Apollo

“God of the sun Apollo”

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Apollo is one of the most complex and important gods, and is the god of many things, including: music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge. He is the son of Zeus and the Titan Leto, and was born in the Greek island of Delos, along with his older twin sister Artemis – goddess of the hunt. Both medicine and healing are associated with Apollo and were thought to sometimes be mediated through his son, Asclepius. However, Apollo could also bring ill-health and deadly plague.

He and his twin sister Artemis, also an Olympian, shared an aptitude for archery. His forename, Phoebus, means “bright” or “pure” and connects him to his grandmother, the Titan Phoebe. Apollo, a masterful magician, was known for delighting Olympus with tunes played on his golden lyre. His lyre, a stringed instrument that resembles a small harp, was made by Hermes. Apollo taught men the art of medicine, so he is often referred to as “The Healer.” Apollo is alternately referred to as the God of Light and the God of Truth. The dolphin and swan were the animals sacred to him. Apollo accidentally killed his dearest companion, Hyacinthus, in a discus throwing contest. Apollo is also credited with killing the Cyclops in retaliation for arming Zeus with the thunderbolt.

He had many love affairs with both mortals and goddesses. Perhaps the most famous of these women was a mortal named Hecuba, who was married to the King of Troy. The union between Apollo and Hecuba produced a son named Troilus. Apollo’s affections were rejected by Cassandra, yet another mortal, so he punished her by arranging it so that her prophecies would never be believed.

Asclepius is probably Apollo’s most well-known son, although he had many offspring. The laurel, used in Greece as a status symbol, was Apollo’s tree. Apollo accidentally killed his dearest companion, Hyacinthus, in a discus throwing contest. So Apollo is the son of zeus and the sun god. He has done alot for mankind and helped us in the greek mythology.

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Mythology Study: the God Apollo

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

The God Apollo

Introduction:

Mythology is everywhere. In fact it has such a grip on our world that our lives would be very different without it. Mythology is the subject of myths and legends, normally dealing with imaginary creatures. Myths have been told since the beginning of time. The purpose of these myths is to explain questions mankind has always asked: “Who am I? Why am I here? Is there something else besides me?” (History) Besides answering these fundamental questions, myths were also used to dictate the moral code of early civilizations. Most stories involved a hero learning a valuable lesson such as courage, responsibility, or perseverance. The story was then used to help the believers follow suit and attain a higher moral standard. (eHow)

Mythology flourished in the ancient kingdoms of Greece and Egypt, but yet it was also strong in Scandinavia, Africa, and Europe. During the time before Christ mythology and the worship of the characters was prevalent. However, it was Greek mythology that captured the world. Egyptian and Norse mythology is fascinating, but not as well known. Everyone knows about the Greeks though. Greek mythology was first started through word of mouth and was passed down through the generations. The first written record of the Greek gods was in 700 BC by the poet Hesiod. He wrote the Theogony, a book which described the origin of the universe and formally introduced the Greek gods to modern scholars. Homer’s Illiad was written a century before but does not name any of the gods; thus it is safe to say Greek mythology is over three thousand years old. (History)

In Greek mythology there are countless gods and mythical creatures. The main gods are known as Olympians. They are known by this name because they dwell on Greece’s tallest mountain, Mount Olympus. Zeus and Hera are the monarchs of the gods, ruling over the other ten. Each god is a patron of something unique. Ares is the god of war, Demeter is the god of agriculture, and Poseidon is the god of the seas. But as for this report, we will focus on the god Apollo. (History)

Apollo’s Life

Apollo was the son of Zeus and Leto and brother to Artemis, the goddess of light and the vulnerable. Before he was born a large python was chasing Leto relentlessly, until she finally found a cave and gave birth to both Artemis and Apollo. Pleased with his children, Zeus gave both of the young infants silver bows and arrows. Zeus became a natural shot with his new bow and at the age of four days he slew the serpent at Delphi. However, the serpent turned out to be an oracle and had previously been the best prophesier in all of Greece. Zeus was pleased with his son’s determination to kill the beast, but was also angry that he could no longer consult it for what the future held. As punishment, he sentenced Apollo to a year among the mortals. Before his temporary exile, Apollo learned the art of prophecy. (God and Goddess)

While in exile he served King Admetus loyally. Near the end of his servitude he looked into the man’s future and saw his forthcoming death. But he also saw it could be avoided if someone were to die in his place. No one volunteered except the Admetus’s wife. After his exile, his silver bow and arrows would play a large part of his life. Not only had he used them to kill the python early on, but now he became an expert marksmen. But one day they proved to be more of a curse than blessing. On a certain occasion Apollo found Cupid playing with his silver bow. Apollo became quite angry and disciplined Cupid, who then shot Apollo with one of his arrows. Apollo would now fall in love with the next person he saw. A beautiful girl named Daphne suddenly appeared and Apollo fell in love with her. To add to his revenge, Cupid shot Daphne with a lead arrow which would make Daphne hate love and anything related to it. Apollo vainly pursued Daphne, who eventually turned into a laurel tree to escape him. The laurel is now a symbol of Apollo. Possibly due to this incident, Apollo never married, even though he had numerous relationships and affairs. (God and Goddess)

The rest of Apollo’s eternal life was somewhat boring except for his assistance in the attempted overthrow of Zeus. The overthrow however failed. A last notable fact of Apollo’s life was his morning and evening job. He rode a golden chariot, took the name Helios, and rose and set the sun each day. (God and Goddess)

Apollo’s Traits

Apollo was one of the most competitive gods, as was his sister. He had to be the best at everything he did. Being the best at his passions was his primary goal. In fact, he even beat some of the other gods at sports such as boxing and racing. Thankfully for his contesters, he usually won. Apollo was a sore loser and normally punished the victor severely for winning. (God and Goddess)

Apollo was an expert in the art of healing. Even though he learned the skill of prophecy and was also a great archer, he was the best healer in the world. He could cure any illness. But even though he was a fantastic healer, he could also cause plagues to befall cities. After the failed coup of Zeus, he was exiled for a year to the building of Troy’s walls. When his wages were refused, he caused a great disease to pester the city and the bodies rose higher than the walls. When the king relented, Apollo cured the illness from the survivors. Because of his amazing powers, he is the patron god of healing. (God and Goddess)

The god Apollo was also quite a jealous God. His sister Artemis fell in love with a hunter, Orion. Apollo quickly grew jealous and lonesome, so he plotted to kill Orion. One day Orion was swimming far out in the sea and Apollo dared Artemis to shoot the “rock” in the middle of the sea. Artemis was a perfect shot like her brother and unknowingly killed her love. When she found out, she wept and turned Orion into a constellation. On another occasion he left his pregnant lover Coronis. However he suspected she might betray him so he sent a white raven to watch over her. She did indeed betray him, and Apollo killed her. He saved his son though and named him Asclepius. (God and Goddess)

Order and justice were Apollo’s chiefest desires. He highly dislike the chaos on earth and set up civic courts in multiple cities. He had a high moral sense of right and wrong and envisioned a world without corruption or bloodshed. He envisioned a utopia. (God and Goddess)

Like most other gods, Apollo had several symbols associated with him. A silver bow and arrow is of course related to him, symbolizing his royal birth and expertness in archery. The swan is also a symbol of his, most likely recognizing the calm healing power he had. The wolf however has the opposite meaning as it realizes the destructive power over disease Apollo has. Finally, gold is also one of Apollo’s symbols. This is most likely a symbol because of Apollo’s handsome features and youth-like features.

References

In today’s world there are many references to all of the Greek gods. Since this report is focused around Apollo we will concentrate our attention on his references. But looking at the various references on the Internet is a very enjoyable way to spend a rainy afternoon.

One such reference is quite obvious: The NASA Apollo Program. This program was the first space program to launch a man onto the moon. It was directed by President Kennedy and also spurred the coming of more space programs. Sadly, there are no clues as to why it was named the “Apollo” program, but it may have something to do with the letter “A” in Apollo, meaning first.

Apollo Valves is an American metal valve manufacturing company started in 1928. It is largely centered in the American continent. Since it’s creation it has been the top in the world for what it makes. It is such a fitting status for a company named after Apollo, the god who wished to be good at all he did.

Another modern reference to Apollo is much closer to home. It is the local Apollo Bistro. The Apollo Bistro offers massages, manicures, wedding catering, and meals. The reference to Apollo is quite obvious. Apollo was the god of healing and this place heals people through massages or physical improvement, not to mention eating.

The most important reference to Apollo however is the Hippocratic oath in which his name is called upon for witness. In fact it is one of the very first words of the oath that all doctors today take: “I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant.”

Conclusion

As one may see from this paper, the study of myths is highly intriguing. You can delve into fascinating and somewhat sketchy stories. You can make connections from the ancient to modern worlds. Mythology is indeed a wise and enjoyable choice of study.

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Apollo 11: A Detailed Look at the Program

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Apollo Eleven was the historic space flight that landed the first humans on the moon. Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin touched down on the lunar at surface on July twentieth 1969 at 20:18 Universal Coordinated Time or UTC. Armstrong became the first man to step onto the moon’s dusty surface six hours later on July 21 at 2:56 UTC. While spending approximately two and a half hours outside of the spacecraft, Aldrin and Armstrong collected about forty-seven pounds of lunar surface material to be studied back on earth. The mission’s third member, Michael Collins, did not land on the moons surface with his fellow astronauts. Instead he held the incredible responsibility of piloting the mission’s command module in lunar orbit. There he awaited the return of his fellow mission members Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.

Launched by a Saturn V Rocket from Kennedy Space Center at Merritt Island Florida on July sixteenth, Apollo Eleven was NASA’s fifth manned mission as a part of the Apollo moon exploration program. The Apollo Spacecraft was comprised of three specialized modules. The Command Module was a cabin for the three astronauts and mission monitoring center led by astronaut Michael Collins. The Service Module was the workhorse of the lunar landing phase of the mission; providing thrust, oxygen, electrical power, and water to the Command Module. Finally the Lunar Module was the Apollo Eleven hardware that actually landed on the moon.

After being sent toward the moon by the Saturn V rocket’s upper stage, the astronauts separated the spacecraft from the rocket. The astronauts travelled for three long Earth days before they were able to enter into lunar orbit. Armstrong and Aldrin then moved from the Command Module into the Lunar Module and began their descent to the moon’s foreign surface. The two landing astronauts finally touched down on an area of the moon’s surface known as the Sea of Tranquility and spent a total of about twenty-one and one half hours there. After that time they departed the moon’s surface by detaching the upper portion of the Lunar Module from its base. They reentered lunar orbit and rejoined Michael Collins in the Command Module. The astronauts then began their return trip to Earth, landing in the Pacific Ocean on July twenty-fourth 1969.

Broadcast on live television to a worldwide audience, these events effectively ended the space race. Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, and all of the Americans who contributed to the Apollo Program had fulfilled the national goal set in 1961 by president John F. Kennedy. Kennedy had declared, in a speech at Congress, “First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.”

Apollo Eleven’s Saturn V rocket launched at 13:32 UTC, speeding into an orbit of the Earth. The rocket and spacecraft spent about 12 minutes in orbit, completing one and a half orbits. At that time the rocket’s third stage propelled the spacecraft onto its final lunar trajectory. About thirty minutes later, the Command Module and Service Module pair separated from the Saturn’s final stage and docked with the Lunar Module, extracting it from the lunar adaptor. Finally, the three modules headed for the moon. Upon the Lunar Module’s final descent, Armstrong looked outside and saw that the flight computer’s landing target was in a boulder-strewn area, just slightly north and east of a three hundred meter diameter crater. Taking semi-automatic control, Armstrong listened as Aldrin called out velocity and altitude data. The pair successfully landed the craft at 20:17 UTC on July twentieth, with about twenty-five seconds worth of fuel to spare.

After more than twenty-one and a half total hours on the lunar surface, the astronauts had left behind several scientific instruments including a retro reflector array used for the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiments and a passive seismic experiment package used to measure moon quakes. The astronauts also left behind several mementos from Earth to commemorate their historic achievements on the moon’s surface. The tokens left behind included a specially designed American flag, an Apollo One mission patch, a golden replica of an olive branch, traditionally representing peace, and a disc containing good will messages from several American Presidents and leaders of over 73 countries around the world.

On July twenty-fourth, the astronauts returned home aboard the Command Module named Columbia. Just before dawn, 16:51 UTC, in the Pacific Ocean about 1440 nautical miles east of Wake Island and 210 nautical miles south of Johnston Atoll. The Command Module splashed down thirteen nautical miles from the recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet. At 16:44 UTC the module’s drogue parachutes had been deployed, this was seven minutes before the module touched the water. During its reentry and splashdown, the Command Module had ended up upside down. However, floatation bags trigger by the astronauts righted the craft within ten minutes.

In order to abide by the then recently passed Extraterrestrial Exposure Law, the astronauts were immediately placed into quarantine. Although NASA believed it was unlikely for pathogens to exist on the moon’s surface, it was considered a possibility. The astronauts were mandated to remain in quarantine for almost three weeks. After being given a clean bill of health, all three astronauts were released from quarantine on August tenth 1969.

Following their release from quarantine, the astronauts participated in parades in several major cities and attended a state dinner with members of congress, forty-four governors, the Chief Justice of the United States, and ambassadors from eighty-three nations.

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Landing Of Apollo 13 Under The Management Of Gene Kranz And Jim Lovell

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

On April 13, 1970, the oxygen fuel tank in Apollo 13 exploded, causing pressure in two of its three fuel cells to plummet. The astronauts were three-quarters of the way to the moon and speeding away from Earth at 2000 mph. The only practical way that they could return was to round the moon and depend on the gravity to fire them back like a slingshot, but this required more than their current supply of oxygen and electricity than they had. Their odds of dying were greater than their odds of surviving, yet all three astronauts landed back on Earth safely. How did that happen? It happened through the expert leadership and forward thinking of Gene Kranz, the flight director, and Jim Lovell, the ship commander.

Gene Kranzwas the mastermind and the stabilizing force behind the rescue plan. Without Gene Kranz, all three men would have died in space, and the story would have ended a lot differently. Gene Kranz immediately calmed down all of his men when he heard of the devastating news, showing an excellent leadership quality of level-headedness. Then he tells all of them to call their support teams and work the problem instead of guessing, because he understood that accuracy was extremely important. His forward thinking mind allowed him to make the right decisions and the first major one that he made to save the men was to close the react valves for fuel cells 1 and 3 and move the astronauts to the limb. Then, he immediately made a backup of all of the computer control data and moved it all to the limb before the command module died. Once he successfully moved the men there, he focused on the second part of his mission: getting the people home using as little power as possible. His second major decision was to use a free-return trajectory (the safest solution). Some of his men objected to it, saying that it was designed to do more, but Kranz countered by claiming that it didn’t matter what it was designed to do; what mattered was what it was meant to do. This displayed Kranz’s penchant for accuracy; he always tried to stay on the safe side in urgent situations, and tried to be as accurate as possible when decision making. He also instructed his people to turn down the power to 12 amps (meaning shut off heating, computers.etc) to give them enough time to reach Earth. To create enough options, Kranz ordered his men to create “reentry scenarios” while preaching to them “failure was not an option.” This demonstrated his confidence and determination to get the job done; by telling his men that failure was not allowed, Kranz forced them to think of a solution no matter what. After several hours of grueling planning and experimenting, they finally thought of a solution, and the men were saved.

Jim Lovell, the ship commander, also played a big role in saving his fellow astronauts’ lives as well. He showed the same forward thinking as Kranz when he decided to leave Mattingly behind and replace him with Swigert to keep the crew safe. Mattingly never got the measles, but in the event that he did, Lovell and his crew would still have been safe. Lovell also tried to keep everyone calm during the tribulation- when Haise starts to blame Swigert’s inexperience for the accident and the two start arguing, Lovell quickly squelched the argument while remaining focused on solving the problems at hand. Most importantly, although Kranz was the one who created the solutions, it was Lovell who executed these tasks and made sure that they were carried out properly. For example, at one point of the movie, the CO2 levels started rising in the cabin and were getting closer and closer to dangerous levels. The engineering team quickly invents a way to make the square filters fit inside the round receptacles, but it was Lovell who executed the plan, oversaw the progress and made sure it was being implemented properly. Lovell also proved that he was a problem solver when the crew needed an apparatus to help aim for the target (computers and GPS systems were shut down). He told Kranz that if he could see Earth within his window, he would be ok. This made it easier for Kranz to pinpoint the right target and aim correctly.

In the end, I can learn a lot from this story. I can learn the power of staying calm under all situations from Kranz. In high school, there are lots of ups and downs, and college and real life will only have more. Therefore, having level-headedness as a quality is very essential. I can also learn the forward-thinking mentality of Kranz and Lovell, and always try to stay several steps ahead to ensure a higher chance of success when solving a problem. All these things will be useful to my life later on.

“Apollo 13”. Director Ron Howard. Performers Tom Hanks, Ed Harris, Gary Sinise. Universal Pictures. 1995.

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Apollo 11 Moon Landing: Different Sights On This Isuue

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Was The Apollo 11 Moon Landing A Hoax?

July 16, 1969 is an important date in American History, as this is the date that the Apollo 11 Moon Landing took place. Well, at least that’s what we think happened. The moon landing that happened during the Apollo 11 missions were all a hoax. They were fake. We never went to the moon in the 60s. The moon landing is thought by many to have actually taken place, but the truth is that Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin have never walked on the moon, and everything you think happened on July 16 never actually happened. I’ll tell you all about the theories and questions people have about the Moon Landings and why they are true. Theories have been circulating about the moon landings since the event took place. There have been theories that make little to no sense and have been “proven” false, but there are some theories that make all the sense and are most likely true. Even though most people find the moon landings to not be a hoax and to believe that the moon landings were real. This is of course false. We don’t know how they staged the moon landings, but we know that they were faked. Here are a couple (or more) theories that will prove that moon landings were in fact a hoax.

There have been tons of theories, as previously stated, and all of them are proof that the moon landing is indeed a hoax. One of these theories that is the theory that states that if you look at photos of the moon landing happening, you can see glares of light on the image. These light glares could not have came from the area around the moon, so this means they would be coming from another source. What would that source be? A movie production set would be the most likely answer for this question. Since the moon landing was filmed on a movie production set, the lights on the set would be the most reasonable source of the light glares. This is only the first of many theories that prove that the moon landings were a hoax.

Another theory that proves that the moon landing was a huge hoax is the fact that there were no stars in the moon landing videos that were broadcasted and the pictures that were taken. I know I’m not wrong when I say that there are stars in space. If there are stars in space, then why is it that in the videos and pictures of the moon landing there are no stars in the background? That’s because the moon landing was filmed on a production set, as stated previously, and NASA just used a black backdrop in place of what would be a beautiful star filled sky. Since there are no stars present at all in the vast space background, this means that there is something, if not a black backdrop, in place of what would be the space sky. This is just further proof that the moon landings were a hoax.

The third and final theory that I will be talking about is the theory the infamous waving flag theory. This theory about the moon landing says that when the flag was being placed into the ground, it was waving gently in a slight breeze. There is obviously something wrong with this. First off, there’s no wind in space. I don’t think that the American flag would be flying gently in the breeze in space if air and wind are nonexistent in space. National Geographic has tried to say that this is because the flag was moved by the astronaut and then it kept moving, but this is highly unlikely, which is why this theory is just more evidence to prove that the moon landing was in fact one big hoax.

In conclusion, the moon landing was probably one of the biggest hoaxes to ever take place in America. The government and NASA faked one of the stepping stones in the Space Race, which the rest of the world thinks we won. That is because we “made it to the moon” but we all know the truth now. NASA has never sent human beings to the moon, and most likely never will. There is so much proof that none of this has ever happened, like the gentle breeze that moved the American flag, and the unrecognized light sources, and the absence of bright, shining stars in the vast darkness of space. This is all evidence and proof that the moon landings that took place during the Apollo 11 mission was in fact a hoax.

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Confession of the command module pilot of Apollo 19

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

As a Command Module Pilot of Apollo 19, I never understood the two earlier missions that were protracted to be kept secret from the public. The government specifically told us that if we told anyone about our mission, we would regret it. I didn’t see any reason though, It’s not like we were on a top-secret mission. Others have been here before us, right? Our crew flew to the moon in June 1954 under the command of Commander George Harrison. Our friend, Steve Bently, was the flight’s Lunar Module Pilot, and myself, Jim Mcgraw as a command Module Pilot.

The goal of Apollo 19 was to land our flight on the lunar far side. As you can see, speculations are concerned that the Department of Defense received information that the Russians were observing to land on the Fermi Crater, so NASA, as well of the approval of the United States Government gave permission to contribute the mission to make a landing in the Tsiolkovsky Crater, directly to the east of Fermi.This isn’t the job I desired to have in the National Space Program. My purpose however, is to stay in orbit of the moon while George and Steve explore the surface below. While I swing back to the lunar near side, I’ll report back to HQ on their progress. As everyone will be out of direct contact with mission control while on the other side. Apollo 19 blasted off from the space pod on June 16, 1973, and made its Orbital injection after orbiting the earth twice. Four days after we left earth, we entered lunar orbit. George and Steve voyaged through the tunnel that connected the Lunar Module. After checking the LM toward the triangular CM window, George and Steve began to make their descent down to the far side. The descent was moving rather smoothly, As I watched anticipatory as the LM slowly fell to the surface. Soon, my friends were out of sight.

As they descended to the moon, you could hear their excitement in their voices from a million miles. The closer they approached, the more rigid they sounded. Eventually, I heard on the radio a loud stump, which sounded like an elephant stomping on the ground. “We have confirmed reports of officially landing on the far side!” George yelled. “Engine shut down”, Steve calmly announced. For a brief moment, all was dead quiet. Then, when they realized what they had accomplished, I heard my two friends burst out laughing. They had successfully landed on the moon! Within an hour, they had completed their EVA checklist and I gave George a “go” for the first spacewalk of our mission. No time was wasted in opening the hatch. As George appealed to be emerging closer to the surface while descending the ladder, he was silent. Soon, he reached the footpad of the LM, and stepped off onto the moon. Still, no sound was uttered. No poetic phrase, nothing. “Jim, do you copy?” “Yeah George, what is it?” “I’ve touched down” he said, not quite comprehending it himself.

Wide eyed, I stared at the last bit of Tsiolkovsky, as it made its last peak over the horizon. I laughed and clapped my hands. “Bravo, George! How’s the weather down there?” He chuckled a bit. “Clear skies, no clouds, bright sunlight everywhere”. George replied. Time passed as I entered back over to the near side, out of communication with Steve and George. Last report I heard, Steve was coming down the ladder and was going to do some exploring with George in the Lunar Rover. After the planting of the flag, of course. Within moments, I had established communication with Houston Mission Control and reported the progress of our mission thus far. Over the radio, I heard the thunderous claps of the 50 men monitoring our flight. Gus, our mission’s designated CAPCOM, congratulated me. “Be sure to tell us of what they find on your next swing around!” Gus said to me. “That’s about all I can do up here”, I sighed.

Seconds later, I flew from the near side night into the bright daytime of far side. “What’s the word, guys?” I asked eagerly. There was nothing but silence for a few moments. Then, Steve said something. “Jim?” “Yeah, Steve?” “We’ve found something”. “Well, what is it?” There was a pause. “We- We’ve stumbled across Apollo 18”. Steve stuttered. How is this even possible. Apollo 18, reportedly to have crash landed back in February in the Tycho Crater on the near side of the moon, with the loss of its CMDR and LMP. The CMP attempted to return to earth, but the heat shield separated upon reentry. If the LM had crashed on the other side, what was it doing here in Tsiolkovsky? “You guys sure it’s 18?” “Pretty darn sure, we went inside to exam” “Inside?” I cried. “You mean it isn’t crashed, it came down intact?” “Perfectly fine, but the two pilots are missing. Their rover tracks lead somewhere deep into the crater. I think we’ll follow them”, George said. It took me awhile to process this bombshell. When my craft returned to the near side, I didn’t know how to explain this find to Houston. “What’s the news from George and Steve?” Gus asked.

After contemplating what to say, I finally decided to be truthful. “They found 18”.Silence greeted this. A while later he came back on. “You’re serious?” “Oh c’mon, Gus, don’t play games with me! You must’ve known about this! How in the heck is something that’s supposed to have crashed in Tycho located on the opposite side of the moon?” Another pause. Then, “It’s probably just a failed satellite, Jim, that crashed. One of those early Canaveral jobs” I cut him off. “Don’t give me some bull excuse from the DOD, it was a LM! They are vastly different from any sort of satellite. Now talk!” I angrily demanded. Radio cutoff was coming up in a few seconds. Right before I lost communication, Gus mumbled “I don’t know what to tell you, Jim”. Daylight flooded the capsule as I drifted back to the far side. “George, Steve, what’s your status, over?” I said into the mic, obviously irritated. “Listen”, was all George replied. “What?” “He’s right, Jim”, Steve intervened “Listen to the radio”. I decided to tag along, I stopped talking and pressed my ear to the circular speaker on the control panel.

That’s when I first heard it. There was an absence of static, replaced by a nearly inaudible whisper, along with some sort of mixture of sounds, ranging from clicking to crushing to smacking. The whisper part of the sound was inconceivable, horrifying me in instant shock. “What on earth is that God-awful noise?” I cried, shaking with fear. “We’re not too sure, but it started twenty minutes after you lost communication with us”, George explained. Nothing much else had happened when I was on the near side. Ten minutes after I became aware of the noise, Steve said “The rover tracks seem to be going over to that crater over there”.As they approached the edge of the crater, the static screams and whispers among the radio drastically increased in volume, almost to a ear piercing shrill. I covered my ears and clenched my teeth. “What’s going on down there!?” I screamed.

Suddenly, the noise died down. “It’s as if the nearer we go to that craterlet, the louder the noise gets”, George said. “Where can it possibly come from though? There’s no sound in a vacuum so it must be on the frequency”.They had no answer for me. Soon, I was back on the near side. When Gus asked me for an update, I decided not to tell him about the noises. I told them that George and Steve were after the tracks of the previous astronauts and that was that. Within 40 minutes, I was back on the far side. But something was different this time. Tsiolkovsky was black. Only Tsiolkovsky was black. All other craters were doused with the blazing light of the sun. For some reason, this massive crater was jet black, darker than the night sky. It was supposed to be noon-day on the surface there. “It started as soon as you swung around to the near side”, George explained. “We’ve been navigating back with the lights on our helmets. We had to give up on the search for the crew of 18”. The noise was still there.

I looked down at the foreboding crater of night. It looked like a pit that led all the way to the deepest recesses of Hell. I struggled to see the peak of light against the dark that would be my friends. It was like the darkness itself forbid light to enter. I couldn’t take my eyes off of it, not until it swung out of view over the horizon. “What’s your status, over?” Gus asked. “Tsiolkovsky is enshrouded in darkness”, I said furiously. “Why?” The telltale pause was back, then the bull excuse. “Maybe it’s some sort of light phenomenon? Like how the poles on earth experience night for six months?” I switched off the radio. Not long later, I was back on the far side. As soon as I entered range of communication with the ground crew, I heard heavy panting, as if somebody was running frantically. Something was definitely not right. “George, Steve, what’s the matter?” I yelled into the mic. “George is dead!” Steve cried between gasps. “They got him!” “They?” I screamed in terror, “Who are they?” “Things, beings, eight feet high! They’re blacker than the night shrouding me. These things rise up from the dust. They flipped the rover and got George”. “Rise up from the dust?” “Ascending from the ground to kill us! I’m on my way to 18’s LM, I’m a quarter of a mile away, I may make it!” “You’re not making any sense!” I was crying by this point from confusion and fear. “What are they?!” Before Steve had a chance to reply, he screamed in agony. I heard him screaming, entreating, begging for mercy that whatever had a hold of him to leave him be. I concentrated the sounds as the thing tore his suit to shreds.

As oxygen seeped out of his suit, I could discern some sort of stomach turning crack, as well as the sound of ripping flesh. The last sound that came in from Steve was his last incontrovertible sob, followed by a pop. I suddenly heard the strange noise, louder than ever, blasting through the radio. Instantaneously I ended any responses from the radio, shockingly the noise sustained, I concealed my ears until I was back on the near side where it ceased.Switching the radio back on, I screeched at Gus “They’ve been slaughtered! George and Steve have died! Steve said some sort of things rose up from the dust to kill them! What were they?!” However, Gus replied. All he responded to was “It’s the phenomenon… it’s starting again”. There was static… mission control ended contact with me. I realized they were going to leave me in orbit to die. I’m guessing that’s what happened to 18’s CMP. Either that, or they gave him the wrong reentry coordinates, causing him to burn up on purpose.

When I swung back around to the far side, the noise was back to a silent whisper. Soon, I reached the ideal point to send 19 home. As I switched the thruster on, nothing happened. I began to laugh hysterically. I came to the conclusion that, anticipating this would take place and not wanting to risk us spreading word of what happened, the NASA supplied us with insufficient fuel to get home. There was no hope of my returning to the earth. This transpired two days ago. Since then, I’ve just been sitting here, contemplating what to do. Meanwhile, the voice has continued to speak to me. I don’t like it. The words make more sense now. They tell me bad things. I don’t know what’s worse, the static from near side or the whispering voices of far side. Rather than enduring this torture, I’ve decided to open the hatch without my space gear intact, as soon as I finish writing this down. Hopefully, one day, it will be discovered. Before I do so though, I would like to issue this one last warning to the earth, I prohibit anyone from returning to Tsiolkovsky. In fact, do not return to the far side of the moon. All that one will get from here is death. This is Jim Mcgraw, Command Module Pilot of Apollo 19, signing off for the last time.

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Orestes’ Sun: Apollo’s Importance to the Oresteia

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Spanning an elemental and violent family conflict, The Oresteia by Aeschylus is a trilogy containing the plays Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides. As a whole, the trilogy deals with Agamemnon’s murder at the hands of his wife Clytemnestra, Orestes’ revenge on his father’s killers, and his ultimate trial for matricide. Although not present throughout the whole trilogy and only a supporting character in The Eumenides, Apollo is the character that prompts Orestes to kill his mother and he also tries to save him at the trial by claiming half of the blame. In examining Apollo’s contribution throughout the play, it can be inferred that Aeschylus uses Apollo as a narrative instrument in order to move the plot towards his desired end. This is why Apollo, though only a peripheral character, has such a substantial impact on the storyline.

In The Libation Bearers, Apollo is present only through the words of Orestes, making him an enigmatic character. “The big strength of Apollo’s oracle will not forsake me,” Orestes proudly proclaims as he explains his plans of revenge to his sister Electra. He continues to explain that “the god’s urgency” drives him on. Apollo is used here as a background force that makes Orestes to go on with his revenge and kill his mother. As a god that has the power of prophecy, Apollo is an important instrument in the fulfillment of Orestes’ destiny and the author’s aim of the text. In order to make Orestes heed his prophecy, Apollo also foresees great hardship and punishment for Orestes if he decides not to kill his mother and avenge his father’s death: “He said that else I must myself pay penalty/ with my own life, and suffer grim punishment.” Both the danger of such repercussions and his own desire for revenge then prompt Orestes to kill Clytemnestra. Though Apollo’s words are not heard directly, but are reconstituted through Orestes’ speech, they are powerful and threatening enough to make Orestes commit the ultimate act – matricide. It is surprising for the reader when Apollo makes his physical appearance in The Eumenides, where his first words are directed to Orestes: “I will not give you up.” It is very unusual for a god to be this involved in the humans’ lives and take such a responsibility for a mortal. His words are extremely powerful in this instance and they anticipate his complete involvement in Orestes’ fate and ultimate trial. Apollo continues to reinforce his steadfastness with the following lines: “Through to the end standing/ your guardian, whether by your side or far away, / I shall not weaken towards your enemies.” He is appointing himself as Orestes guardian and he manages to go through with his promise by keeping him safe.

Besides his interaction with Orestes, Apollo is also seen engaging in dialogue with the furies, Athena and the judges. His defense of Orestes is visible throughout the play. When the furies come to make Orestes pay for his matricide, Apollo is very direct and concise in stating his allegiance: “Get out, I tell you, go and leave this house.” His defense of Orestes does not stem only from the fact that Orestes is his suppliant, but also from the fact that Apollo himself is indirectly guilty of the murder of Clytemnestra by urging Orestes to do the deed. The dialogue between Apollo and the furies also serves to show how each of them interpret justice. Apollo agrees that Orestes should have killed his mother to “exact the price for his father,” yet the furies consider Orestes’ murderous acts against his own blood to be even worse than Clytemnestra’s crime against Agamemnon, “Such murder would not be the shedding of kindred blood.” Apollo continues to defend Orestes and even promises repercussions for the furies if they continue with their pursuit: “Keep after him then, and make more trouble for yourselves.” Later, when the trial begins, Apollo makes a surprising appearance and claims half of the blame for the murder. “I come to testify. […] I have also come to help him win his case. I bear/ responsibility for his mother’s murder.” Just as Orestes follows up by directly stating his guilt, “Yes, I killed her,” so does Apollo, claiming a part of the blame for the murder. It is worthy to note the contrast between the fact that although Apollo indirectly urges Orestes to kill him mother, he comes and bears responsibility for the murder in a very direct way. In this instance Aeschylus uses the character of Apollo to give strength to Orestes’ case and to have him ultimately acquitted.

It is also curious to analyze exactly how just and unbiased the trial is, as it is led by Athena. Apollo tries to appeal to her by bringing into discussion her origins and lack of a mother. “There she stands, / the living witness, daughter of Olympian Zeus, / she who was never fostered in the dark of the womb.” Considering the fact that Athene’s vote was the one that changed the course of the trial, Apollo’s choice of words might have won him the favor of the goddess. Apollo also states his arguments in an eloquent manner, like a true lawyer, invoking the name of Zeus to reinforce his power as a prophet and implicitly to buttress the fact that Orestes did nothing wrong by following his prophecy. “This is justice,” Apollo proclaims in front of the judges. As soon as he sees that the judges aren’t moved by his account he resorts to insults “You foul animals,” which serve to show how much winning the case for Orestes means for Apollo. He goes on to use a threatening and somewhat ominous tone while talking with the judges “Watch.” This simple sentence comprised of the verb to watch in the imperative mood serves to show the confidence that Apollo has in the fact the he will win the trial. “I shall win this suit” he continues, which might suggest that as a prophet he has an idea of what the result of the votes is going to be and is playing his hand accordingly, just as he did with Athena, as mentioned above. The same can be inferred from the following lines: “Shake out the votes accurately, Athenian friends. / be careful as you pick them up. Make no mistake. / In the lapse of judgement great disaster comes. The cast / of a single ballot can restore a house entire.” His words are enigmatic and up for interpretation, exactly as a prophecy. There is an ominous undertone, almost like a threat that goes with these lines. As the god of prophecy, this may be interpreted as both a warning and a glimpse of the future that Apollo offers: the fact that Orestes is going to win the suit and his house is going to be restored.

Considering all of the above evidence, the reader can infer that Apollo is a narrative instrument employed by Aeschylus both in order to give Orestes a push to kill his mother and to conclude the trilogy with Orestes’ victory over the furies. Although he is a minor character, his actions mold and shape the whole narrative. Moreover the fact that he is a god gives him legitimacy to act and also to have a strong influence in the trial, which is very convenient for the plot. His intervention is not only physical but also spiritual in a way, having his words conveyed to the audience through Orestes. Also the fact that he has the power of prophecy makes him the perfect peripheral character to help with the direction of the action and to bring the whole narrative exactly where Aeschylus wanted. Looking closely at his interventions throughout both plays, either by being physically present or not, it is clear that he is used both to lead the action and to offer a “happy ending” to Orestes. Apollo also offers more insight into the character of Orestes, as he refers to him as a “noble man” multiple times. Moreover, his actions themselves speak for Orestes, for example, the fact that he goes to such great lengths to protect him and even appoint himself as Orestes’ guardian. This is very telling of Orestes’ value as a person for he manages to gain the favor of a god and not only that, he manages to have Apollo’s ultimate protection. Apollo has a minor yet a pivotal role not only in Orestes’ journey throughout the plays but also in the fact that his actions drive the plot on and bring forth the conclusion to the trilogy.

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