Drama

58

Women’s Independency In Hendrick Isbsen’s Play “A Doll’s House”

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

In today’s society, mostly everyone is taught to be self-efficient. Also, to go get things on their own, so you can be able to say I worked for everything I have. No one ever wants to feel as if they are living under someone else, because what is something happens you are depending on them for your life. When mothers raise their daughters, they teach their daughters to be independent women. Mothers also teach their daughter that they can be anything in this world. In A Doll’s House it reflects to society, women independency. In the play, Nora was portrayed as a silly woman who didn’t know how to do anything for herself, but as the story goes on she began to gain knowledge on how she really was supposed to live her life. In Hendrick Isbsen’s A Doll’s House, he captures how Nora views herself as a doll in the perspectives as a wife, a mother, and a woman.

Referring to the play, Nora was playing to be the perfect wife as her husband Torvald wanted. He always wanted her to stay in her place, being a house wife and taking care of their children. Being the perfect wife is how most women want to live in their marriage. What many people fail to realize is going through a struggle in your marriage is ok, it only makes the couple’s relationship stronger. She was so focused on not disappointing Torvald she made a big lie about getting the money for his health. That shouldn’t have been a secret, she was doing what she had to do to support her husband. Many people of society think that women shouldn’t work nor bring money to the table, when that is really not the point at all. `

Nora felt that her children were acting as her dolls. Meaning their playing the “perfect children” to Nora, just as Nora is playing the “perfect wife” to Torvald. Nora and Torvald have three children together. Nora stayed at home most her time watching their children while Torvald worked for their household. Nora didn’t want her children acting as puppets, just lifeless human beings. As a mother, she felt like she failed her children. They watched her be a doll to Torvald, so that’s all they knew how to do, but it wasn’t their faults. Everyone as parent always wishes for their children to be open and opinionated. When your children are acting as dolls they aren’t open to you, their very closed off bottling in their feelings. Nora ways rubbed off on her children negatively.

As a woman, Nora was tired of living in a lie. She was tired of living this fake, put together life. She wanted to live for herself, as every woman should. She also wanted to be on her own to learn things for herself; she was tired of living under Torvald. Woman independency is very big in today society. Woman have learned to stand up for them self from many years ago form the past. In todays society, there are more business owned by woman than men own. Nora felt like she owed it to herself to be knowledgeable about the outside world other than happy Mr and Mrs Helmer and kids.

Nora played a huge role throughout the play A Doll’s House. She showed how she satisfied everyone but herself. She was being Torvald “doll wife” as she mentioned in the play. She rubbed off her “doll ways” on her children. Mainly she lost herself, she never knew what it felt like to make herself happy. Several of us in this world try to make others happy first, and we always forget to put ourselves first. Especially woman we are very strong individuals and we deserve to be happy.

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64

The Humor And Laughter in ‘Merchant Of Venice’ by William Shakespeare

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

The Pound of Flesh

Dealing with business and life situation having wisdom is important for survival in today’s life. Merchant of Venice is a book that uses humor to teach people to act with caution. The protagonist and Villain in the book possessed elements of wisdom. The book had a significant role in decisions and it teaches one how to escape the problems. The humor and laughter give it a soft touch and enables while emphasizing on its lessons. Merchant of Venice is one influencing book.

The book involves a Venetian, Bassanio who needs a loan to marry the love of his life, Portia. Bassanio is broke and cannot afford the required amount of money to marry the love of her life. He approaches a Shylock who is willing to lend him the money but with certain conditions. The conditions given by the Shylock will involve extracting a pound of flesh from Bassanio’s friend in case of late repayment. Signing business deals quickly seem to be ruling the business world and are a leading cause of loss (Grosz and Wendler). Just like Shylock, I believed that I would get quick gratification resulting to higher profits or the fall of my major competitors. Some deals offered appear too good to pass but without due diligence one has the potential of losing everything they have worked hard to gain. The book applies directly in my life and has taught me good lessons of an entrepreneurship. There is always a negative consequence for rushed business deals. The book’s lessons are priceless to me as a business person.

The book has many moral lessons, which are important life. One should not act spiteful without looking at all possible outcomes of the choice they make. Shylock didn’t make smart decision making it easy to lose his fortunes. Poor choices in life have terrible results. At first, I did not think the book would have any significant lesson in life. I believed it a work of literature and humor until the unexpected happened. I had the expectations of making quick money after my high school graduation. The thoughts of living a broke life appeared to be terrifying. The knowledge in my possession of people like Bill Gates who made billions of dollars without going to university/college influenced the decisions I made. Education became an unimportant. I amassed savings from the hourly waged jobs I did serving tables at the local restaurants and bars. Through savings and family grants, I established my first portfolio in the stock market. The business flourished quickly, and soon my social status had changed. My social life began to matter to me more and more. The desire of having more money continued to grow. Bank loans and other financial solutions suddenly became attractive. The desire to grow and diversify became the driving force for the business.

Coincidentally, I felt I had met my luck. A locally and internationally renowned businessperson agreed to form a partnership. He would provide a bulk of the capital to expand the business and grow the portfolio. The money flow picked up , and we managed to make six figures in just six months. Many people considered our arrangement as strategic. I had hidden intentions for the business. The goal I had was that I would one day pay off my partner his capital plus a lucrative interest that would become difficult to deny. Thoughts of buying out a partner whose financial leverage and networks had pushed the company to greater heights obsessed me.I received advice from close friends and relatives to further my educations, but their thoughts did not matter. I had managed to retain fifty-one shares of the business. The idea of having controlling shares made me believe that I could kick out my partner at any given time. I thought to have him removed from the business. With my power and authority, I served him with a notice letter. The firm was to compensate him very well and give additional interest based on the amount of capital he brought. He left without any complaint. The situation called for a celebration, I took my girlfriend Daniela to River Park in Manhattan. In a short period, I received complaints for breach of contract. I had not followed the rules for the termination of our contract or agreement.

The begining started on a perfect note, and I was winning. I continued to brag how smart I had become over the few years since the beginning of the investments. To extend my kindness, I offered to pay my former partner with shares. The support and respect I received from my peers increased because they perceived me as a wise young man .The Day of Judgment came, and I could not hide my big ego and spirit I had went away. I realized I had signed binding agreements and a reason for termination was spelt out. I had no ground for ending the contract. All the hard work and investment I had put in the process was going down the drain. The case favored him, and I had to give him more for losses. He proceeded to file for a hostile takeover of the business and succeeded. The sneaky thoughts I had made me lose everything I worked to achieve.I lost to a person who did not even share in the vision I had planned for. I was back where I started. The advice I had ignored begun to make sense.

The former partner became the primary beneficiary of all the effort I had put into the whole thing. All I could do was remember the lessons thought in the Merchant of Venice. The Shylock deserved repayment but did not receive any payment because of his terrible debt recovery method. My failure just like Shylock’s was by our luck of understanding language repercussions I did not understand or see the problems of the wordind and language that was in our contract. It is important that we evaluate our thoughts before doing something. Both Shylock and I went through the popular belief that pride comes before a fall. The lessons I ignored would be useful in making very important decisions. The people who benefit off any situation are the people guided by knowledge and patience. The way literature applies in my life when making decisions that include other people. The old partner and Antonio received their pound of flesh. yes, language/literacy can have a meaningful impact on a persons life with the importance on proper decision-making.

Works Cited:

  1. Grosz, Tanya, and Linda Wendler. The Merchant of Venice. Saddleback Educational Pub, 2006.

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63

A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry: Complexity Of Generations

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun portrays a low class, traditional black family who deal with rough going circumstances in their lives. Throughout the younger generation’s idea of the American dream contemplates the changing times and the new opportunities laid upon African Americans. The intergenerational conflicts reveal the issues of dreams and possible futures of each character from various angles, bluntly causing tension and discrepancy between a mother and her children. Throughout the play, the reader can see the contrasting views and expectations held by the older and younger generations. Lena, who represents the older generation is passionately religious, her opinions on religious life deeply contrast with her daughter Beneatha. Tension arises as Beneatha proclaims, “Mama: Beneatha — that just wasn’t necessary. Beneatha: Well—neither is God. I get sick of hearing about God. MAMA: Beneatha! Beneatha: I mean it! I’m just tired of hearing about God all the time. What has He got to do with anything? Does he pay tuition? Mama: You ’bout to get you fresh little jaw slapped!”.

Beneatha’s modern mindset towards God clearly angers her mother. In Lena’s house, God still exists, she will not allow any member of her family to speak of God in a disrespectful manner. This contradicts with Beneatha’s atheist ideas, she believes she works very hard to achieve her goals and God should not deserve credit for it. This creates an intense controversy between Lena and Beneatha. In addition, Lena and her son encounter issues as Walter depressingly believes that the only way to achieve one’s dream is through money. In Act one, Lena states “Once upon a time freedom used to be life-now it’s money. I guess the world really do change. . . “. Lena’s older idea of life is making the best of freedom achieved in life, although Walter thinks the only path to happiness and success is money. The intergenerational conflict causes agitation between both mother and son. Furthermore, Lena’s children grow up in a developed world where slavery exists in the past. Although they still face financial hardship and racial discrimination, it is now possible for African Americans to have well reputable jobs such as being a doctor or businessman. In Act one, Lena furiously begins, “Now here come you and Beneatha — talking ’bout things we never even thought about hardly, me and your daddy. You ain’t satisfied or proud of nothing we done. I mean that you had a home; that we kept you out of trouble till you was grown; that you don’t have to ride to work on the back of nobody’s streetcar — You my children — but how different we done become”.

Lena finds the dreams of Walter and Beneatha, far-reaching and risky which is completely new to her. Lena, herself, acknowledges how different her children are from her despite being raised with the same qualities. Walter and Beneatha strive for challenging and modern goals, whereas Lena merely wants to buy a house, so she can keep her family together. Moreover, the following quote, “No – there’s something come down between me and them that don’t let us understand each other and I don’t know what it is. One done almost lost his mind thinking ‘bout money all the time and the other done commence to talk about things I can’t seem to understand in no form or fashion. What is it that’s changing, Ruth?”. Lena is not aware of the reason why she shares such great contrariety with her children. Although the mere reason to her disability to understand them is the gap between time periods.

Overall, Hansberry sets a generational gap as a conflicting barrier between the individuals in A Raisin in the Sun. Lena’s old ideas affectingly contrast with her modern children creating issues on the outlook of beliefs, views, and opinion. Thus, the younger and older generation’s mindset has proven, that the outlook of opinions and morals between them will continue to differentiate and possibly cause complications.

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78

Analysis Of Act Two Scene One Of Shakespeare’s Macbeth

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

Macbeth, also known as ‘’The Tragedy of Macbeth’’ is a play by William Shakespeare. It was performed for the first time around the early 1600’s. Shakespeare was born in 1564. His family a part of the middle-income group and they were a successful glove-maker. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England.

Macbeth is a story about a Scottish general. In the first part of the play, Macbeth is a very devoted and trustworthy man towards King Duncan. He hears a prophecy from the supernatural that he will replace the king. Macbeth is filled with desire and hunger to be the new king. His wife Lady Macbeth encourages him and gives him a confidence boost. Finally he finds the willpower to kill King Duncan and takes the title of the ‘king. ’ The Scottish general is immediately filled with regret and remorse. He no longer has a clear conscience which causes him to be unable to get sleep at night. Due to his lack of sleep he starts losing his sanity and as the days go on his mental state gets worse. He needs to keep on committing murder in order to keep the secret that he committed regicide. At the end of the play Macbeth is killed by people that he has mistreated.

Act two scene one is a critical part of the play. It tells us that Macbeth is starting to lose his mind. We can understand this by the hallucinations of the dagger he is seeing. At first, he is very puzzled of the image his brain is creating. He questions if its real or not by asking the dagger ‘’Is this a dagger which i see before me. ’’ Macbeth states that he can’t determine if the dagger is real or not which gives hints about is mental health state. He then realizes that his mind is making up false illusions. ‘’A dagger of the mind, a false creation. ’’ This quote shows how Macbeth approaches this matter. He then continues talking to the dagger: ‘’You’re leading me towards the place I was going already. ’’ He has to continue to commit murder in order to protect his name and to not uncover the fact that he committed regicide. After inspecting the dagger he notices blood splotches on the blade that were not there before.

‘’And on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood. ’’ This description of the figment of imagination shows a weapon that was used to kill a person. This foreshadows that an assassination is about to happen. Macbeth uses these exact words to clarify that he is the one that’s going to kill someone and the thought of this is causing a delusion of an object. Hallucination is among the common symptoms of sleep deprivation. In other words insomnia results in acute paranoid schizophrenia.

‘’There’s no such thing. It is the bloody business which informs. ’’ Towards the end of the scene, the supernatural is included (especially focusing on the witches). Macbeth blames his insanity on the witches because ultimately what started the murders were a prophecy from the Weird Sisters. ‘’The curtained sleep. Witchcraft celebrates. ’’ He then describes murder as an old man that resembles a wolf that is walking silently to his destination, as quiet as a ghost. ‘’Alarumed by his sentinel, the wolf, Whose howl’s his watch, thus with his stealthy pace… Moves like a ghost. ’’ The supernatural play a huge role in this play. At the very end of the scene, Macbeth decides to kill Banquo. Which we understand by him telling the ground to hide the crime he is going to commit. He is telling the ground to not listen where he is heading. He tells the ground to stay silent and cover his acts. ‘’Hear not my steps, which way they walk, for fear. ’’ He keeps on re-examining the whole plan and by doing so, he more anxious than he was. This also shows his unbalanced personality and his tendency to overthink. This is also another effect on his mind from the insomnia. ‘’Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives. ’’

In conclusion this scene in the play gives us details of what is going to happen next. These two pages are very critical for the whole story. It implies what is approaching.

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140

Analysis Of The Shakespeare’s “Hamlet”

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

Hamlet is an enduring play, in that Shakespeare’s plays touch on the intricacies of the human condition. While contextual values can change, our basic human nature to seek answers to the fundamental questions of life remains constant, and allows Hamlet to respond to us in many ways. Hamlet is not limited by contextual barriers, and therefore multitudes of interpretations are plausible through the play’s ability to be recontextualised due to its complex characterization and universal themes. That is, the existential ideas of the disillusionment with reality through the search for truth and self, and the confrontation of roles and propensity of revenge to provoke a struggle between contemplation and action, as well as the fear and inevitability of death that pervades the presence in Hamlet.These timeless ideas continue to vex humanity to the end of existence, and reflect Hamlet’s enduring relevance today.

The corrupt world is sustained throughout the play, enhancing Shakespeare’s commentary on the deception and corruption present in the world, and the confusion this causes, which speaks to all contexts. Shakespeare introduces the fundamental questioning of humanity, and presents the motif of truth and appearances. In the opening scene, the instability of Ellsinore establishes the tone of uncertainty, as evoked by the opening line: “Who’s there?”. Shakespeare reflects on the political uncertainty of the Elizabethan era, as LC Knights further argues, “The ethos of the place is made up of coarse pleasures, of moral obtuseness, treacherous plotting and brainless triviality.” The corruption of Denmark is further reinforced in the metaphor of the overgrown garden “tis an unweeded garden/ rank and gross in nature”, which highlights a world of decay and disorder whereby the natural order has been disturbed by Claudius’ murder of Old King Hamlet. Here, Hamlet’s moral dilemma is governed by not only the death of his father, but also by the marriage of Gertrude (Hamlet’s mother) and Claudius (Hamlet’s uncle). This theme of verisimilitude is established by Hamlet’s true words, “But I have that within which asses show, / These but the trapping and the suits of woe”, implying that Gertrude and Claudius’ grief is superficial – an appearance. Through dramatic binaries, Hamlet, a Renaissance thinker shows awareness of the inconsistency between the surfaces people adopt and the truths they hide, as expressed in the lines “Seems, madam! Nay, it is; I know not ‘seems.’ as ‘one may smile and be a villain’. Here, the appearance of reality is disillusioned and Hamlet adopts an ‘’antic disposition’’ to metaphorically shield against the world of appearances that eventuates in his madness. As TS Eliot suggests, “the ‘madness’ of Hamlet was feigned in order to escape suspicion” thus making it Hamlet’s duty to restore order to Ellsinore. Through Claudius’ death, it allows Hamlet to triumph, albeit tragically, over both Machiavellianism and the corruption of Denmark, thereby restoring harmonious order. Thus, the integration of theme and structure in the examination of natural order serves to highlight the unity of the Hamlet as a whole.

The Elizabethan society and its enduring ideals of filial piety propound Hamlet’s inaction. Hamlet’s disillusionment with reality, as seen in the metaphorical allusion to ‘’all forms, moods, shape of grief that can denote me truly’’, is due to Hamlet’s dramatic struggle between contemplation and action, as seen in his antagonistic relationship with Claudius. Shakespeare examines the appearance of the ghost acting as a dramatic catalyst for Hamlet’s consideration of his duty to “revenge his foul and most unnatural murder” of his dead father, King Hamlet. However, Hamlet is characterised by his inability to avenge his father’s murder, and eventually hinders his belief in the necessity of acting through his soliloquy ‘’but in our circumstance… am I then revenged’’ delaying his vengeance. Through the extensive use of soliloquies throughout the play, it exposes Hamlet’s true thoughts and feelings to the audience; revealing his dual personality of intellect and moments of vengeful fury. Such complexities of human nature coherently and consistently acts as “a glass where you may see the inmost part of you”, forcing the audience to reconsider the importance of being true to oneself. Hence, it is argued that Hamlet’s soliloquy creates a universal bond that is reflected in Hamlet’s sarcasm and melancholy for his own lack of action that many often experience. Having been influenced by the psychological analysis of my context, and the Elizabethan context in which the play was written, my interpretation of the play highlights Hamlet’s succession in demolishing the corruption of his world, and therefore allowing truth and order to be restored. Coleridge’s reading, states that Hamlet’s inaction is a psychological condition due his intellectuality causes Hamlet to perceive reality as a pigment of his imagination.

Shakespeare explores the fear of death and our subsequent need to accept the inevitabilities of mortality found within reality and the uncertainty it brings through Hamlet’s continual procrastination against immediate revenge. Through a dramatic discussion of issues, that carry continual relevance within contemporary society, Shakespeare’s Hamlet retains its integrity and value as a text. Influenced by Elizabethan religious views and moral justifications, Shakespeare’s contemplation between Hamlet’s actions of suicide or avengement, both sinful and religiously consequential in action, conveys the innate fear of uncertainty that death brings. This is conveyed through the representation of King Hamlet’s ghost, and an initial doubting of his intentions “be thou a spirit of health or goblin damned?” reflecting the questioning of religious truths within Shakespeare’s context. This contemplation of the afterlife is conveyed further in Hamlet’s Humanist soliloquy “to be or not to be…” through the metaphoric statement “the undiscovered country, from whose bourn, not travellers returns” describing the discomposure of death. Hamlet’s contemplation of suicide as a way to void the moralistic tortures of mortality are met with the contextual influence of religious debate, presenting him with a metaphysical dilemma between corruption on earth and purgatory. Hamlet deals with the universal emotional and intellectual dilemma,“You cannot take away anything that will more willingly part withal – except my life, except my life, except my life.”. The epizeuxis highlights his philosophical attention to death and the melancholy he possesses, captivating audiences from his deep contemplation of life’s meaning in the face of mortality. Textual integrity is also apparent in in the play whereby the play begins and ends with the poisoning of the kings Old King Hamlet and Claudius respectively contributing to the overall completeness of the play. As the play treats death like a concept more than just a stage in life at times, Shakespeare thus can explores the many facets of death in order to convey various perceptions of life and afterlife, ultimately the human experience.

In summation, Hamlet serves to accentuate the existential concepts and ideas that continue to vex humanity. As 19th century critic A.C. Bradley stated, Hamlet is a “symbol of a tragic mystery inherent in human nature”; Hamlet epitomises the human condition. Shakespeare uses Hamlet to tunnel into the disillusionment with reality through the search for truth and self in a world of appearances, the conflict of roles and the propensity of revenge to provoke struggle between contemplation and action, as well as the fear and inevitability of death that pervades the presence in Hamlet. It is through such complexity and endurance of modern ideals that engages contemporary audiences and makes Hamlet worthy of a critical study.

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71

King Lear And The Syntax Of All Madness

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

Perhaps it’s as a result of I’ve this comprehension downside which produces it onerous for me personally to tell that the hole in between Al Pacino and Robert De Niro, nonetheless that I actually do not presume character is definitely actually only a matter of confronts. Or our bodies. Or outfits. And occasionally actions. I’ve come to make certain character’s beating coronary heart will probably be speech, though These things are essential. You uncover the way in which she believes Within the occasion you perceive a persona speaks, in fact, you uncover how she behaves must you uncover the way in which she believes. No the place is that extra clear than in Shakespeare, that was merely colorful and interfering collectively utilizing his level tips utilizing all his speech.

We could shoot, as really amongst of these examples, King Lear’s occasion. We’re capable of take a take a look at a horrible determine consists out of a succession of syllables positioned in a while. Allow us to begin utilizing a language by the spectacle. This his many loyal & curse up on his most endearing lady, Cordelia, who’s uncared for to carry out collectively aspect the farce is being leveled by Lear. To place it imperial deal with. Lear’s poetry is effectively thought-about and quantified. The pentameter by no means strays away out of your iambic, but what kind of pentameter are all of us referring to this? It is not the boring, sledge hammer, mono-syllabic pentameter we comprehend from Tennyson’s Ulysses, if he admits his personal closing intention “To attempt, to look, to get, and maybe by no means to neglect ” In case Ulysses’ lineup is only one of lifeless, armed forces exhortation,” Lear’s speech could be that your pentameter of lawful kingship, hid since it truly is through the use of polysyllabic Latinate stone akin to “surgical procedures” together with additionally “propinquity. ” His syntax proposes a ideas that’s wholesome.

That sentence’s area of interest could be buried 5 traces, supporting a wall of phrases which arouses the hedging that’s legalistic and likewise rhetoric of formality we might depend on from the courtroom. His speech this signifies a mind that is basically complete, though Lear’s necessities for compliments out of his brothers could probably be mad. At the moment we’re outdoors to the heath, drifting inside the storm. Edgar, who’s soiled and nude, cavorting round within the guise of all insufficient Tom has been struck by Lear. The king will get left handed poetry, due to this fact regardless that it’s value virtually nothing in any respect which the passing has been iambic, as a lot, we can’t create a whole lot of the meter. Individuals thudding iambs, but -that the beast no cover, the sheep no wool-would be nonetheless a universe aside out of your fluid coping with of situations akin to “propinquity” from the very first deal with, additionally if Lear strikes a phrase akin to “unaccomodated” it jars, shattering the rhythm of all the pieces stems forward. He has counting on buildings which can be syntactical which can be intricate, too, leaning onto easy lists-a weak, naked creature -that include almost 1 / 2 of their passing. It constructed extra pitiful from the straightforward reality which he’s attaining a disquisition in regards to the essence of gentleman, discourse. Contemplating that this speech, however, “attaining” will not be probably the most appropriate phrase.

Very similar to groping. We have now arrive into the King phrases which can be. Precisely what precisely would individuals see? A busted, interrupted syntax additionally fragments, in addition to exclamations. Not like those which might come no heritage is being leant onto by this deal with: it’s possibly maybe not hoping to be each philosophical, and even authorized, or imperial. Lear is over and above rhetoric discovered types of speech. Then look what the outcomes are – though could be that a return into the speeches’ rhythm – traces 313 and 314 are excellent. Each strains are there to place up us for what’s change into completely absolutely the most barbarous syllables from the terminology: under no circumstances, by no means, by no means. That is the best inversion of this all-natural sequence, an lineup of pentameter. This line seems prefer it’s included of phrases. The speech rests, some factor that’s exhibiting aged, solely noise, darker, anger, ache, and lack con Fusion previous some phrases’ functionality to fix.

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58

The Female Perspective In Sophocles’ Antigone And Sappho’s Poetry

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

Throughout Sophocles’ play the audience notices the misogynistic overtones from Creon, but here, more than anywhere else in the play, Creon fully displays his opinion on women and how far he will go to protect the sanctity of not only his perceived power but the power that men hold in society in general. To lay his “pride bare to the blows of ruin” is more than Creon can handle. Even the character of the sentry makes a pointed remark about Creon when he states that it is terrible when “the one who does the judging judges things all wrong”. In the end, however, Creon loses his family through his unwillingness to bend the rules to bury Antigone’s brother Polynices and shows that in “the ills afflicting men” the worst “is lack of judgment”.

Sophocles seems to be suggesting that men should not use their preconceived notions of women to manipulate their power, or exert that power, over women. Antigone wins the moral fight between her and Creon and directly challenges the male-made order of things. Sophocles displays the general attitudes of the public in those times through the character of Creon in Antigone and his play showcases how gender issues were highly problematic in that time. Sophocles also showcases his personal view that men can be wrong in their judgments and shouldn’t make unilateral decisions over them, but more pointedly, is that a woman’ judgement can be right.

Another such author who highlighted women, and in particular the female perspective, in ancient Greek society, was the poetess Sappho. Since little of the poetry of women survives from ancient Greece, her work becomes important because it indicates what sorts of female-with-female relationships existed. Sappho challenges the traditional roles of women by describing the complexity of female relationships, even antagonistic ones. Although we have no definite portrait of these women’s lives, Sappho had the unique ability in her poetry to stretch beyond the limits of her female contemporaries to describe femininity and female relationships with grace and empowerment. Sappho was thought to have run a school for girls, and it was important in Greek society for girls to be educated and deemed eligible for marriage. Some of the fragments of Sappho’s poetry seem to speak of another rival “school, ” and the women who run them, such as in fragment #52.

In fragment #52 it is speculated that Atthis is a girl that has gone on to another school and abandoned Sappho, or possibly, it is a relationship that has soured since the same girl is mentioned in the previous fragment #51 where Sappho speaks well of her: “in skill I think you need never bow to any girl”. Now, the girl has apparently darted off to Andromeda and Sappho states how Atthis hates even the thought of her. Why Atthis does this we can only speculate, but clearly if she was a student or perhaps a protégé of Sappho’s, the relationship between the two has clearly ended on bad terms.

It is rare to see women talking amongst each other without the conversation being about men or the women talking to men in general. Sappho’s work gives us a rare glimpse into the interpersonal relationships that women had in Archaic Greece. In poem #40 Sappho seems to be talking about the past relationship she had with two other women, possibly her students, Anactoria and Atthis. It seems highly suggestive in the poem that Anactoria and Atthis had a deeply personal connection with each other, as Sappho states, “Atthis her heart hanging/heavy with longing in her little breast”. Even though women’s lives at that time centered around marriage and men in general, there is a short time before that happens and this poem gives a glimpse into that period.

In poem #20, the reader sees how Greek women mourned their dead. Girls in the poem grieve for Timas, a girl that died young and unmarried. In mourning for her the girls “took new-edged blades” and cut their hair similar to how Achilles cut his hair in mourning for Patroclus in the Iliad. This poem shows how women were allowed to grieve similarly as men were able to. In poem #12 we see, presumably, Sappho’s daughter discussing with her mother how she can’t finish her weaving because of her love for a boy and blaming Aphrodite for killing her with “love for that boy”. This poem could even translate to modern times as a discussion between a mother and a daughter about love and infatuation. This is a very typical topic of conversation for mothers and daughters discussing young love but one hardly sees that in most Greek literature of the times. Sappho has shown us this seemingly mundane conversation, yet it shows just how much women’s lives at the time were not showcased in literature.

In poem #17 we further see Sappho talking about her daughter Cleis who she describes “like a golden flower” and shows just how much love she has for her daughter and the value she places on her. Most value is usually placed on boys because they will carry on the family lineage and name, so this poem is unusual in the sense that we see how a mother in those times valued her daughter. Sappho’s poems depict not only profound female friendships, but also ones of a sexual nature. These relationships consist of a foundation of female friendship but have the additional element of romantic love.

Sappho directly challenges patriarchal notions of female desire that have been widely accepted by describing her sexual desires and romantic introspections. Many of the fragments seem to indicate intimate relationships between one girl and another, in particular between Sappho and another girl. These relationships were definitely tinged with a hint of an erotic quality, as seen for example in the fragment #40, which talks of two possible students of Sappho’s. Sappho includes herself in this poem when she talks of how the girl Anactoria will think of her and another girl Actis and of the “life we shared here”. Even though Anactoria is “across the sea” she still thinks of gentle Actis and this gives a glimpse into the intimacy between not only the two women, but also between Sappho and her possible students. It’s even more evident in poems #38 and #39 where in poem #38 Sappho invokes Aphrodite to help her win the woman she loves whom her “distracted heart most wanted” and this type of love does not seem platonic but more of a romantic love since Sappho is invoking the help of a goddess and not just any but the goddess of erotic love.

In poem #39, Sappho is envious of a man, “more than a hero” because he is allowed to sit beside the woman she loves. Sappho clearly adores or loves this woman as she describes how the woman’s laughter makes her own heart beat fast and how her “tongue is broken” if she meets her suddenly. Sappho is captivated by her physiological responses to watching the woman she loves laughing with a man. The contradiction in this poem is that even though Sappho is the silent observer by putting her thoughts into words, she becomes silent when she states “death isn’t far from me”. This does not seem to be casual platonic friendship between two women but something more intimate bordering on the romantic, at least on Sappho’s end. Sappho even describes how a “thin flame” runs underneath her skin. Almost as if she comes alive every time she sees this women or even thinks about her. Sappho through her poetry conveys that women should be free to express their sexuality and that is something the Greeks didn’t think women should be allowed to do.

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60

Power Of Manipulation In Shakespeare’s Othello And Fey’s Mean Girls

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

The potential to manipulate is within everyone, whether you decide to use it or not determines the type of person you are. Throughout the course of William Shakespeare’s “Othello” and Tina Fey’s “Mean Girls”, the themes of manipulation, jealousy, and character downfall are clearly prevailed. In both the movie and the play these themes were used at the expense of others in order to obtain personal gain. Manipulation was used as weapon, forcing people to do whatever they were told. Jealousy was used in order to gain advantage over another person.

The characters in both “Othello” and “Mean Girls” went through drastic character changes throughout the course of the play/movie which was a result of manipulation and jealousy. Manipulation is the key theme that causes the plot to thicken in both “Othello” and “Mean Girls”. The characters Iago and Cady take advantage of how they are trusted, in order to manipulate others to benefit themselves. Throughout the play “Othello” Iago portrays himself as a kind, honest person, that genuinely cares about the wellbeing of his friends. He does this to make his enemies believe he is their friend and they can trust him “Though I do hate him as I do hell’s pains/I must show out a flag and sign of love”. This allows him to be viewed as a trustworthy person which people can depend on. Clearly his actions are working as he is constantly referred to as “most honest Iago”.

Iago’s intentions to take advantage over others is to seek revenge on Othello and Cassio, after he did not receive the promotion. A prime example of Iago taking advantage over others, is when he gets Cassio drunk in order to start a fight that would result in Cassio’s termination of his position as lieutenant. The way Iago masks his true intentions allows him to manipulate characters without them suspecting a thing.

In a similar way Cady from “Mean Girls” disguises herself as a “plastic” in order to gain information to share with Janis. Cady went to great lengths in order be liked and accepted by the plastics. For example when Regina got back with Aaron, Cady pretended to be unaffected by it, however deep down she was plotting her plan to take down Regina. Cady wants Regina to like her, in order to develop a sense of trust in their relationship “I could hate her, but I still wanted her to like me”. Now that Regina trusts Cady, it is easier for Cady to manipulate her. This is demonstrated when Cady gives Regina “Kalteen Bars” to help her lose weight but in reality the bars made her gain weight. Regina began to gain suspicion when she noticed she was gaining weight, however Cady backed her point up by saying “first you bloat, then you drop 10 pounds like that *snaps*” and Regina believed her because she trusted Cady. This goes to show how it is easier to manipulate others when you are trusted by them. Iago and Cady are very similar characters. They both portray themselves as kind, trustworthy, loyal people, in order to make it easier to take advantage of others.

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69

To What Extent Does The Supernatural Motivate Macbeth’s Actions?

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

Corruption, fraud, and violence are a few of many aspects of human life that result from choosing the wrong path in one’s life. Proven by the robber barons of the 19th century, John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and Cornelius Vanderbilt often dealt with the aspects of corruption, but these men’s reasoning for enacting in unethical tasks dealt with the belief that the ends justify the means. Even in today’s world, in the 21st century, citizens murder, steal, and lie to achieve their goals. In a similar sense, once Macbeth was aware of the possibility of becoming King of Scotland, he realized that he must do what is necessary to gain the throne, even if this means adjusting his morals. Macbeth’s actions, unlike citizens in today’s society, are not only strictly driven by corruption, but in addition, the actions are pushed by the supernatural aspects incorporated in the play. Throughout Macbeth, the play, the three witches’ prophecies, the three apparitions, and the bloody dagger are incorporated to test Macbeth.

Without the influence of the three witches, also referred to as the weïrd sisters, Macbeth would not have been devoted to kill King Duncan. As the play opens up, Macbeth’s courageousness, quick reactions, and helplessness aided in the victory of Scotland’s latest battle. As a result of helping Scotland, King Duncan now has a newfound respect and trust towards Macbeth and exclaims, “O valiant cousin, worthy gentlemen!” (1. 2. 26). In Act I, Scene III, Banquo and Macbeth are together walking and conversing until they both encounter three women, so while Banquo describes the women’s grotesque appearance, Macbeth proceeds to tell the women, if they are able to do so, to speak. Indeed, it appears the three women are witches, whom are the source of Macbeth’s eventual downfall. The first, second, and third witch prophesize Macbeth’s future by saying, “All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! /. . . Thane of Cawdor! /. . . king hereafter!” (1. 3. 51-53). Soon after, Ross and Angus arrive at the same location, but Macbeth and Banquo are rather shocked that now Macbeth has been dubbed Thane of Cawdor, meaning that the witches’ prophecy has come true. Later from Acts I-VII, Macbeth devises a plan to murder King Duncan to ensure his own gain of the throne, and by the beginning of Act VII, Macbeth has convinced Lady Macbeth, his wife, to be apart of the devious plan. Macbeth is willing to murder the king if it means that he can become king and take over Scotland, so as a result of the supernatural telling of the witches’ prophecy, the morals of Macbeth have been altered.

As Act IV settles in Macbeth, transformed by his own motives, ventures to find the three witches and force them to elaborate about his future, whereas in the beginning of the play, Macbeth garnered a respect towards the witches. Macbeth demanded that the apparitions tell him more detailed information, “I conjure you by that which you profess / (Howe’er you come to know it), answer me. ” (4. 1. 51-52), but instead the apparitions do not do so, which leads the first witch to tell Macbeth to shut his mouth. Before each apparition was announced, a clap of thunder arose. The first apparition, an Armed Head, says, “. . . Beware Macduff! / Beware the Thane of Fife!” (4. 1. 81-82), but the first apparition is quite contradictory to the second apparition, which is a Bloody Child, that says to “Be bloody, bold, and resolute. Laugh to scorn / The power of man, for none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth. ” (4. 1. 90-92). Due to the fact that Macduff does not seem to be a real harm, at first Macbeth claims that he sees no real reason to kill Macduff, but Macbeth’s suspicions rise and says aloud, “But yet I’ll make assurance double sure / And take a bond of fate. Thou shalt not live, / That I may tell pale-hearted fear it lies, / And sleep in spite of thunder. ” (4. 1. 93-97). If there is the slightest possibility or inclination of having the throne stripped away from Macbeth, he will act upon it and decrease any chances of being dethroned. Moments after finding out Macduff fled to England, Macbeth decides that he will order murderers to kill the rest of Macduff’s family. The third and final apparition, a Child Crowned, with a tree in his hand, tells Macbeth to “Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no care / Who chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are. / Macbeth shall never vanquished be until / Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill / Shall come against him. ” (4. 1. 103-107). Relieved there are no neighboring forests, Macbeth now feels as ease, because Macbeth now can peacefully inherit the throne. How do Macbeth’s actions justify the means?Murder is not an action that Macbeth would have committed before he met the three witches, which led him to discover the apparitions. Supernatural beings and characteristics may appear appealing to the naked eye, but was the loss of morality, relationships, and connections worth murdering multiple people?

Symbolic of the desire and guilt of wanting to murder King Duncan, a floating dagger appears in Act II, Scene I. Questions are raised about the realness of the dagger, and even Macbeth debriefs, “Is this a dagger which I see before me / The handle toward my hand?Come, let me clutch thee… / A dagger of the mind, a false creation / Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain?” (2. 1. 44-51). Could this dagger be a hint foreshadowing what Macbeth will eventually do with a dagger?In a way, the dagger can also be interpreted to warn Macbeth to back out of his plot to kill a perfectly honorable and worthy king. Rather than listening to his inner voice, Macbeth goes along with his original plan and murders Duncan in Act II, Scene II.

As Macbeth wrapped up, multiple people, including innocent women and children, the chamberlains, and King Duncan were killed. The lives lost were lost in vain because Macbeth did not necessarily gain anything from following the witches’ prophecy, apparitions, or dagger. To become the King of Scotland is all Macbeth had on his mind for weeks, but once he attempted to achieve said goal, he lost himself throughout the process. Is power worth the cost of losing the respect of the country that you wish to rule?The supernatural twisted Macbeth’s mental state causing him to enact in tasks, that would not have occurred otherwise. At what cost is bloodshed worth the gain of Macbeth’s semi-unacquirable target?Macbeth’s ambition clouded his own judgement, which allowed the supernatural to easily persuade him into doing such evil tasks.

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82

The Tempest: Alternation of Human Empathy by Change

June 7, 2022 by Essay Writer

Empathy is a key characteristic that even human needs to have. It not only provides the individual with the tools needed to understand one another, but adds compassion and pity to one’s characteristics. In The Tempest, written by William Shakespeare, the idea of ecocriticism and Caliban’s perspective on the land, shapes the ways in which Caliban communicates and interacts with Prospero. Caliban’s empathy for the island in The Tempest is the prime motivation that helps him merge his views and beliefs with the natural world. However, when in the face of Prospero’s hostile oppression, language, and knowledge, Caliban is forced to accept a new European way of living, essentially tearing down his existing empathetic relationship with the natural world. It soon becomes evident that Caliban’s flaws are simply the repercussion of his unfair treatment under the tyrannical control of Prospero. When Caliban is presented with the pressure to change his identity, the act inevitably produces a conflict, followed by retaliation against what Caliban thinks to be just.

The physical environment plays a fundamental part in shaping the individual’s identity. The idea of ecocriticism explores the relationship that mankind has to the natural world. Shakespeare creates the character of Caliban, a half-human, half-monster, who is native to the island that Prospero inhabits. His connection to the island is made clear in many cases when he refers to the island as his own. By stating that ‘this island’s mine, by Sycorax my mother’, Caliban shows his rightful ownership and his inherent connection he possesses to the land. It is in Caliban’s belief that he is responsible for maintaining and occupying his homeland in a way that Sycorax, his mother, would have wanted. Caliban not only has a clear view of who should own it, but has extensive knowledge of the island’s beauty, capabilities, and intricacy. When speaking with Stefano and Trinculo about the idea to overthrow Prospero, Caliban points out all the aspects of the island that appeal to him which he uses for leverage to get his way. He says: ‘Be not afeard. The isle is full of noises, sounds, and sweet airs that give delight and hurt not. Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments will hum about mine ears, and sometime voices that, if I then had waked after long sleep, will make me sleep again. And then, in dreaming, the clouds methought would open and show riches ready to drop upon me, that when I waked I cried to dream again.” Caliban explicitly comments on his opinion of the island and what is able to do for him, other than provide materialist resources. When Caliban dreams of the island, he is met with ‘invigorating music that delights his ears’ causing him to want to continue to sleep in order to escape his harsh reality with Prospero. Caliban describes how his dreams are much more pleasant when thinking of the island and how it once was. Even when he is compelled to awaken from his fantasy, he desires to return to his dream where he is able to disconnect the life he lives under Prospero, from his image of the island in his head. This position that Caliban holds displays his reliance and connection he possesses to the island, and the want and yearning to protect it. Unfortunately for Caliban, Prospero threatens the composition and the ways things work between Caliban and the island by introducing new language and knowledge.

Language comes in infinite variations. The ability and want to communicate with other beings is instinctively inside of everything. What makes up one’s identity can be heavily be influenced from language. With the introduction of new language, Caliban is forced into a position of uncertainty. As Prospero teaches Caliban how to speak English, he not only forces his culture upon Caliban, but also destroys Caliban’s heritage at the same time. Prospero gets to define what is what, and all Caliban can do is obey because his sheltered life has never seen anything different. During the first act of the play, Caliban delivers a powerful insight into his character when he says: ‘You taught me language, and my profit on ’t is I know how to curse. The red plague rid you for learning me your language!” Caliban’s outburst is not only a declaration of his feelings but also an act of linguistic rebellion. He uses the power that Prospero taught him to curse, and therefore revolt against Prospero’s tyranny. Even though utilizing and communicating in this form of language is unnatural for him, Caliban is put in a position where he must use English because otherwise, he is unable to express what he wants to say. Language is mainly used to clarify ideas and guide each other through one’s thoughts and understanding, but for Caliban, it only brings Prospero’s tyrannical control into sharper focus. Prospero is forcing Caliban to essentially go against the island and his natural ways, simply because Prospero’s views don’t align with Caliban’s. Another instance of this is when Prospero teaches Caliban of this new English language, Caliban is amazed by what he thinks he didn’t know. For example, Prospero tells Caliban what the names of the sun and the moon are. Although Caliban already knows technically what the sun and the moon are, the unawareness of their English names causes Caliban to rethink his view on the natural world. He proceeds to embrace and ‘love’ Prospero because the illusion of new information has clouded his vision of individuality. It is in not only Caliban’s inherent nature, but humanity as a whole to hold higher value to those that have a greater knowledge of the world. This is how Prospero manipulates Caliban into reducing his perspective on the land and ultimately setting him on the path of subordination.

Another fundamental distinction between Caliban and Prospero is how much they know. Prospero is an educated aristocrat; however, upon arrival to the island, he is initially at a disadvantage due to his inexperience and unfamiliarity with the land. Caliban, a native of the island, aids Prospero by introducing him to the array of riches the island has to offer and is essentially responsible for Prospero’s survival. Despite Caliban’s help, Prospero enslaves Caliban to a mere servant. As Prospero’s servant, Caliban is granted a ‘proper education’ of the European ideologies. He believes that Caliban should be thankful for giving him this gift, but all Caliban feels is diminished. Like stated before, when Prospero enlightens Caliban with the names of the sun and the moon, Caliban is lead to believe that what he once knew was wrong. He neglects respect for himself and for his own knowledge. Although the sun and the moon exist as real, tangent facts, and no matter how you see that object, it’s still the same object, the act of introducing a new form of knowledge intertwined with what that Caliban already knows, which effectively alters Caliban’s reality. Another case of this manipulation is when Prospero introduces the concept of putting berries in water. Yet again Caliban is mystified of this new idea, however in actuality; no form of unknown knowledge is brought forward. This can be seen as another form of magic that Prospero has control over as he is able to destabilize the truth and change Caliban’s perspective of the natural world. Not only does Prospero control Caliban when he is present, he also has god-like knowledge of the island at all times. Caliban is very aware of the fact that Prospero deploys magical spirits to spy on him wherever he shall go. In this case, Caliban is truly unable to express himself because he realizes that Prospero will torture him. Even if he were to express himself, the only language he knows is not his own methods; essentially, he is trapped in his own home.

As I stated before, the reader sees how Prospero is the superior creature in this situation. Even taking into account that Prospero has committed these remorseless acts of hierarchy and oppression, in the end, he receives no punishment or instances of tragedy. However, the fact that Caliban attempts to remedy the injustices done to him by plotting Prospero’s assassination and attempting to molest Prospero’s daughter Miranda, shows the underlying resilience of his character. Caliban feels the need to take revenge on Prosper for seizing the island from him and for stripping him of his natural relationship to the land. One way he does this is by targeting Prospero’s obsession with his daughter’s chastity. One may make the connection that virginity is connoted to the pure and natural realm. This can be interpreted as not only Caliban making an effort to offend Prospero, but taking away some aspect of beauty Prospero’s own life. Also, the reader can consider other motives like how Caliban mentions that if ‘Thou didst prevent me, I had peopled else this isle with Calibans’ in an act to regain control and occupy the majority of this island in order to take back what was once his.

In The Tempest, Shakespeare alludes to an overarching truth; that man is merely an indispensable aspect nature, relying on nature, while nature relies on man. By specifically looking at Caliban’s pre-existing relationship for the natural world and the interactions with the new language and knowledge, the idea of how empathy is altered by change becomes more tangible as the play progresses. On multiple occasions, Caliban is forced to abandon some of his beliefs and values in order to coexist in his homeland. In this case, the reader also notices that the further Caliban’s reality is shifted; the less and less empathic he is towards Prospero. When he is not allowed to have empathy for the island and do his natural things, it causes an outbreak of reconciliation and thoughts of revenge. Caliban is not merely a slave, but also a natural leader to the island. He is connected to the island’s nature through his culture and his birthright, however, when that is put jeopardy, he must adapt in order to continue his overall wellbeing.

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