantitative), a psychologist makes use of different approaches for analyzing and assessing information and making further assumptions and opinions.

Hence, “…the purpose, norms, validity, reliability, and applications” are clearly identified as soon as the information has been processed and classified (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2010a).

It is also worth noticing that the previously established similarities of emerging limitations during the case will also be different if the character of collected data is different as well.

Defining the differences and similarities between consumer protections for such broad settings as assessment and therapy plays a significant role in identifying the major aspects of clients’ care and treatment.

In particular, it enables psychologists to identify and classify the received information, instruments and techniques needed for facilitating the course of therapy and sustaining the principles of customer protection.

Reference List

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Standard 9: Assessment (2010a). American Psychological Association. Web.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Standard 10: Therapy (2010b). American Psychological Association. Web.

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Ethics Game Simulation Reflective Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


The ethics game simulation involved a hypothetical company called Optilex, a game console manufacturer. The company is popular for its product Gameboard X for which it has released a newer improved version, Gameboard X 2.1. However, the company discovers that this newer version is prone to sparking, overheating and may explode if connected to a voltage higher than 220 volts.

The company is confronted by an ethical situation where it has to choose between recalling the product and incurring huge losses or allowing the continued distribution of the product despite its poor safety standards.


As the C.E.O of Optiplex Corporation, the decision to recall the product Gameboard X 2.1 lies squarely on my shoulders. I have received a report that shows that the company will suffer a $ 100 million loss and a likely tumble of share price in the NYSE if I choose to recall the product. Additionally, I receive another report showing that some countries where the product is to be sold have a domestic voltage of over 220V. I am also informed that it does not meet US safety standards on electrical appliances.


The ethical decisions at play here are quite clear. There is a high likelihood that if the product continues to be distributed, consumers are likely to get hurt and worse still, young children who love the Gameboard X. As a company, our policy statement holds that we are a company committed to making safe products for all (Stringer, 2010). Since no accidents related to the Gameboard X 2.1 have been reported yet, making a recall of the product will definitely reaffirm our values as a caring company.


Upon consideration of the issues at play, I decide to recall all the Gameboard pieces already distributed. I also decide to raise awareness on the risks involved in using the product. Though the product had passed safety regulations in some countries, I decide to make recalls in those countries too since all our customers have a right to safety.

Velasquez (2005) states that a company should be committed to its values at all times. At the same time, making a decision based on ethics shows that the company is dedicated to quality and in this way, it retains its customer base.

Though Optiplex Corporation will incur a huge loss this year, we can still recover in the next financial year since our customers will remain faithful since we recalled the product for their sake. In addition, the adjustments to be made to the Gameboard X 2.1 will not cost the company a lot of money, meaning that we can still reintroduce the product and recover the costs of recall.


As managers, situations requiring an ethical solution come up from time to time. Though the need for profit keeps the company running, ethical decisions ensure that the company retains its customer base. In addition, employees feel more comfortable working for companies that have ethical practices since it means that the company is more likely to treat them with dignity (Pfeiffer & Forsberg, 2005).

As seen above, my decision as C.E.O was based on my ethical stance and this means that I also get to have peace of mind knowing that our products are safe.

This simulation brings out ethical perspectives that managers should consider in their decision-making duties. These concepts are applicable to my current workplace since ethical decisions can be made at any management level. In conclusion, all employees should engage I ethical practices for the sake of building healthy relationships within the company.


Stringer, B. (2010). Ethics Game Simulation Essay. Web.

Pfeiffer, R. & Forsberg, R. (2005). Ethics on the Job, 3rd Ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing.

Velasquez, M. (2005). Business Ethics, 6th Ed. New York: Prentice Hall.

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Introduction to Applied Professional Ethics Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Role of Ethics in the Workplace

Description of Concrete Experience

I have worked for AT&T for about 20 years now and during my first 9 years I held the non-management positions including Account Representative, and PAF Associate. I must admit that implementing the ethical programs in the organization was not an easy task and it is a delicate matter of discussion as it involved both matters of personal ethical conduct and that of others who interact with me.

When I was a junior worker, I did not face many changes requiring me to exercise decisions making skills concerning ethical issues but since I joined the management team 11 years ago, I have faced several challenges and dilemma that required cautious and informed ethical reasoning in order to make decisions.

Besides, since the workplaces has been a very dynamic place especially with increasing diversity and issues of equity, there have been development of new policies and practices that have increased the importance of ethical responsibility.

In order to be able to competently perform and part of the management team I decided to take a course in ethical leadership to help me to learn more about ethical issues and their impact at workplaces. This will improve my performance of being vigilant, open communication and offering expert support for ethical programs.


Tracing back to my early days on the job, I can tell that, there has been great transformation at AT&T in terms of ethical responsibility. Ethics have become very important at this workplace as they have been shaping the organization culture of this company.

An employee in the management team, I have often used out company ethical standard to decide on what to do and what practices to allow. This has built a good reputation for the entire management team.

Previously, some unscrupulous acts were condoned and such personalities caused a great deal of trouble into the company operations including the process of hiring. Since, the organization has had a culture of proactive model of addressing problems; I sought to ensure that the vice of unethical acts does not permeate through the whole company to cause negative effects like poor client service, unethical accounting issues or inadequate quality.

As such I studied ethical leadership in order to understand the ethical theories bearing in mind that unethical conduct can affect even managers like me.


There is increased awareness of human rights in the AT&T workplace and people are expected to adhere to the code of conduct in their normal daily tasks, however, this is not always the case. There are several factors that I have observed to complicate the matter.

One might say that the company is experiencing ethical crisis but, there are a much more individual problems yet to be addressed. Faced with an ethical dilemma, a person can deduce what is the correct thing to do by intuitive common sense but still take another course of action.

This is what I refer to as lack of moral courage which is basically the unwillingness to do the correct thing yet the consequences may be too much to bear. This is because the damage caused by ethical violations is more that monetary value and may include diminution of company reputation.

I have come to learn that the major challenge to ethical responsibility entailed the personal ability to reason or make decision whenever I am faced with an ethical dilemma.

This would determine whether or not I can make the decisions regarding ethical issues, therefore to ensure that I am responsible, ethical leadership course was the right thing for me since decision making is a learned skill that I need and must have to deal with ethical issues.

Testing and Application

I have come to appreciate that ethics at workplace play a crucial role just as the spinal cord is to the body. Even AT&T has now decided to consider it as a management discipline especially that every company is required to bear its social responsibility.

In over the 11 years that I have been in the management team, I have witnessed great awareness in the company concerning ethical conduct and this has raised the expectations the employees to act according to the dictates of the company’s ethics code and programs.

As part of the management team members I have realized that my role in this is to support the ethical conduct of the workers and the organization. This therefore entails two major responsibilities. The first is to lead the employees by example and promoting ethical values that the company will be proud of.

Second, as part of the management, I have to be the enforcer of the ethical standards and a whistle-blower in the event that unethical behavior is observed. Essentially, allowing it to take place or turning a blind eye to such actions would greatly demean the principles that the company was founded.

The Interplay of Personal Values and Ethical Standards

Description of Concrete Experience

With my experience at AT&T as the Access Network Engineer, I learnt that the relationship between the company’s ethical standards and the personal values was a question of morality where behavior is guided by certain standards and expectations. With the workplaces being a source of livelihood for so many and also helps to satisfy the feeling of self actualization, personal character is very important. Workplaces offer a reason and a way of behavior and standard of life and therefore this virtue sustains morality and has to be adhered to even at workplace.

I appreciate that though the organization throughout the management team sets the standards to be followed by the rest of the organization, the choice to follow these ethics is entirely a person choice. A person cannot be compelled to make an otherwise choice but this can only be expected and explained. Facing disciplinary measures works to reduce the choice of unethical character.

In essence, I welcome the fact that my workplaces is composed of a cluster of individuals and therefore a collection of various personalities with a range of attitudes and characters which in most cases can dilute the set standard ethics.

The course of action that a person takes to violate or obey the ethical standards differs depending on personality and such decisions have accountability and responsibility. This responsibility is individual and each person assumes the responsibility of breaching the organizational expectation. I support the fact that the company’s rules require that employees take individual responsibilities for their action instead of collective accountability.


I have realized with my experience at AT&T that the personal values of every employee played a great role in the determination of the workplace ethics. Simple virtues like loyalty, honesty and accountability n help to shape the workplace environment.

These characteristics help to build the business’s literacy hence helping in the addressing of the real problems in more efficient ways. Even though every individual’s personal ethics may be very different from each other, all these personal value matter when making the companies ethical standards. Because of these differences, each employee has to be included in one ethical program with one goal.

The determination of right and wrong or good and bad are issues that my thought alone cannot decide but the power of perception of the company’s employee. All these perceptions are based on evolution which is in turn rooted in ethical theories. I believe that ethics standards should be followed despite the reason behind is because ethics constitute moral accountabilities.


From experience, I realized that ethics entail the ability to make rational and morally correct choices where I am able to feel good about myself and the benefits that come from it. These choices have to be the right choices.

Basically, the right choice which constitute a bigger part of the organizational ethics are derived from the basic golden rules like do not steal, do not bear false witness or the major one that says that you to other what you would expect them to do to you. I know that people always struggle to keep these rules as ethics is considered as the part that is related to private life. However, sometimes there is a problem of being required to do what is good for the business stakeholders at the expense of personal values.

I believe that personal ethics have a lot to do with personal leadership values. And as important as the ethical standards are, I need to understand as much about ethical leadership as I can so as to align personal values and the ethical standards. This can make it easy for the rest of the employees to adhere to the standards.

Testing and Application

I have always supported the promotion of individuals based on their capability of contributing to the company goals to that in can perform above and beyond the expectations.

This is because certain individual have a greater sense of personal values and my perception has been that through their performance, the individuals demonstrate ability to be effective in the next level; the management. Nonetheless, the transformation of the idea of doing the job oneself into leading a team to do the work requires personal expertise in workplace ethics.

The Interplay of Professional Responsibilities and Ethical Standards

Description of Concrete Experience

As a manager, it is very important that one adhered to the ethical standards and the professional responsibilities that come with holding a particular position or attain certain level of expertise. This will prevent an individual from not promising or implying agreement to certain practices that are contrary to the professional ethics or the ethical expectations of the organization.

I appreciate that the code of professional conduct is very essential for any profession as it guide the employees in fulfilling their professional responsibilities. This therefore brings about the idea of accountability and responsibility for the expert employees.

In any profession, it’s the responsibilities of the professional to maintain ethical standards which are normally in line with the ethical standards. Since when I was a junior employee, I observed that the professionals in management positions developed maintained and supported very high standards of professional competence that was expected to be followed by the rest.

I realized the major goal was to protect the public from any substandard services or products that did not meet the international best standards. From that, I accepted that as one of the managers, I will be responsible and accountable for the professional actions that failed to meet the least ethical standards.


With professional qualifications comes a greater responsibility of what happens at work. As such I am able to accept my limitation in profession qualification by limiting my practice to areas where I am competent enough as per my education, training, confidence of supervisor and professional requirements. I understand that professional ethics require that the responsibilities be carried out based on established scientific or professional skills and knowledge of that particular job.

Professional ethics also require that I should maintain recent competency my area of expertise by continued professional development and consultation as well as other means of conforming to the current professional standard. This concerns, lead me into studying ethical leadership to be updated on the current ethical environment.

Professional responsibilities are integrated in the ethics standards so that they have the same goals. This is because in order to execute professional responsibilities, the professional have to use professionally accepted process and that the job being carried out should be acceptable by the normal societal moral standards


Professional code is almost in every profession to guide professional workers how they conduct their responsibilities on daily basis. I have over the past 11 years given it a critical though as to why there is need to have the code when all the professionals receives the same kind of training for the profession.

I came to understand that, practicing any particular profession was not that easy. Basically, no profession usually wants to begin being unethical purposively but rather it is an issue of juggling some options at once and in an attempt to honestly trying to meet some of the job obligation, one can sincerely fail to know the best way forward.

I can now confirm that one of the major challenges that professional face is the impasse of conflicting loyalties. Professional code offers the systematic model of dealing with such conflicts that a person may face when acting in a professional capacity since he/she still wears other hats.

The professional responsibility is designed on the precepts of the instinctive concept of moral wrong and right conduct which is the basis of the ethical standards but in works beyond that. Professional are expected to offer services beyond the normal routine tasks and demonstrate greater ethical values based on their training and requirement if their disciplines.

Testing and Application

Professional responsibility is the expectations of the profession workers are indicated by shared values where the prescription of the right course of action is based. As a result, the codes share similar principles with the moral theory meaning that professional code symbolizes good moral precepts with internal constancy. Basically, what is right for me can be right for any other person all the time or most of the times.

Professional code and moral standards all seek to answer the question ‘how am I expected to behave?’, but ethical standards leaves room for expectations while professional standards have a guide of what has to be done. Basically, in an attempt to clarify what constitutes right and wrong in ht professional practice, codes of conduct are in most cases a combination of the Utilitarian and the Deontological theories of ethical behavior.

I practically support the use of professional responsibility that is in line with ethical standards because they combine deontology by prescribing what to do like the principles to follow. At the same time, the code has utilitarian impression by suggesting that everyone stand to benefit when we all observed the same moral standards.

A Model for Ethical Decision-Making

Description of Concrete Experience

During my first days in the management team after I had been promoted to the management position, I faced some situations that require my sound judgment and rational decision making skills.

Being in a position to correctly determine the next course of action was a great challenge for me especially on issues that seemed to have some dilemma. In order to be able to face my challenges, I did not want to entirely on others people’s opinions and advice so I took the ethical leadership course.

In this course, I have come to understand the standard guide for ethical decision making. The guide offered me a structure of rational decision making in an internationally accepted fashion. The process of decision making entails seven steps.


There are basically five moral principles that are considered to be the keystone of the ethical standards and decision making. The guidelines do not often address all the circumstances that I was forced to tackle. However, I found out that constant review of the ethical principles which basically form the basis of the professional code assists in clarification of the matters that touch on particular situations.

These five principles include beneficence, justice, fidelity, nonmaleficence and autonomy and they are utter certainties in and of themselves. Exploration of any ethical dilemma with consideration of these principles allows better comprehension of the conflicting issues. When assessing an ethical dilemma, as a person in the management position and required to make a decision, I mostly explored the situation and related it on the above concepts.

Sometimes, this alone enabled me to clarify the matters enough that resolving the dilemma was easy and therefore faster decision making. However, some cases have always been very intricate hence requiring strict work through of the seven steps of ethical decision process and assessment of the possible moral conflicts.


With regard to the ethical issues, there is a stepwise model that has been devised to guide practitioners in solving ethical dilemmas. The model draws ideas from a number of writers hence creating a practical, stepwise approach for decision making. For me, using a sequential process to reach decision made it easy to collect facts and reason on a structured concept hence allowing me to reach informed and rational decision. The steps include;

  1. Problem identification
  2. Supplication of the relevant code of ethics to the matter or situation
  3. Determination of the type and nature of the problem
  4. Generating a number of possible courses of action as alternatives
  5. Weighing the alternatives and choosing one course of action
  6. Evaluating the chosen course of action for feasibility
  7. Implementing the selected course of action in the organization

Progressive thinking has demonstrated that there is never one solution to complex ethical dilemmas therefore different professional can utilize different means of reaching a decision. However, the use of this model assured me that I was going to give a professional explanation for my decisions.

Testing and Application

According to the type of activities and decisions that I undertook at the job, I discovered that ethical behavior at times was arbitrary. I could be behaving ethically responsible when I upheld personal and professional honesty coupled with the best interests of the company customers at heart, without malice or mischievous personal gains.

All these compounded by the fact that I could offer justification of my actions as being the best judgment of what ought to have been done as required by my professional expertise and position at AT&T.

Practical Implications of Ethical Decisions

Description of Concrete Experience

One crucial question that has lingered my mind is that why shouldn’t I just follow my conscience, act good and do a good job without making ethic a big deal. I have learnt that leading an ethical life while in business in a very tough job and at times it gets very complex.

There are a number of companies that have failed to hope for the best and focused on the maximization of profits. I agree that only a well-argued and all-inclusive set of ethical code or values that are designed to address a number of emerging ethical dilemmas, meticulously monitored by management can help to steer clear of a threatening disaster.

Currently, the ethical dilemmas are not about basic moral issues like stealing or lying to the boss, but a matter of moral standards based on personal values and the elemental ground rules of how people should behave at workplace. Each decision comes with a consequence which is either a reward or punishment depending of the underlying principles governing the profession.


There have been some moments when I have had to determine the correct ethical thing to do depending on the circumstance at hand. It is pertinent to take the ethical guidelines seriously, because, these current guidelines could develop into laws in future.

Ethics course has been very beneficial in helping me to fins my way through some ethical dilemmas where there is no clear legal explanation. There has never been a very opportune moment to emphasize law in business like in today’s society.

In the past, some companies have used unethical dealings to make profits for their companies and have faced the law because of their fraudulent activities. Despite the perception that ethics at AT&T is hortatory instead of mandatory, contravening ethical standards is a serious offense that can attract even life imprisonment depending on the magnitude.

To enhance ethical decisions, there is the legal sanction or consequences and voluntary compliance option. Failing making ethical decisions that infringe the required standards attract punishment from tougher laws and other negative consequences that can affect business like defaming its reputation. However, compliance can draw benefits like government support, good reputation and image.


To some extent, I can define the driving force for the continued adherence to the ethical standards in workplaces has been the fear of the law. Basically is one acts in breach of the law, he or she can end up in jail.

Ethical decisions implication especially adherence or compliance is a show of respect, integrity and accountability on the part of an individual and the organization at large. However, I view contravention of ethics as irresponsible behavior full of malice, greed and guile.

However, it’s totally difficult to keep the vice out of an organization because these habits are usually suppressed but surfaces when there is an opportunity to be exploited. There many intrinsic benefits that are linked to ethics. When a company implements rational ethical decisions, then it will benefit by building good behavior among workers, creating a positive image, strengthening and reinforcing its teamwork, developing credible work guideline and promoting diversity awareness and appreciation.

Testing and Application

I believe the best way of attracting the best talent and experienced workers is to have a clear assertion of the moral and professional standards we follow and the role that these standards play when it comes to making decisions.

I think we should have a clearly stated moral concept detailing good and bad or wrong and right and how they interact with certain ethical contexts especially responsibilities and obligation. It should highlight how one is expected to behave when faced with ethical dilemma.

To that end, I am certain that it will be meaningful to draft ethical guidelines or a statement for AT&T probably with the updated mission statement to explain the basis on which the company operates. I am also convinced that it would be beneficial to ensure that all workers understand the type consequences one might face or enjoy following a particular decision on professional ethics.

Conflicts of Values/Ethical Dilemmas

Description of Concrete Experience

In many organizations despite how hard the managers try to handle them, ethical issues always seem to crop up. Sometimes it may seem that the managers have solved problem when it oftentimes reappears. I think that an ethical dilemma is always experienced when a person is faced with a situation that presents two possible right options but require different reaction.

These clashes can be simple and straightforward or sometimes they can be very complicated requiring the intervention of professional ethics regulatory bodies. In the cases where the views of an individual and the standard ethics conflict, it is usually the inability of pursuing one of the option which seem to be good.

The critical aspects of ethical dilemma include being in a position to perform only one action and not both even when one is able to perform each of them. The person charged with responsibility of making the decisions is condemned to ethical failure on one of the options despite the course of action taken. Basically its failure when we are unable to do something that we have the ability to do and ought to have done it. Nonetheless, there are cases when one ethical option overrides the other.


I believe that conflict of values in the organization cannot be waved away like they are nonexistence, ethical leadership, therefore entails learning to restructure the problems as dilemmas. As an ethical leader, I will be required to pursue acquisition if virtue and not only the character.

The organization expects that I will be in a position to have an abiding interest to forged common goal and a set of values among competing factions without making them subservient. Because a number of alternative present ethical dilemmas and conflict of values despite the course of action a leader may chose, I envisage that there will be remorse, shame and regret among employees.

These strong emotions definitely figure outstandingly in an ethical dilemma and this is so because the leaders responsible for making decision must forfeit one value over the other. These negative feeling are usually associated with a person doing something wrong and she/he should bear responsibility and it’s this type of feeling that cause mixed perception of right and wrong.


Based from the negative feeling that some people may show when they resent the decision made about conflicting values I believe that ethical dilemma is harmful to the organization.

It is possible for a leader to wonder whether there is a problem when it is in fact very obvious to outsiders. When there is harm, it calls for accountability and in most cases it’s the leaders who are held responsible for any damage caused.

Human beings can cause serious emotional expression but they are not based on the degree of ethical responsibility. Nonetheless, the emotional response causes the leaders to be more cautious and sensitive when making decisions that seem to be at a stalemate.

Looking at conflict of values and ethical dilemmas as a standoff can allow the managers to build organization that is string and founded on shared values and good personal relations. Instead of being demoralized there can be a compromise.

Testing and Application

I have seen ethical dilemmas emerge from the personal values that conflict directly with the set standards of the organization. Organizations are able to manage their ethical environment by hiring workers who posses values that match their own.

Some companies even try to measure the values of workers during the recruitment process as such try to select employees who fit in the ethical program of the organization. Poor matching can be costly to the organization as it can directly lead to crises like low job satisfaction, job turn over and poor performance.

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