Christian Theme of Sin and Redemption in “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, like the other allegorical poems ascribed to the Gawain poet, may be read as an allegorical tale of sin and redemption in Christian terms. That the poem has strong Christian underpinnings is beyond doubt, especially in view of the elaborate use of Christian symbols like the pentangle, Christian oaths, benedictions, and frequent references to Christ, Mary, various saints, Christmas, and other feasts.
The Gawain poet uses the Romance material subversively to foreground the broader reality of human fallibility and the need for redemption through repentance. Gawain allegorically represents Everyman in so far as he undergoes the very real conflict within man between normal human weaknesses and the strict moral values he is called upon to follow and uphold, and finally proves his human dignity by acknowledging the reality of his human condition rather than the superhuman image projected in tales of Romance.
The world of Arthurian Romance is governed by the ideals of chivalry derived from the Christian concept of morality. These ideals are brought together in Gawain’s symbolic shield, with the pentangle representing the five virtues of knights: friendship, generosity, chastity, courtesy, and piety; the five wounds that Christ received on the cross; the five joys that the Virgin Mary had in Jesus (the Annunciation, Nativity, Resurrection, Ascension, and Assumption). The side of the shield facing Gawain contains an image of the Virgin Mary to make sure that Gawain never loses heart.
At Camelot on New Year’s Day, the Feast of the Circumcision, Arthur waits for a marvel or marvelous story. He and his courtiers ironically appear to be overlooking the miraculous events of the season and are caught up in the splendor of festivities that seem only faintly related to the religious motive that should inspire them -when the Green Knight suddenly appears, as if to play out an inversion of the Easter phase of Jesus’s ministry, violent death and resurrection that threatens to bring death without hope of redemption or resurrection to Gawain. The Green Knight’s intrusion upon the court is sufficiently motivated by the conventions of the poet’s chosen genre-because Arthur waits for a marvel, and Sir Gawain is a romance, a marvel will occur. But the Green Knight’s intrusion has a very strong Christian motivation as well: a lapse from piety into materialism and pride is followed at once by a supernatural rebuke, a deadly challenge and grotesque death and resurrection. Later, when Gawain suddenly and unexpectedly comes upon the castle of the Green Knight/Bertilak, the event is similarly overdetermined: the romance genre allows for, even requires that, a knight wandering in the forest will “happen” upon the castle where a quest awaits him; yet the fact that Gawain has invoked Jesus and Mary for aid in finding lodgings so that he will be able to celebrate Christmas Mass, has prayed, lamented his sins, and crossed himself three times, when suddenly the castle appears, once again makes our sense of religious motivation very strong indeed.
At Sir Bertilak’s castle Gawain is offered a second game to play on top of his game with the Green Knight. Every night Gawain must give what he receives that day to Bertilak and in return will receive the spoils of the hunt in the forest from Bertilak. While Bertilak is in the forest, Gawain has to face seductive advances of Bertilak’s wife. According to the chivalric code he must oblige her, but what happens if her demands conﬂict with his other obligations to his host? It is this conﬂict of absolutes which is ultimately to be the undoing of Gawain. Although he adroitly parries the lady’s lovemaking without rejecting her outright, the difﬁculty of his situation serves to show up the absurdity of the idea of infallibility envisioned in Romance tales.
The impossibility of Gawain’s position reaches a climax when the lady offers him her green silk girdle which she promises would save his life. His great crime, however, is not in accepting the gift, but in failing to surrender it up to his host, thereby breaking his word of honour to the host, and, therefore, the chivalric code, in order to live.
He ﬁnds himself, clearly, in an impossible situation, but help, of a kind, is at hand, since he immediately goes, on leaving the lady, to the chapel where he confesses his sin to the priest and is duly absolved.
But that confession must have been in bad faith, otherwise, he would not need to confess to the Green Knight. He not only makes a true and sincere confession of his faults but resolves not to repeat them. Despite his association with witchcraft, the Green Knight is also a more useful, indeed more genuine, confessor than the ordained priest to whom Gawain ﬁrst confessed. It might even be argued that the Green Knight is standing in for the ﬁgure of Christ himself for he tempers justice with mercy in delivering his all-seeing judgment upon the hero.
The Green Knight, in his Christ-like role, knows precisely where, when, and how Gawain has sinned and is thus able to help him, not through any special powers of absolution, but through the simple, and human, expedient of revealing to Gawain where his faults lie. Gawain’s punishment is self-knowledge, the realization that he is not, and cannot be, perfect -confession and retribution are effectively internalized.
Though the Green Knight refers to his challenge as a game, he uses the language of the law to bind Gawain into an agreement with him. He repeatedly uses the word “covenant”, meaning a set of laws, a word that evokes the two covenants represented by the Old and the New Testaments. The Old Testament details the covenant made between God and the people of Israel through Abraham, but the New Testament replaces the old covenant with a new covenant between Christ and his followers. In the New Testament, Paul writes that Christ has “a new covenant, not of letter but of spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life”. The “letter” to which Paul refers here is the legal system of the Old Testament. From this statement comes the Christian belief that the literal enforcement of the law is less important than serving its spirit, a spirit tempered by mercy.
Throughout most of the poem, the covenant between Gawain and the Green Knight evokes the literal kind of legal enforcement that medieval Europeans might have associated with the Old Testament. The Green Knight at first seems concerned solely with the letter of the law. Even though he has tricked Gawain into their covenant, he expects Gawain to follow through on the agreement. And Gawain, though he knows that following the letter of the law means death, is determined to see his agreement through to the end because he sees this as his knightly duty. At the poem’s end, the covenant takes on a new meaning and resembles the less literal, more merciful New Testament covenant between Christ and his Church. In a decidedly Christian gesture, the Green Knight, who is actually Gawain’s host, Bertilak, absolves Gawain because Gawain has confessed his faults. To remind Gawain of his weakness, the Green Knight gives him a penance, in the form of the wound on his neck and the girdle.
This section gives a scope description and overview of everything included in this SRS document. Also, the purpose for this document is described and a list of abbreviations and definitions is provided. Purpose The purpose of this document is to give a detailed description of the requirements for the “Tahal” device. It will illustrate the purpose and complete declaration for the development of system. It will also explain system constraints, interface and interactions with other external applications. Scope “Tahal” is an automated board with a mobile application which helps users to travel based on their specified location. The mobile application is available only to people owning the “Tahal” board. Users can provide the location they would like to visit. This information will act as the bases for the search results and “Tahal” board will take users automatically to defined location across a user selected path without any manual effort. The user can also change the path later by commanding “Tahal” Assistant. Furthermore, the software needs both Internet and GPS connection to fetch and display results. The device has the capability of taking turns, instantaneous response to obstacles, speed control.
This document includes three parts. The second one provides an overview of the system functionality and system interaction. This part also mentions the system constraints and assumptions about the product. The third part provides the requirements specification in detailed terms and a description of the different system interfaces.
This section will give an overview of the whole system. The system will be explained in its context to show how the system works and introduce the basic functionality of it. The constraints and assumptions for the system will be also presented.
Figure 1 Block Diagram This system will consist of two parts: one mobile application and one board. The mobile application will be used to search locations; set path’ while the board will be used for actual movement like skateboard and as a whole it will make an automated board. The mobile application will need to communicate to a GPS application within the mobile phone, which in turn communicates with a physical GPS device to find the location of the user. The GPS will provide the mobile application with locations of both the user and the final destination and the path between them.
With the mobile application, the users will be able to search for visiting locations. The result of the search will be viewed in a map view. The map view will show each location as a pin on the map as well as the user’s own location.
The mobile application is constrained by the system interface to the GPS navigation system within the mobile phone. Since there are multiple system and multiple GPS manufacturers, the interface will most likely not be the same for every one of them. Also, there may be a difference between what navigation features each of them provide. The Internet connection is also a constraint for the application. Since the application fetches data from the database over the Internet, it is crucial that there is an Internet connection for the application to function.
Assumptions and dependencies
One assumption about the product is that it will always be used on mobile phones that have enough performance. If the phone does not have enough hardware resources available for the application, for example the users might have allocated them with other applications, there may be scenarios where the application does not work as intended or even at all. Another assumption is that the GPS components in all phones work in the same way. If the phones have different interfaces to the GPS, the application need to be specifically adjusted to each interface and that would mean the integration with the GPS would have different requirements than what is stated in this specification.
Specific requirements This section contains all of the functional and quality requirements of the system. It gives a detailed description of the system and all its features.
External interface Requirements
This section provides a detailed description of all inputs into and outputs from the system. It also gives a description of the hardware, software and communication interfaces and provides basic prototypes of the user interface.
A first-time user of the mobile application needs to register for using “Tahal” application which is only possible with a pin number assigned to avoid unauthorised access. A user can search for the location using the search bar. The map view shows each location by a pin, you can zoom into to check the available paths to follow your desired location. Hardware interfaces The hardware component of the system is the board which may conventionally look like a skateboard but works without any manual effort all with the use of GPS device which connects to both mobile phone and the device that feeds the data in the processor. Thereafter processor controls the motor and rotates the wheel to move forward take turns adjust speed.
The mobile application communicates with the GPS application in order to get geographical information about where the user is located and the visual representation of it, and with the database in order to get the information about the pointed location. Functional requirements This section includes the requirements that specify all the fundamental actions of the software system. User Class 1 – The User
1.1 TITLE: Download mobile application.
DESCRIPTION: A user should be able to add the application through a shared link. Functional requirement 1.2 TITLE: User registration -Application DESCRIPTION: Given that a user has downloaded the mobile application, then the user should be able to register through the application using a given pin number.
1.3 TITLE: Application – Search DESCRIPTION: Given that a user is logged in to the mobile application, then the user should be able to search for locations. A user should be able to select desired path options.
1.4 TITLE: Mobile application – Search result in a map view DESCRIPTION: Search results can be viewed on a map. On the map, the relevant information according to the user’s position and movement status are shown. A specific pin will represent destined location. Another will represent user location.
1.5 TITLE: Mobile application – Navigation DESCRIPTION: When a selection is made, the final location should be sent to the mobile phone’s GPS-navigation program. The user should then be navigated to the destination. Performance requirements The requirements in this section provide a detailed specification of quality of the user interaction
Prominent search feature TITLE: Prominent search feature DESCRIPTION: The search feature should be prominent and easy to find for the user.
Usage of the result in the map view TITLE: Usage of the result in the map view DESCRIPTION: The results displayed in the map view should be user friendly and easy to understand. Selecting a pin on the map should only take one click. System dependability TITLE: System Dependability DESCRIPTION: The fault tolerance of the system. If the system goes into some fault, it should slow down and stop in response to fault.
Safe travel option TITLE: Safe travel option DESCRIPTION: The board should be capable of responding to immediate obstacles. Speed Control TITLE: Speed Control DESCRIPTION: The user should be capable of controlling the speed from user interface. Prioritization and Release Plan and Software Models Software Models In order to get a view of how to divide the requirements and what requirements should be best suited prototype model is best opted for making of this device. Prioritization and Release Plan
First a prototype will be made to check the implementation of the functionality. After successful testing of object response, speed limits a human sized riding board will be made and henceforth that too will be tested at different speeds on different course paths. After satisfying test results the board will be released as a complete project. Figure 2 Functionality Diagram
The Cellist of Sarajevo Book Report
The Cellist of Sarajevo Book ReportSetting
The Cellist of Sarajevo, a novel written by Steven Galloway is set in the city of Sarajevo, during the Bosnian war in the 1990’s. Galloway chose this setting to recount the stories of eyewitnesses present during the siege of Sarajevo, and to give his reader’s a sense of what the perspective was of the people living in Sarajevo during the siege. The tone set by the author is doleful and depressing, to accompany the miserable city around the characters. The main storyline takes place in a market, where a mortar shell had exploded killing 22 people. The setting is essential to the story because a cellist plays Albinoni’s Adagio at the marketplace to commemorate the 22 victims of the bombing. Characters
Protagonists, The Cellist, Arrow, Kenan and Dragan and Nermin Filipovic.
Antagonists, The men on the hills, Colonel. Karaman. The CellistThe main character in the story, he was the lead cellist in the Sarajevo orchestra because of the siege.
Arrow is an elite sniper in the Sarajevian defense corps, she was assigned to protect The Cellist for the 22 days that he played. Her foils are the men on the hills, as well as Colonel Karaman after she leaves the defense corps.
He is a father and husband, on a quest to get to the brewery and bring back water for his family. His relation to The Cellist is that he goes to hear him play. His foil is the snipers watching the intersections.
He is a bakery shop worker and a father and husband. His relation to The Cellist is that he goes to hear him play. His foil is the enemy snipers watching the intersections as he tries to cross in his quest to get food.
She is an elderly woman and a neighbor of Kenan’s. She has no relation to the main character.
She is a friend of Dragan’s and has remained optimistic throughout the siege. Her relation to The Cellist is that she goes to hear him play. Her foil is being shot by a sniper while trying to deliver medication to a person in need. Nermin Filipovic is a Sgt. in the Sarajevan Defense Corps and one of the few soldiers who have real military experience. He assigns Arrow to protect The Cellist.
He is Arrow’s second commander, a ruthless man he cares for nothing other than winning the war no matter the cost. He resigns Arrow from protecting The Cellist. His foil is Arrow after she quits and becomes a fugitive of the Defense Corps.
The Cellist is a young, wise man who was the lead cellist of the Sarajevo Symphony Orchestra before the war. He wears a clean tuxedo as he sits in the exposed middle of the street where the mortar fell. At the beginning of the story, he sits in the window of his apartment and plays his cello until he feels his hope return. Occasionally, he plays the Adagio on days he finds it difficult to feel hope. He considers it to be a precious currency, stating that he did not know how many Adagio’s he had left in him and does not want to foolishly waste them. What motivates him is to commemorate the deaths of the 22 victims in the marketplace bombing. He wishes to restore hope to the Sarajevan’s through playing Albinoni’s Adagio once a day for each of the 22 victims. The Cellist played only for his own hope to return at the beginning, but after the mortar strike, he played for not only himself but for the city of Sarajevo and the Sarajevans, thus making him dynamic. I believe this character to be believable because he is a symbol of hope and what humanity is capable of in dire circumstances. Furthermore, The Cellist was based on a real person that lived in Sarajevo during the siege.
Arrow is a young military sniper with a unique skill of being able to calculate shots instinctively. Before the war, she was a university sharpshooter and relatively pretty. She dresses in a standard military uniform and is usually equipped with a rifle. Arrow considers herself a weapon, solely focusing on her mission and killing as many attackers as possible. She feels that she is in the right to hate the men on the hills for what they have done. She is motivated by hate and by giving up her name and taking the name Arrow she is able to defend her city, kill those that deserve to die and remain relatively innocent at the end of the war. After being assigned to protecting The Cellist, Arrow began listening to the music and felt her humanity return to her. She realized that she did not want to kill or hate the men on the hills, that the old her did not hate anybody and that she still had a deep love for her city and what it had represented.
This marks a change in her character, thus making her dynamic. I think that Arrow is a believable character, her transformation to considering herself to be a weapon in order to kill the attackers and defend her city seems to be an entirely possible shift in character for a person, given the circumstances. Furthermore, I believe that the fact that The Cellist’s music was powerful enough to restore her humanity at the end of the novel, was a believable and compelling demonstration of how a person can be saved from themselves.
At the beginning of the story, Arrow is seen deciding which of the two soldiers she should kill, then she goes to Nermin’s office and is tasked with protecting The Cellist. Kenan starts his quest to the brewery for water for his family and Mrs. Ristovski. Dragan Heads down to the bakery to get a meal so he will not have to eat his sister’s food. Arrow kills the enemy sniper and reports back to Nermin. Kenan must make a detour from his usual route because of the sniper watching the intersection. Dragan see’s an old friend Emina on the street and they talk about the war and what is happening. Nermin tells Arrow that he can no longer protect her and that she should flee Sarajevo, a short while later Nermin’s office explodes and he is killed. Kenan finally makes it to the brewery and begins filling up his water jugs. Emina tries crossing the intersection and is shot in the arm and a man in a hat is shot dead in the middle of the street. After the death of Arrow’s commander, she is reassigned under the control of Colonel Karaman and stiped of the ability to choose her own targets.
While filling up his water jugs, Kenan is knocked to the ground by the explosion of a mortar shell. Dragan see’s a man filming the intersection and decides that his Sarajevo will not have bodies lying in the street and begins dragging the now hatless man to shelter. Arrow quits the Corps and is hunted by Karaman’s men but still finishes protecting The Cellist and feels her humanity and love for the city return to her. Kenan returns home with his water jugs, 4 days later he goes out on another run but feels optimistic about the future. Dragan decides that he will not give into the war-torn Sarajevo by running, and walks across the intersection without being shot, and decides to see The Cellist on the last of the 22 days.
Theme In Galloway’s The Cellist of Sarajevo, multiple themes are present, but I believe that the most important one is hope. Before the bombing in the marketplace, The Cellist played his cello until his hope returned. On days where he had difficulty feeling his hope, he would play Albinoni’s Adagio, saying that it got harder to play it each time, comparing the Adagio to a precious currency that should not be foolishly wasted. After the bombing, he played Albinoni’s Adagio for 22 days, a day for each victim. His goal was to commemorate the victims as well as to give hope to the people of Sarajevo through the way he found hope on the toughest days. He sat in the middle of the street, exposed to sniper fire and mortar strikes to give the people hope for a better Sarajevo, to look past the apocalyptic landscape. While most people in developed nations have never experienced the horror or misery of a war, they can relate the theme of hope to their lives. When the situation changes into something less favorable that is beyond your control, for example, the weather turns from a bright and shiny day to a horrendous storm, you can have hope that it will pass and the future will be brighter. Evaluation
I found the book to be an interesting read. The author thoroughly did his research to create a realistic setting and piecing together stories from witnesses. Galloway created the main storyline using The Cellist and intertwined three other narratives indirectly to give the perspective of different people, in different situations, living in the same setting. I felt that the novel was a very compelling read that gave its readers a sense of the horror and misery that the characters were living in but also the hope that their situation would change for the better. I felt that all the main characters were very realistic and relatable, having different perspectives and personalities that would be more relatable to certain people. I would not change anything written in the book, I found all of its content to be extremely interesting as well as gripping. In conclusion, I found the book to be very compelling and would highly recommend it to other students.
The Analysis of the Article “Totem & Taboo: the Culture of the News Media” by Caryl Rivers
Objectivity is the Name of the Game
Caryl Rivers, a “nationally known author, journalist, columnist, media critic and professor of journalism at Boston University” (“Caryl Rivers”), in her essay “Totem and Taboo: The Culture of the News Media” (1996), excerpted from her book Slick Spins and Fractured Facts: How Cultural Myths Distort the News, asserts that the news media is not as objective as it presumes. Rivers supports her argument with a multitude of examples, both historical and personal experiences, along with facts and references to other individuals connected to journalism. She writes to uncover the “cultural myths” that inherently influence the news media to promote better, more accurate reporting that is based on reality. Rivers writes to inform an intended audience of already-established journalists as well as future, beginning journalists. However, her use of everyday language could even attract readers of the general public who are interested in such a topic as journalism or simply possess a personal desire to become a better observer of information presented by the news media.
Caryl Rivers effectively addresses the notion of objectivity in news media and convinces the audience, particularly journalists, to regard objectivity with higher importance by thinking more deeply and more honestly about their reporting through the use of all three rhetorical appeals (pathos, ethos, logos) and through writing style.Caryl Rivers begins her lengthy yet intriguing essay with the appeal of pathos. “The news media are usually thought of as agents for change, and sometimes this is true…Bad news can in fact persuade people that the world is much more dangerous than it is” (Rivers 48). Rivers’ “hook” sentence introducing her essay plus the first sentence of her second paragraph certainly catch the reader’s attention as the statement elicits readers to visualize and reflect on stories that have proven in the past to be powerful invites for national change as the subject matter played on the emotional strings of the general public’s heart. But, of course, not all news stories have brought about positive change.
The news media has a tendency to extensively highlight the dark side of the world, which can “persuade people that the world is much more dangerous than it is” (Rivers 48). For example, Rivers mentions crime, a subject that floods news reports daily. Due to the high coverage of crime in the news, people tend to “see the world as much more threatening and filled with menace” (Rivers 48), but the statistical data regarding crime rates tells a different story. Over the course of history, new laws and restrictions have been implemented, and as a result, a progressive decline in violence. Rivers clueing the audience into the fact that the media loves to intensify its coverage of certain topics, despite the reality of the contradictory statistics behind such matters, provokes feelings of concern and consciousness among readers since “[w]e tend to believe what is spread before us, because the media have such an air of authority” (Rivers 50).
Another instance in which Rivers appeals to the emotions of the reader is when she discusses a specific illusion – the lack of sympathy for the individuals that a journalist reports on – that objectivity tends to create.We [journalists] are often put in difficult situations regarding other human beings. We criticize them. We sometimes reveal that they are doing things that are wrong. We invade their private worlds in times of pain. Our job – to find and report the truth as best we can – may indeed result in harm to others. We ought not to pretend that all we feel is the buzz and clang of electronic gears when this happens. We ought to agonize over that. It will keep us honest – and human. We can try to be unbiased; we can try to be fair. But we will never really be objective. And we should not dodge moral responsibility in the name of this impossible goal. (Rivers 54).
This passage certainly carries a heavy emotional impact as it reminds the general public and journalists alike that journalism can be a harsh business since it requires the judgement of other individuals and publicly. The way in which the journalist frames a story could greatly sway the thoughts and opinions of peers regarding such individuals. Not to mention, this power that the journalist holds could easily destroy the reputation of an individual. Rivers recommends that journalists account for their emotions to help better enable them to write more truthfully and respectably. Throughout her essay, Caryl Rivers skillfully utilizes the appeal of ethos. First, she establishes authority through her credentials. Rivers is a critically acclaimed journalist and novelist.
In 2007, the Society of Professional Journalists awarded her with the Helen Thomas Lifetime Achievement Award. Furthermore, she has had many publications in several major American newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times and the Washington Post, and continuously contributes pieces to the American news blog, the Huffington Post. Rivers’ titles, along with the multiple occasions in which she inserts a personal experience of being a journalist herself and how she has seen the subjectivity of the news media first-hand, assures her audience that they can trust what she has to say concerning journalism and its lack of objectivity. She further establishes credibility through her citational inclusion of other authoritative individuals. For example, Rivers quotes James Alan Fox, a criminology professor at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, to support her claim of how the intensity of coverage (in this specific case, crime) by the news media inadvertently leads viewers to believe in a distorted reality (48).
Moreover, she enlists the expertise of Theodore L. Glasser, a communications professor at Stanford University and author of books regarding journalism, and Howard Kurtz, a “journalist and author best known for his coverage of the media” (“Howard Kurtz”). Clearly, both Glasser and Kurtz are also especially knowledgeable in journalism, the very topic that Rivers discusses in her essay. Along with the heavily-weighted appeal to ethos, Caryl Rivers considerably employs the appeal of logos. She shares her personal experiences as a journalist to strengthen her arguments. For instance, Rivers examines how the news media is predominantly white men and regards “[t]he set of viewpoints, ideas, and attitudes that often comes with being male or being white…as neutral and unbiased…[whereas] people with a different set of attitudes are nearly always seen as being biased or as being ‘advocates’” (52).
This bias against race and gender undeniably fosters a lack of objectivity within the media. To illustrate this fact, Rivers recounts a discussion she had with a male East Coast newspaper reporter. The reporter felt that women and blacks “didn’t really have it so bad anymore and that it was white men who were being discriminated against” based on a study that revealed bias against girls from school teachers (Rivers 52). Rivers deduced that the reporter had not done any prior research concerning this topic to support his claim because she had reviewed the research and the recent studies regarding the discrimination issue for a book she had written, and the evidence – “videos in which female teachers, unaware of their behavior, ignored the waving hands of little girls in the front row time and again to call on boys in the back” – clearly indicated that “bias against girls is a real phenomenon” (53).
Journalists are expected to examine as much research as possible to arrive at a more objective conclusion, not deem one small portion of a sample as complete representation. Rivers further demonstrates this bias against women and blacks with another personal story.Objectivity often does not mean a hard examination of all “facts” but only of those that the gatekeeper suspects. Once I [Rivers] was doing an article for a newspaper in which I used as my major sources a black academician and a female professor. But an editor asked me to add another source, a white male professor who had no history of research in the area. Clearly, the editor simply did not have confidence in the “facts” offered by the woman and the black, believing – probably subconsciously – that they were somehow suspect.
When my source was a white male, I have never been asked to go and find a woman or a black to bolster the credibility of the information, but the reverse has often been true. (Rivers 54)History has time and again perceived women and blacks (or any other race besides white) as a minority and therefore are not fully trustworthy. As previously mentioned, the news media, and thus the standards of objective reporting, favors the opinions of white men because maleness and whiteness are regarded as the “norm” of society. However, as Rivers points out, this bias against women and blacks leads to inaccurate and dishonest journalism since a female or black individual knowledgeable of the topic at-hand due to respective careers in that field is not seen as legitimate sources but rather a white male who holds no prior knowledge of the topic is.
Furthermore, Rivers incorporates statistical data throughout her essay to appeal to the reader’s logic. For example, Rivers points out that typically it is the news media editor who decides what stories are printed, and as a result, “journalists often mistake the handy conventional wisdom, or the latest fad or pronouncement from a media-anointed guru, as actual fact” (50). Consequently, the “uncritical acceptance of such ahistoric ideas [like] the notion that welfare created illegitimacy” arises, “[b]ut one-third of births in pre-Revolutionary War Concord were illegitimate, and [the] founding mothers were not on food stamps” (Rivers 50). It is obviously illogical to think that a present-day program is the cause of an issue that existed in the past. Therefore, journalists and viewers alike need to keep this mind and remember to proactively fact-check claims because the “golden past” we tend to believe in does not exist.
Another occasion in which Rivers utilizes a statistical fact to prove her point is in her discussion of the subjectivity of the news media in focusing their coverage primarily on those of the upper middle-class because it is those stories that “elite” journalists are interested in.It was not surprising that in the 1992 presidential election the problems of cities and the issues of poverty were barely mentioned, and instead a middle-class tax cut was debated roundly. The Clinton camp didn’t want to talk about poor people or blacks, because blacks weren’t going to vote Republican, and Clinton knew the election lay with the middle class. George Bush wasn’t about to dwell on poverty. The boys (and girls) on the bus didn’t push the issues. (Rivers 51)This lack of coverage of the issues faced by the working-class and poor leaves a major imprint of subjectivity rather than objectivity within the news media, especially when millions of Americans struggle with issues as lay-offs and making bill payments daily.
While Caryl Rivers’ usage of the three rhetorical appeals provides an ample amount of support for her case, her writing style also played an important role in solidifying her argument. Rivers structured her essay with varying sentence lengths to keep the audience interested. She effectively organized each new thought into a separate paragraph to avoid lengthy paragraphs and keep the reader attentive and better focus her arguments. Her use of informal yet strong words and phrases along with first- and second-person pronouns connected Rivers to her audience. In addition, her personal stories as a journalist and her admittance of committing a common mistake that many young journalists unintentionally make helps the readers, especially fellow journalists, to identify with Rivers as well as confirms Rivers’ well-intentioned motive for addressing the issue of objectivity in the news media, which she sums up at the very end of her essay.
Most often the biases [Rivers] discuss[es] are subconscious and unintentional. [Rivers] believe[s] most journalists are conscientious and want to do a good job. That their thinking has been shaped by forces and ideas they do not realize they possess is no more an indictment of journalists than it is of all Americans – except that what journalists write and say is so important. (Rivers 57)Moreover, Rivers even incorporates a couple of parallel sentences to enhance her ideas. One instance is in her first paragraph: “…people tend to believe that the world was once more orderly and just, especially when today seems chaotic and disordered” (Rivers 48). She matches “orderly” and “just” with their opposites of “chaotic” and “disordered” to create a parallel construction to show the equal importance of the two ideas. Another instance is found much further into Rivers’ essay as she discusses how the opinions of white men are “seen as neutral and unbiased” whereas the opinions of those of a different gender or race are “seen as being biased or as being advocat[ing]” (Rivers 52).
Again, she compares “neutral” and “unbiased” with “advocat[ing]” and “biased” to show the relationship between the two concepts. Lastly, Rivers utilizes transitional words and phrases along with proper grammar, spelling and punctuation throughout her piece. Ultimately, Rivers pieces all these important writing elements together to not only help build her case in an orderly, effective manner but also to create a cohesive essay.The news media is as influential, if not more, today as it has been in the past. News stories are so readily available nowadays, and we are constantly bombarded with an overload of information from the news media that it can sometimes prove difficult to distinguish the more objective reports from those that are highly more subjective.
As Rivers notes, journalists “are at heart storytellers, not scientists. Journalism is more art than science, and the notion that [journalists] are androids, collecting, weighing, and measuring ‘facts’ that are as fixed and intractable as moon rocks, is a chilling one” (53). Current-working journalists should not dismiss objectivity due to this fact nor should beginning journalists be repelled from pursuing a career in journalism because of this inevitability, but rather they should embrace this reality to strive to do their best in their observation and presentation of news stories. It is like the well-known saying of Vince Lombardi: “Perfection is not attainable, but if we chase perfection we can catch excellence.” Furthermore, keeping in mind that journalists are also human and thus “journalism is more art than science,” Rivers appeals to the general public that “[i]n any event, take what you read and hear in the media with a grain of salt” (50).
All in all, Caryl Rivers successfully applies the key writing elements of pathos, ethos and logos, along with strong yet casual vocabulary, written with a candid tone, to bring insight into how the news media is inherently biased and that journalists, especially, should be more aware of the factors that influence their approach and delivery of news in order to satisfy the moral responsibility they hold in journalism, despite the fact that achieving complete, unwavering objectivity is not humanly possible.
- “Caryl Rivers.” BU | College of Communication, Boston University, www.bu.edu/com/profile/caryl-rivers/.
- “Howard Kurtz.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 16 July 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
- Howard_Kurtz.Rivers, Caryl. “Totem and Taboo: The Culture of the News Media.” Slick Spins and Fractured Facts: How Cultural Myths Distort the News. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 1–16.
Literary Analysis Of “Frostbitten Faithlessness”
“Frostbitten Faithlessness” is a short story about a woman’s lack of decision making, and fidelity. Ann is the wife of John, and they live on a farm, presumably in Canada. She seems to be short tempered, and miserable when it comes to her marriage. John implies to have thought that Ann, as a woman, should not have to take care of any extensive work. He reflects this concern when he assures that “she won’t need to go near the stable” and reminds her “everything’s fed and watered now to last till night”. Though it is nice to do for Ann, she becomes annoyed with him and feels diminished as a human. She tries to detour herself from thinking negatively while John is away by going to “paint the kitchen woodwork” white, which foreshadows her husbands fate. Ann’s emotion is compared to the chilling weather outside, utilizing the literary device pathetic fallacy. John recognizes Ann’s change in mood, describing that “there was a brooding stillness in her face” to announce the depressive, closed-in nature of his wife, describing how it was almost “as if she recognized the mastery of snow and cold”.
John is expanding our knowledge on the situation, by making it evident that Ann’s mind is just as unorganized as the storm. Ann’s anger is prevalent throughout the story, especially with the repetition of “pay no attention to me” which is an easily mistaken phrase to be sarcastic, and passive aggressive. With Ann’s short temper, comes inevitable conflict. There is a wide variety of conflicts that arise during the short story. Initially, the conflict sparks between John and Ann, when John assumes that she cannot be sufficient without him. John belittles Ann Ameloot passively, by saying “That’s what you need Ann – someone to talk to besides me” showing John believes Ann relies on him, and only communicates with him.
Conflict continues throughout the story, between Ann and herself when she calls “herself a fool” for being worried about John being out in the storm, and between herself and the weather. The environment Ann, and John are in is life threatening. This is shown when Ann becomes curious, and wants to check on the stable. Upon opening the door, she was pulled out by the force of the storm, where “just for a moment, the wind held her, numb and swaying” (30) showing the strength of the storm is too strong for Ann to handle. To revise, Ann is a very easily distressed woman, which is reflected upon by weather, and personal issues. Non relative to Ann’s temper, is the way that she admires smaller things with John being gone.
Imagery, and onomatopoeia have an exciting role within the short story “Frostbitten Faithlessness”. Imagery is used within the story to describe a person’s appearance, to explain the extremity of the weather, and to explain the tasks Ann has at hand. Before Ann becomes unfaithful to her husband of seven years, she describes John as “a slow, unambitious man, content with his farm and cattle” which gives insight to how old John is, and how happy he was with his work. He is described to be “naively proud of Ann”, which also gives an idea that he believes she lacks the proper experience to keep up with him. When describing Steven, whom John invited over to keep Ann company, she mentions how he is “handsome, clean shaven and young”. With her description of both her husband, and Steven, it is evident that she is dissatisfied with the person she married. Imagery is also utilized throughout weather, and intense scenes. When checking the fire after she cheated on her husband, John, with Steven, she realizes the fire had died out. She “fanned the embers till at last a swift little tongue of flame began to lick around the wood”. The imagery within this scene gives an image of small, red Ameloot 3ashes dancing around. This quotation has deeper significance, for it is tied to another quotation within the story. As the storm grows worse, she states that the storm appears like “swift little snakes” which, alike to the fire, have darting and swift movements. The little tongues, can be compared to the little tongue of the snakes.
In addition, onomatopoeia is utilized beautifully. There is a repetition of a certain sentence throughout the story that shares “the fire cracked, the clock ticked”. Ann is continuously hearing these sounds during the time she is home, and both sounds are significant on their own. The constant ticking from the clock is to signify that time always continues, and waiting is sometimes the only option in order to become satisfied with what time brings you. But as time passes, Ann describes the “clocked ticked like a glib little idiot” glib meaning an insincere, or repetitive sound. Though Ann waited, time did not bring her what she wanted, which makes the sound insincere and mocking. The fire cracking is significant on its own, for the entire time that John is out Ann maintains the fire. Though she maintains the fire, when she decides to commit shameless infidelity, she returns back to the fire to see that it had been burnt out. This symbolizes a metaphorical spark between Ann and John dying. While Ann is in bed with Steven, she sees John appear within a gleam of light in her room. Steven reassured her earlier on, that intense storms can make you see things, and become irrational, so she brushed it off believing “it was only her mind, her imagination, distorted to a nightmare by the illogical and unadmitted dread of his return”. After believing this and falling back to sleep, she is awaken to the news of John’s death. John was found less than a mile away from his house against their pasture fence, straight south from the houses. Ann recognizes “On the palm, even against its frozen whiteness, was a little smear of paint” which solidifies her concerns that John was inside the house while she cheated on him with Steven.
In brief, “Frostbitten Faithlessness” is a very imaginative, depressive story of a Ameloot 4perfidious woman who had thrown her perfect marriage away, for physical attraction and satisfaction. Having a monotonous schedule, while incorporating greed will ultimately ruin a conceited woman’s life.
The Analysis Of The Book “The Girl At The Window” By Tetsuko Kuroyanagi
The Girl at the Window, by Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, translated by Dorothy BrittonWritten by Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, a well-known Japanese actress and talk show host, Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window was a bestseller when published in Japan in 1981. I knew nothing at all of this book until I picked it up at a free corner library, August 2016. Having worked at the Albany Free School, read Summerhill, earned a Master’s degree in education, and taught for a decade at a Waldorf school, I suppose I should not have been surprised at finding another example of a heart-centered school.
The story is about a first grade girl, Totto-chan, expelled from a mainstream Japanese school. Her mother discovers the Tomoe school, where Totto-chan blossoms. From an “overactive” child calling street musicians to play at her classroom window, Totto-chan is adopted wholeheartedly into a funky school of 50 students in grades 1-6, where classes are held in old train cars, and love is the overriding method.The book is a memoir Ms. Kuroyanagi’s own experiences, though told in story form.
Occasionally the chapters lapse into some more adult explanation of the headmaster’s educational beliefs or the dark historical events of the time, but most of the book proved enthusiastically readable to my almost first grader. To a child of the 21st century, this is a book from a bygone era, where the fact that the children ride the train themselves and don’t have TV is as foreign as the fact that they live as far away from Colorado as earthly possible.There is something similar in character Chris Mercogliano’s Making It Up As We Go Along: The Story of the Albany Free School. Both books utilize stories to illustrate educational methods.
The schools at the center of each book focus on love and freedom. Both schools are small and live on the fringe of acceptable education. While the Albany Free School is the longest living such institution in the United States, the Tomoe school lasted just eight years before being burned to the ground by B29 bombers flattening Tokyo in 1945. There is a great sadness in this loss and the fact that the headmaster Sosaku Kobayashi never managed to start another similar school, dying in 1963. It is a great gift that Ms. Kuroyanagi has written this book as a record of her experiences.What stands out throughout the book is Mr. Kobayashi’s love for the students.
Totto-chan’s “interview” for admission when she first comes to Tomoe consists of Mr. Kobayashi inviting her to tell him anything she wants. She talks for four hours, until she runs out of things to say. Later in the book, when she has lost a favorite purse down the outhouse toilet and is fishing for it through an access door, the headmaster merely asks that she put all the slop she’s fished out back.This book was such a success in Japan because the implicit suggestion is that rigorous academics count out children like Totto-chan. At the end of the book there is an epilogue to describe what some of the characters did with their lives. Totto-chan and her classmates did very well in their lives, successful by any standard.
Unfortunately, the sort of education, even the sort of living that this little girl experienced, without screens and medication, without hovering parents (her mother comes looking for her at some point because it is getting dark, and finds her stuck in a pile of wall plaster), without the fear and violence which march hand-in-hand through every vein of our society, this sort of existence must still exist on the fringes of society while children in mainstream schools lose out on music, art, recess, real food, medicated to their desks and standardized tests. This is the kind of book that offers a glimmer of hope that maybe those corners where education is humanizing will yet hold sway, even if they must live on the edge.
The Red Indians by Peter Kulchyski: the Struggles of Native Peoples with Capitalists
In this week’s reаdings, we encountеred the book The Red Indians” by Peter Kulchyski which reveаls the strugglеs and resistаnce of First Nations peoples to retаin their lаnd and identitiвs which Europeаn settlers were trying to dеprive. Author nаrrates us through the resistаnce of Native peoples of Cаnada with cаpitalist way of ruling. By conquеring thеir lаnds while using their resources аnd tаking аdvantage of their gеnerosity, peаcefulness and guilelеssness, the European invаders demonstrаted the First Nations in аbsolutely opposite wаy of what they are by describing them аs bаrbariаns, “bloodthirsty savages”, ruthlеss, and fierce dеscribed by Amergigo Despucci in his writings, аnd аll thеse distortions illustrаted an imаge and stereo types which impаcted the Americаn Indians аs a populаtion which is charаcterized аs having no lаw, no religion аnd no Government. As a foreigner in Cаnada, I was not аcquainted of the history, culture and identities of Aboriginals, I was unаware of the struggles, constrаints and аll the bаttles they hаd to retаin just to defeаt what wаs аlways being theirs – lаnd, identity аnd rеsources.
After being аble to see the reаl side of the “discoveries”, and the way “explorers” were described аs lenient and friendly settlers who еstablished friendships with Indiаns and wаnted to exchange trade with them, the book reveаls the аctual impact of their invаsion and how shortly аfter their occupаtion of North America’s lаnd, Indiаns were аffected by their politics аnd kidnаpping of their resources by the sеttlers. Right аfter settled in what is Canada and America now, they stаrted imposing declаration аcts and policies and they were аll about occupаtion of territories, which they presented аs negotiаtions which аim to exchаnge lаnd, аnd аllowance of using resources from Indians giving them in exchаnge free health cаre, protеction, pеying them and аlso аllow them to have аccess to their hunting resources just like before their invаsion. The colonization of Canada took place with the Royal Proclamation Act in 1763 which wаs аcknowledged by name in the Canadian Constitution Act in 1982.
These аcts were estаblished to determine that Native People have the right to possess “аll the lаnds аnd tеrritories lying to the wеstward of the sources of the rivers which fаll into the sеa from the wеst and north west and they are to be reserved for the Aboriginal people and could not be taken away from them” but when the Governmеnt stаrted to offer promises, negotiations made by treaties, they were many times broken and expound in a way which will usuаlly benefit the Government and аggravate Indians. The author clearly stаtes that Aboriginal people were used by sеttlers becаuse of the labour and the work of hunting they were possessing, аnd all these hunting and fur еxports were very profitаble therefore the Indians were very handy and beneficial and it was Europeаn people who depended on Native People.
The numbered treаties which the Government negotiate between 1870 and 1921 which aim was to respect Native people’s land rights and to recognize that they hаd title to their lаnd and could be surrеndered or cеded through negotiаtions with the Government and they will be pаid, the written treаties were differing in whаt the Government and Native people wеre verbally negotiаting to, аnd since the Natives were not аble to write and reаd, the Government imposеd the treаties in a way in which Native people will losе their territories and their tittles. It is unbelievable how in this cаse, “people from onе culture wеre using their own rulеs to tell people from аnother what rights they have”, which lаnds they will occupy аnd how to construct their lives. Another importаnt theme is the settlemеnt in British Columbia without signing аny treаties and bаsically steаling these territories without giving аny compensаtion to the Native peoples. With the pаssing of “еnfranchisement act” in 1869, the Government wаnted to expungе the Aboriginal nations and definеd Indians to have less rights compаred to the other citizens and the Government inventеd a way for the Aboriginals to regаin full citizen-rights if they spoke English or friench and had a good standing in life, and that wаs a strаtegy to аssimilate them. Since many Aboriginals had no intеntion to get citizen rights but wanted to keep thеir identity аs Indians, the Government stаrted to enfranchised them аutomatically and forcefully which is аnother cruelty and injustice. The discriminаtion to Aboriginal women by the Government was аlso a trаgic and negаtive notion which the аuthor reveаls. And influеnced by “Victoriаn ideаs that dominаted in England” the Government decidеd to neglect and underminе the way women were highly аppreciated аmong nаtive culture аnd describe them as “аngels of the housеhold” where “they will be seen but not heаrd” and will be treаted with little respect and disregarded.
There are so mаny issues I cаn аddress and discuss аfter reading the book, but the thеmes which I wish to be more developed and еlaborated were: the establishment of reserves which the аuthor slightly discuss, where were they locаted, how the Aboriginals were divided and how they wеre being sеlected which rеserves to occupy? What аbout the support of the Government, what kind of occupations they had after being established in reserves? Also I had troublе understаnding the election system аnd how it worked? Also why did the Governmеnt did not аllow the еlection of sаme chiefs? What was Government’s gаin when imposing lаws prеventing the еlection of “traditional chiefs”? After аll the аmendments of numerous legislаtion аcts being pаssed, the Government was constаntly trying to come up with laws which will constrаin the Indians and make them obedient in any way. Based on the information in the book, I got insights of how First Nations people were аlways trapped in Government’s pitfаll and how Government contributеd for the sterеo types which we hаve heard аbout the Aboriginals. This bаttle between Government and Natives is аbout honour, justicе and correctness and Aboriginals possess all these three characteristics. I аlso found the non-cаpitalizаtion in which the аuthor decidеd to write the whole book little confusing аnd distrаcting еspecially for distinguishing when he meаnt some nаtive group, territory or tribe. It is a good way to demonstrate his identity and uniquеness but sometimes it was uncleаr for the reаder to differentiаte the concept and the nаmes.
“Ham on Rye” by Charles Bukowski: the Influence of Surrounding on a Person
“Life doesn’t give you purpose you give life purpose’- The Flash, what this means is that life does not owe anyone anything and you are the one who has to go out of your way to be known as someone. This quote comes from a superhero which is a person who is out of the ordinary and has put him or herself in a position to stand for what is right. A superhero is mainly know for being someone who saves the day or even the world from impending doom and even go as far as risking their own lives for the sake of protection the innocent or the defenseless. Superheroes are mainly known for saving the day, but what some people fail to notice is the fact that these beings also have an influence on many people despite being fictional characters or people who make movies dressed up as them. Many of these influences are seen as positive, that is the reason why many people look up to these beings because in their minds some of them with that they can be like them. Another group of people that also influences many people are celebrities. Celebrities are real people who are well known by many people across the county or even the world. Celebrities unlike superheroes are normal humans who are more known and tend to make mistakes which is why there are some out there who people can view as a negative influences. People can also get influenced by the ones around them which is the case in the book Ham on Rye. The protagonist of the book Henry Jr is surrounded by many different people who influence him in a different way. In the story so far Henry is negatively influence by his father, mother, friends, and even classmates due to the fact that they fail to show him on how to do the right thing.
The first and main negative influence in the book is his own father who influences him negatively by being abusive when he makes mistakes whether he is right or wrong he also shows Henry that it is ok to be disrespectful to other people. This can be backed up in page in page 58 where an old man is afraid of death which leads Henry’s father to then making the situation worse by saying ‘you’ve lived long enough you old fart’. This attitude can lead to Henry being disrespectful towards others without any repercussions or consequences. Another moment of his father’s negative influence is shown in chapter 16 when Henry is playing football with a couple of kids until his father yells at him to mow the lawn. Henry tries to tell his father to keep letting him play football with the other kids by saying ‘but I’m playing football with the guys. Saturday is the only real chance I have’’ (Bukowski 67). His father then questions his talking back which shows that he does not care if he is interacting with other kids and can be a negative influence in his development. There is also another moment that is in the same chapter that follows in where Henry is told to mow the lawn without leaving a single hair of grass, Henry then finishes mowing the lawn, his father checks for small hairs of grass and after finding two small hairs of grass he then proceeds to beat Henry with a razor strop. This moment proves that the lack of a healthy communication between these two is a negative influence. These negative influences can lead to feelings like anger, confusion, and depression. Samantha Olson a journalist for Medical Daily claims that “They don’t have the tools to express exactly what they’re feeling “ ( Olson Par 2). This is also one of the things that can lead Henry down a destructive path later throughout the book. One modern day figure that Henry’s father can be compared to is Lebron James who is the complete opposite because he supports people and encourages them to reach their goals when it comes to sports and many other personal goals.
The next negative influence that Henry faces is from his mother since she is never really there for him and has no real connection with Henry other than being her offspring. One of the moments in the book is in chapter 16 when Henry mows the lawn, he then claims that he is done mowing the lawn which leads to his father looking for grass hairs. When his father finds two grass hairs he then ask his mom who is confused at first but eventually takes his side and letting Henry get beat with the razor strop. This moment goes to proves that Henry is not able to count on his own mother when he is sobbing or is shown to be depressed. His mom also seems to not care about Henry outside of providing his basic needs like food and clothing. This can influence Henry is a very negative way due to the fact that he will think that it is normal to not need anyone to help you out and that you can resolve your problems that you may run in to. One person who can she can be compared to is the famous person known as Justin Bieber who is a singer and a person that has a heavy influence on many young people especially pre-teen girls. He is a negative influence due to the fact that despite having many fans he is often shown not caring or really interacting with them. He has neglected many of the pets that he has had by abandoning them or neglecting them. The main thing that these two people have in common is that they are very neglectful as people and just do not show any care.
His friends are a negative influence since they encourage violence among the many things that are defenseless like cats or other animals. One moment in where this occurs is when there is a cat that is getting corned by a dog which belongs to one of Henry’s friends named Chuck. Henry’s friend Gene tells him to look at the dog tear the cat apart which leads him to wanting help out the cat. Henry even goes as far as to saying “Chuck, let the cat go. Please, call your dog off”( Bukowski 89). Right here Henry wants to help the cat but is afraid to get torn apart by the dog himself. There is another scene in where a spider is about to kill a fly, his friend Gene is anticipating the murder that is about to happen in front of Henry. Henry then takes it upon himself to kick away the spider from the fly thus saving the fly’s life. A real life figure who Henry’s friends can be compared to is Simon Cowell who is the complete opposite of his friends. Simon is mainly known for being verbally cruel as a judge from many talent shows he is shown to have a soft side for animals. This can influence people in a positive way to thinking that animals deserve love and have rights as we people do. The negative influences that his friends have on Henry is the fact that it is okay to abuse an animal. This also lead Henry into not having faith in any humans as a whole since he can think that everyone is this way.
The final negative influence so far is a girl known as Lilly Fischman who is a girl that influences Henry to expect every girl to sexualize themselves to get what they want. Lilly is a girl who is in Henry’s class and he claims that she is really developed for a girl that age. In page 97 of the book Henry claims that she was able to convince the teacher to not keep going with the class, she then starts dancing in a provocative manner that shows that you can get your way if you objectify yourself. Lilly is the type of character to influence Henry that women are object that are used for personal gain. One very famous figure that can be compared to Lilly is a person known as Kylie Jenner. Kylie is someone who has been through many surgeries, most known for having surgery on her lips. This lead to many people doing a viral internet challenge known as the Kylie Jenner lip challenge in where a person sticks their lips on a shot glass and sucks very hard on the glass until given the appearance of swollen lips. Many young fans who did this challenge had permanently damaged lips, which is why Kylie Jenner can be considered as a negative influence for many people that look up to her. In the long run Henry can be influenced by Lilly as she objectifies herself to getting what she desires.
There are many negative influences that surround Henry in which they hurt him instead of helping him as a person. First you have his father who is a very abusive person in general and does not really go out of his way to form a positive relationship with his own son. Out of all the characters he is the one to have the heaviest influence on him. The next negative influence is his mother who seems to be a very neglectful and is a person who he has not been able to count on or bond with so far throughout the book. The next negative influence are his friends, although they are not abusive towards Henry or neglect him they are shown to being bad influences for Henry in the way that it is acceptable to see animals get tottered for enjoyment. They can also influence Henry into not really wanting to interact with new people since he may think that hey are like his friends.
The final influence that is also negative is Lilly, although she is not shown to directly interact with him she is shown to objectify herself just to get her way. This can show Henry to expect this from a girl he meets in the future who may not be like that in terms if morale. Many celebs have either positive or negative influences on people and are commonly looked up to by many of the fans, so far Henry does not really have a role model to look up to or anyone to go for advice. The importance in giving life a purpose is due to the fact that life will not give you anything, you mainly have to seek for opportunities and take them which is something that Henry has yet to do in the book. Since he is also surrounded by many negative influences he may be shown to not be interacting with these people and look for new influences that other people may have to offer. In the story he has the potential to seek the better out of life since life has not really owe him anything or given him anything, which means that Henry will have to go out of his way to try to maybe change himself for the better of good. Influences exist around everyone and sometimes you have to seek the right ones.
Summary and Reflection on “Man’s Search for Meaning” by Viktor E. Frankl
Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor E. Frankl, is an exceptional journal, an awesome book, which will give the peruser much to consider, on such an extensive number of levels. I can scarcely envision how it has taken me this long to truly sit down and read it. Frankl’s diary is significantly in excess of an individual accounting of his experience in the midst of the Holocaust, when he was a prisoner in four Nazi concentration camps, including Auschwitz. The book is a tribute to the human identity, emotions and assurance to survive, and to find something productive in such an odious, unpleasant and disagreeable condition. Man’s Look for Significance is a to an extraordinary degree moving book, blending Frankl’s own one of a kind speculation of logotheraphy with powerful nature and light. Frankl settled on a choice while kept, and he found a positive power that would prop him up through the cloudiness of the days. He found hugeness, and along these lines, the motivation to attempt to get by, regardless of the way that he knew the odds were against him. He found a humble beginning of positive memory, and continued reasoning about those memories, which gave him desire and hugeness. His significance in life was “love”. Frankl’s veneration for his pregnant life partner was his significance for the duration of regular day to day existence, amid that time spent in the Nazi concentration camps. He didn’t know whether she was alive or dead, anyway thoughts of her gave him something to live for.
As it turned out, when he was liberated, he found that she was slaughtered by the Nazis, close by his people and kin. Frankl made “logotherapy”, another speculation on life’s significance and survival. He comprehended, that in the statements of Frederick Nietzsche, “He who has a why perpetually can persevere at any rate. ” That code word is resounded a couple of times all through Man’s Scan for Importance. His “why” was his friendship for his significant other. Likewise, he could bear all the “hows”, the shock he saw, and most of the loathings that tormented his days, in perspective of his fondness for her. He gives a short conceptual of his logotherapy speculation in “Man’s Scan for Significance”. Being steady with his objectives and reliable with his confidence in his theory, Frankl used logotherapy in his own life. “Logotherapy bases on what’s to come. ” As shown by Logotherapy, which means can be found in three diverse ways: * By making a work or finishing a deed * By experiencing something or encountering someone * By the attitude we take toward unavoidable persevering” Viktor E. Frankl’s brilliance lies in his amazing and supernatural piece, and additionally in his capacity to beat the odds of sadness and downfall, by getting by under conditions that nobody can truly begin to get it. His valuable goodies and extraordinary quality light up the pages of “Man’s Scan for Significance”. The peruser can’t fight the temptation to be influenced and animated by his journal, his experiences and his inner quality. He passes on to the bleeding edge, the substance of powerful survival, inside the capturing pages of “Man’s Scan for Significance”. It is an overwhelming task to assess such a book. It goes other than saying that Frankl’s original literary substance is legitimately well worth perusing and should, through most checks, be required for all understudies of brain science. Amid the Holocaust, Frankl put in three years as a detainee in the Auschwitz and Dachau mindfulness camps. Thusly one of the essential variables of Frankl’s book is the topic of survival. Despite the fact that Frankl saw and experienced ghastliness, Man’s Search for Meaning spotlights considerably less on the points of interest of his own understanding and additional on how his chance underneath Nazi manage affirmed him the human potential to proceed to exist and experience contrary to all chances.
The principal half of the book attempts to answer a solitary inquiry: “How was once day by day ways of life in a mindfulness camp reflected in the brain of the normal detainee?” Frankl offers models of detainees who found expectation and the will to hold going even underneath agonizing essentials all of which, for Frankl, exhibits the criticalness of what has wind up viewed as significance making, paying little mind to circumstance. It is in the second 50% of Meaning that Frankl vital focuses his remedial rationality. As ahead of schedule as the 1920’s, Frankl, in his very own training, had started to open psychotherapy to the non-common and philosophical measurements of human experience. Amid this indistinguishable time, Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic personnel was at one time the overwhelming impact at some phase in Europe. Freud’s system offered next to zero thought to the non-mainstream and insightful variables of human excursion the specific factors that Frankl respected the foundation of examination. Frankl saw the Freudian technique as one that brutally decreased the human scholarly life to a couple of irregular components and that needed investigation of existential significance. “Man’s look for that implies is the chief inspiration in his life and not an ‘optional legitimization’ of instinctual drives,” Frankl composes. Frankl’s expression for his own one of a kind methodology is logotherapy, from the Greek logos, which, inexactly deciphered, signifies meaning. Logotherapy’s goal was to focus of consideration on the methods for human presence and in addition on man’s scan for it. Frankl’s idea holds that there are three noteworthy human capacities, or, in his words, no consistent conceivable outcomes: self-separation, self-amazing quality, and the ability to “profoundly be in contact” with something or any individual impartial of spatio-fleeting measurements. In various words, individuals can’t avoid enduring, yet they can get significance from it. Frankl recognizes three preeminent hypothesizes to supplement these capacities.
To begin with, the anthropological propose, which can be top notch outlined as “man does not without a doubt exist but rather dependably chooses what his reality will be, what he will end up being in the following minute. ” The notable normal for the anthropological main focus is that it repels what Frankl calls “skillet determinism. ” That is, it goes contrary to the prospect that man is an adapted creature. Frankl sees man’s ability pretty in an unexpected way, composing that man is “at last self-deciding. ” The second propose is mental, and holds that man’s key inspiration is the look for importance. Which means making is a one of a kind procedure for each character and must be satisfied by that individual on the off chance that it is to fulfill, Frankl composes. The last hypothesize is philosophical, and it is here that Frankl’s ways of life throughout the Holocaust gives particularly great precedents. The philosophical propose holds that life has genuine significance, paying little heed to the circumstances or circumstance. To be sure, at some phase in his chance in Auschwitz and Dachau, Frankl composes that he watched flashes of that implies that helped expand his will to survive. Citing Nietzsche all through the book, Frankl hopes to pick one statement specifically: “He who has an approach to live for can experience about in any case. ” It is upon that solitary idea that Frankl’s philosophical propose gives off an impression of being based. Frankl invests rather little energy examining how to consolidate logotherapy into a customary psychotherapeutic practice. Be that as it may, innumerable inhabitants are evident, most imperative among them the idea of non-judgment.
The logotherapist, Frankl expresses, “Is the slightest enticed of all psychotherapists to force expense judgments on his patients, for he will never enable the influenced individual to go by to the specialist the obligation of judging. ” In any case, the idea of non-judgment, while honorable, is not any more typically pragmatic. Here, logotherapy meets with a few impediments as a mediation. Indeed, even the staunchest subjective researchers concede that being sans predisposition isn’t conceivable by utilizing righteousness of human intercession — and logotherapy isn’t insusceptible to that finding. Another continuous evaluate of logotherapy is the powerlessness to investigate it. Not at all like different speculations — say, social displaying or behaviorism — logotherapy does no longer without issues fit quantitative request. It is, similarly as Frankl portrays it, a to a great extent philosophical way to deal with the human inward world. However regardless of the constraints of logotherapy from a quantitative point of view, the soul of the idea remains wonderful.
Frankl’s work has roused different scholars — among them, Abraham Maslow and Stanislav Grof — to altogether consider the affect of elusive elements of the human experience. This, thusly, helped them upgrade the field of transpersonal brain science. Notwithstanding the substance, I would be delinquent not to remark on the great magnificence of the new version’s bookbinding. As an alumni understudy I cut my tooth on a worn down 1985 Pocket Books soft cover. The present day republish out now is an excellent hardbound release. In any case, no depend the packaging, Man’s Search for Meaning is a digital book I eminently suggest, if just for the idea it has conveyed to perusers round the world. I will keep Man’s Scan for Significance, on my night table, where it will be available for me to successfully find with the ultimate objective to examine through. I require it close by. I will keep the illuminating words inside my heart and mind. I can’t weight enough, how extraordinary, remarkable and staggering the book is, as a journal and individual accounting, and in addition a voyage towards life’s significance. We ought to fulfill what life asks us, and not what we need to fulfill us.
Life Of Pablo Escobar
Pablo Escobar was a latter day Robinhood and a terrorizing criminal rolled into one. By the mid 1990s, Pablo Escobar emerged as the foremost emblem of the drug-related violence that fired Columbia during the 80s and early 90s. Pablo Escobar and other drug lords rose to prominence in Medellin and Cali. With the instatiable demand of cocain from America, their fortune grew at a rate that seemed nothing short of a miracle. And with this demand grew their ambition. Ultimately leading to overpowering ideas and their implementattion.
Pablo Escobar was such a figure, with the power and voilence and sucess, that he is a suitabel structure in the current times of how ambition can be over turned. He ruled the medellin cartel with trememdous voilence. He encouraged corruption at every level of the government. He stole, killed and destroyed the mostly innocent lives of the people who became addicted to or died from cocain addiction, including those who tried to either terminate this buisness or conquer his position. At the same time, Escobar was a supremly generous man for the poor people of columbia. He enjoyed giving to others and thus was seen creating infrastructures like soccer fields etc. He was supremly generous to the poor poeple of columbia Portrayal of event in History was based on perspectives of few that gained ground in the vast arena of the world.
Power, Money and Violence captures the imagination more quickly than routine sublimation of art and culture. Even technology unbiquitously enters r lives, outdating the earlier versions. The media has evoled from the scroll, lithograph, newspaper, television state run to privatised conlomerates to modern day netflix versions of history. Swamped with options probably user still reigns superme with his/her choice to pay monthly subscriptions. Net series like Narcos spread across 20-30 episodes in 3 seasons definitely will keep user choice in mind. The plit can be what is acceptable to the US govt with only its treatment left to the producers and Directors to ring the cash registers. In short only Govt accepted if not tacity approved narratives will see the light of day. What can sell is well! Any govt will hold a major part in approving the context of whatever is being potrayed. As in the earlier time we had the historical narrative which was more controlled by the States, and the buearucracy and the aristocracy, now it is money and the govt defenitly affect the cen.
Pablo Escobar was such a figure, with the power and violence and success, that he is a suitabel structure in the current times of how ambition can be over turned and the Americans have their perspective of trying to contain the drugs that finally made their way into Miami and other parts of US. Mackenzie Dawson (2015) in his review in the New York Post commented about the reality-based drama: “You cannot make this up. People say that all the time, but in this case, you simply cannot. While some dramatic liberties have been taken in this show, particularly with the timeline, all of the major events actually happened, and you can Google them after each episode to read up on them. ” Despite the amount of harm he caused the country, Escobar continues to be a subject of morbid curiosity for the Colombian audience and for audiences around the globe (Pobutsky, 2013)
More often than not, these narconovelas end up skimping on history, and celebrating the extravagant lifestyle that drug trafficking allowed (Pobutsky, 2013) Netflix’s Narcos seems to fall under this new subgenre, where the lives of famous drug lords such as Escobar are depicted under the impression of an accurate historical framework, but in the end, glorify the “achievements” that drugs enabled them. It was also important for the audience to satisfy their sense of curiosity; crime dramas exposed a world they weren’t familiar with and they wanted to find out more (Brown et al. , 2012). In addition, Brown et al. (2012) were able to find that social interaction, having something to talk about with other people, is also a primary motivation for people and drives them to watch shows that can become topics of conversation.
Stevens Aubrey et al. (2012) found that college-aged viewers are attracted to reality programming to satisfy instrumental needs. These needs include the ability to use media as conversation fodder, allowing them to further interact with viewers their own age who are also attracted to reality programming. Previous studies argued that current events and news programming were more likely to satisfy these needs (Rubin, 1983). Narcos as a web show attracts audience from both countries and can be studies within an audience-centered framewokr for both audiences. Simon Bolivar is viewd as a national icon in much of modern South America. He is considered one of the great heros of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century In recent years, “narco novelas” have become a staple of Spanish-language television, and I have avoided them like the plague. (Bernardo Aparicio García)
While surfing through the critics commenting on the web series of Narcos, one may find comparisons of Narcos being made with Breaking Bad, Goodfellas and other such series, however the question to deal here with is that could a columbian view the story of Pablo Escobar as entertainment? Pablo Escobar and other drug lords rose to prominence in Medellin and Cali. With the instatiable demand of cocain from America, their fortune grew at a rate that seemed nothing short of a miracle. And with this demand grew their ambition. Ultimately leading to overpowering ideas and their implementattions. A formidable combination of intelligence and street smarts enabled Pablo Escobar to rise above his comtemporaries “By the late 70s, cocain became more fashionable as the disco era got into full swing. It became a club drug as well as a powerful pick me up for Wall Street executives. The demand was enorfumus, and Pablo Escobar wanted in on as much of the business as possible”. “Despite its claims to “historical accuracy. ” Narcos creators have in stea hijacked history, car bombed it, and then mixed and matched its thousands of pieces, events and characters together in the name of artistic license and in pursuit of new markets. More generally, the Netflix series reflects the deeper problems of relegating the culture, politics, and the history of Columbia to a site for commercial purpose. (Lina Britto)
History has a charatier of repesting itself without copyinhamerica-safeguard society India- udta punjab national interest-territoral distaance. Cocaine was hugely profitable in Colombia, and it has been suggested that in 1985 the profits made from the cocaine trade represented 8. 7 percent of Colombia’s GDP. An important way in which Columbians remember Pablo Escobar has been the strong national desire to separate contemporary Columbia from its more violence past. Many Columbians have repeatedly been concerned about the fact that their nation continues to be strongly associated with the drug trade, and drug-related violence, on an international platform. Although drug related violence continued to affect certain sectors of Colombian society after 1993, this violence once again returned to the peripheries – geographical, cultural, and social – of Colombia’s landscape. The desire to distance Colombia from its most notorious era of violence has encouraged the transformation of Pablo Escobar into an emblematic memory.