American Literature

131

The Need Of Survival In The Book “The Road” By Cormac Mccarthy

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

Many people believe that life is a fancy word humans use to hide the pain that exists beneath it. That humans don’t actually live as they wished when they were little. They think, that what they do, by waking up in the morning, going to work in order to make a living is actually surviving. Surviving in this world, a world full of sadness, misery and desolation. But is that it? Is that all things life offers us? Almost a century full of pain? Maybe some people just don’t realise what these two words mean, or what survival and life actually are. The Road by Cormac McCarthy, details the numerous obstacles a man and his son face, in an attempt for survival in a post-apocalyptic world. With a shopping cart of food and supplies, they excavate into the remains of tattered houses, torn buildings and other sheltering places, while averting from troublesome communes.

The need of survival makes the man so sharp and emotionless in his words and actions that he refuses to help strangers they encounter even if they are in awful conditions. For example, they come across a traveler whose name is Ely. When the son begs his father to help him, the father states that “[he doesn’t] think he should have anything” (McCarthy, 149). The father refuses to help the stranger because he is too scared to trust anybody. He knows that the only way to survive is to trust no one but himself and his own son, as well as not give even the smallest of assistance to any man, woman, or child that crosses their path, as he doesn’t know if those individuals have motives to kill them.

Later on in the book, after walking past a village, the son claims to have seen a little boy and begs his father if they can go back and get him, to which the father urges him to “stop”. (McCarthy, 80) and thinks that he is seeing things. The father does not want to go back because he doesn’t want to risk their own lives. The thirst for survival becomes greater than his moral sense, which prevents him from giving into his son. This happens again when the man and his son are robbed by a stranger. The man catches him and takes back their stuff, as well as the thief’s clothes. The son begs his father to think his actions through, however he doesn’t seem to care as “they set out along the road south with the boy crying and looking back at the nude and slat like creature standing there… Shivering and hugging himself.” (McCarthy, 229). Having faced a situation in which the man’s son was in danger, the man doesn’t show any emotion when leaving the thief naked and cold. At this point, his only goal is to survive, no matter the cost or whether he has to choose between his conscience and staying alive.

Later in the book, the father realizes how hard it is for him to lose his son. He looks back at all the atrocities he has done during this entire journey in order to keep himself and the boy alive but tries to convince his son – who is trying to lose faith – that he can’t just give up on him, at least until he knows everything is safe “When your dreams are of some world that never was or of some world that never will be and you are happy again then you will have given up. Do you understand? And you can’t give up. I won’t let you.” (McCarthy, 202). Throughout this story, both protagonists are losing faith of a good life, little by little they are becoming more and more broken as they don’t see any kind of salvation. But, although there is only darkness, they keep hoping.Hoping they will see some kind of light that will make them know they are finally safe of this corruption and life full of death and tragedies.

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175

Analysis Of The Main Isues Raised In The Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

American culture demonstrates a close relationship with the history of the United States, the development of all aspects of American life, it grows out of everyday life. As elsewhere, there are cultural gaps and an identity crisis in the US today. But in general, this is a country whose history convincingly confirms a view of culture as a program of human activity and allows us to present it as a value-semantic basis for the life of society. Toni Morrison is called “the mouthpiece of the will of black America” and “the conscience of the West.” Continuing the traditions begun by the first wave of African American writers in the United States, she led the next in the early 1970s. Twenty years in the writing craft workshop – and here she is the winner of the Pulitzer and Nobel Prizes. “She is a masterful artisan whom people lose sight of. She is also great and innovative, so she deserved the Nobel Prize. ”Tony Morrison not only created the extraordinary context of complex novels of amazing power, she redrew the American literary history of the 20th century.”

Morrison is actively involved in the feminist movement, speaking at black congresses. In “Blue eyes” we are already on the first page reporting that Pekola had a child from her father, inevitably deviates from the linearity of presentation and involves constant transitions from the present tense to the past, flashback and flow of consciousness as the main stylistic device. This form is directly related to the content of the story being told, because, as John Updike rightly noted in his review of Pity, Tony Morrison is probably one of the most consistent supporters of William Faulkner’s thesis that “the past does not pass”. The past, in many respects, determines the actions of the heroes in the present, therefore, without turning to it, it is simply impossible to understand something in the story being told. For Morrison, in many ways, the main events of this past are slavery and racial segregation, two political phenomena of US public life that affected the privacy of every citizen of the country. The absence of a story (a big story that could have left its mark on the past of the characters, and thereby determine their present), is a problem that Morrison has never encountered before, because and slavery and racism, raised to the state level, in its former novels written about much later times, performed this function naturally and inevitably. She wrote about outsiders and people with broken lives, and it seemed self-evident because the reader knew that the greatest story broke the fate of these people.

Concentration on the personal, personal dimension of the characters allows Morrison to express more explicitly than before the main existential questions that were already touched upon in her novels. The only thing you can count on is the same pity that was put in the title of the book, but it is unfounded and unreliable: Even the educated, those who studied for a long time — black doctors, teachers, newsmen, and businessmen — faced too difficult a challenge. Not only did they have to work with their heads in order to somehow advance, they were forced to bear the burden of their entire race. And the smart head did not help here.

Hegemony describes the domination of a single social group or class in society. This control can be carried out subtly, rather than by force through cultural means and economic power, and be based on a mixture of consent and coercion. It gave the dominant group in society the opportunity to influence the preferences of others in favor of the existing order; and ensure that representatives of these dominant interests serve in key monetary, regulatory, judicial, and bureaucratic positions.

Global Hegemony

In international politics, hegemony now refers either to: Dominance of one force on the world stage.In the life of every person there are such cases that are impossible to forget. And more than anyone else, we can tell about them the person who has experienced it for himself. In this case, we are talking about racial discrimination. Man is a unique creature with its own unique character and personality. So why is there an ideal or “stamp” on which it is worth being equal? After all, we do not mean the desire to obtain knowledge or sporting achievements, we are talking about beauty and appearance. Having experienced hardships and humiliation on oneself, we are increasingly beginning to comprehend the essence of the issue. And the conclusion is simple: in order to be a “man” you just need to be born in the right place and have the right appearance. Does the situation seem absurd? Man is a child of nature, nature has awarded us all with its attractive appearance, someone is given to have thick hair, and someone has got green eyes. But where did the standard of beauty or standards come from? In our opinion, a person should love himself as he is. Appreciate what he has. Not to pursue an ideal, but to be an ideal for yourself. As soon as you begin to respect yourself, others will perceive you. Undoubtedly, everyone knows this, and inspire it to themselves daily. Nevertheless, I would like to address the problem in the book “The bluest eye”.

The plot of the book tells readers about the life and fate of a young black woman who wanted to have blue eyes and fair skin. The meaning of the life of a young girl was to acquire blue eyes. A color that would help change life. … “I ran my finger along the upturned nose, picked blue glass eyes, twirted yellow hair on my finger. I could not love it. But on the other hand, I could explore it in order to understand exactly where the whole world worships”. While living in Africa, she knew that there are places on Earth where there is peace and harmony. But having brown eyes, she was already from the world of the poor. However, does eye color decide something? This is the prejudice of a person in a stalemate.

The book describes the life and events of the spring of 1941, at this time Africa was experiencing dysfunctional times, poverty and chaos were happening then. Do not forget about the depressing social situation and the internal family conflict that occurred in the girl’s family. Blue eyes are an illusion of a beautiful life, it is a deception of itself, it is a dream of well-being. When dreams crumble, life loses its meaning, and only willpower and a desire to live will help overcome this disappointment. Probably not worth living the illusion of deceiving himself. It is better to be aware of the harsh reality from which at least one can expect a blow, rather than live a dream that is not feasible.We are all waiting for a miracle that will change our lives. But miracles rarely happen, and even if we are lucky, we begin to believe in fate. But having blue eyes is almost an unreal miracle. Given the situation and the position of the main character, she could hardly look at the world through her blue eyes. She faced stiffness, her own father raped her, and she lost all interest in life. … “Cholly knew that it was bad to run away from a pregnant girl and thought with sympathy about his father, who did the same thing”.

Colonization has caused the humiliation and racial discrimination of the peoples of Africa. Thousands of people were exterminated, persecuted, humiliated. Nature made some stronger than others, which allowed one race to occupy higher positions, both in cultural and in political sense. If you compare humanity with wildlife, you can find similarities in the psychology of behavior of people and animals. Like an animal, a person searches for his own kind, the strongest survives, and as a result, he dictates his rights.The founder of the racist theory is Joseph de Gobino. In his studies, he considered the issue of racism from a historical point of view. Thousands, thousands of slave people tried to survive under the yoke of humiliation, poverty and filth. Racism, as a problem at the psychological level, was studied by many scientists, the purpose of their research is to identify the causes for such behavior. Eye and skin color, as well as belonging to a certain nationality, became the main criteria by which people began to “classify” each other. The result is the enslavement of one “weak” nation by another more “strong”, the establishment of power in certain territoriesMs. Morrison said: “I spread like seaweed when I put it that way, but I would like to think about a prize that applies to these regions, nations and races.”From the time of their appearance to this day, it is for these reasons that they are now trying to ban it for sale and library access. Behind the story of Pekola, whose family constantly reminds her of how “ugly” she is, the stories of her parents and the adoptive family into which she falls are looming.

All the motives and stylistic techniques that distinguish Morrison’s prose are already present in one form or another in The Bluest Eye: here are changes of points of view and accompanying changes of language, metaphors, magical realism, and global reflections on the nature of good evil. Debutant Morrison immediately shows the world why she wants to write books: to tell the constantly hushed up and, worse, simply not enough interesting for many history of the oppressed minority. Through stories of violence, tragedies and perversions, the writer tells about the good. For her, the idea of goodness as a conscious choice, as an active life position of an “adult” person, is most important, so none of her novels seems unbearable.

Today, the issue of racism remains relevant, despite the many measures taken to improve social and economic conditions. It will take a lot of time and effort to “align” races. Something has changed: the dichotomy has not disappeared, but there is a dialogue between the races, and, more importantly, black people now have the opportunity to work in areas where they were not allowed before. There are more films, literature, and whole packs of television shows that draw attention to the racial issue. Gradually, from the field of politics, this topic moved into the entertainment and cultural sphere and back.

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188

The Flowers By Alice Walker: The Depiction Of The Innocence Of Children

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

Children are born into the world with a clean slate. They are pure and have not encountered the dark realities of this world. When children are constantly shielded by parents, they are oftentimes protected by the lurking dangers in the world. However, because of this constant protection, children defy their parents and make choices by themselves, often leading to a loss of their innocence. One such girl in “The Flowers” by Alice Walker, Myop is an innocent 10 year old who is mesmerized by the beauty of nature. She does not realize the stark reality of the duality of nature at the time, however, she is met with a loss of innocence at the end of the short story. When children like Myop are shielded from the world by parents, it appears that they live in a youthful paradise.

At the start of the short story, Walker uses phrases such as “golden surprise” as she establishes a youthful and innocence part of Myop’s character. Walker uses imagery to further establish the tone and foreshadows the end of the story. Initially, the imagery is warm as Walker describes the beauty and wonder of the wilderness Myop explores. From the intricate details, the reader can picture Myop happily skipping and exploring the woods with her stick as she takes nature in. Through the use of diction and imagery, Walker makes the reader want to jump right in and explore the wilderness with Myop. However, the paradise feeling does not last long as it is contrasted when Walker begins to introduce negativity by using words such as “strange” and “gloomy.” Because of the shift in tone, the reader begins to see the turn this story is about to make.

Like any youthful child, Myop loves the outdoors and explores nature around her. Myop frequently explored the woods near her family’s cabin and often walked past the wildflowers and stream. Towards the middle of the story, Myop experiences a change in character as she takes “her own path” where she was no longer protected in the shield by her parents and began exploring for herself. She begins to encounter the unknown as she sees snakes and “strange blue flowers.” As Myop enters the unknown, the reader begins to notice what is yet to come as a negative perspective approaches.

As the tone begins to change, Walker highlights parts of nature that were not mentioned before: “damp” air, a “rotted noose.” Just when Myop “began to circle back to the house”, she sees a dead man and faces the negative side of a place she held dear to her heart, a place she frequently explored and knew for its beauty. The nature around Myop that used to always be beautiful is now “frayed, rotted, bleached, and frazzled.”

When the short story concludes with “And the summer was over” it shows that after this experience, Myop will no longer be able to look at nature the same way. When children wander into the unknown, they experience a change in their character and a change that will stay with them for the rest of their lives. What you once considered to be your favorite place in the world, a place where you would explore frequently and take in nature, throws an unexpected reality, it stays with you. Walker sets the stage, slowly but surely, in conjunction with the contrasting symbolism, diction, and imagery to show the inner conflict Myop faces and the profound effect it will leave on her.

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224

“To Build A Fire” By Jack London And “The Story Of The Hour” By Kate Chopin

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

Many authors have graced the pages of writing, but when they can touch you and can full you with an understanding in such details that it awakening your senses to a new light, it then becomes a piece of art. A part of you as you will see with the authors that follows.

In “To Build a Fire,” Jack London uses realistic and sometimes unpleasant images to describe how cold the air is. For example, the man’s spittle “crackled in the air”. London could have just written that it was colder than 50 below. By using the image of spit freezing in the, the reader gets a clear picture of how cold it is. Another piece that incorporated nitty gritty details is Upton Sinclair the jungle. Sinclair describes the dangerous conditions the workers endured: The pluckers had to pull out this wool with their bare hands till and acid had eaten their fingers off”. Sindair spares no gruesome details in deserting the injuries. These deceptions were shocking and reader felt outrage. Although outraged, it also brought enlightenment to the reader for a thought processing understanding.

In “The Story of the Hour” by Kate Chopin, Mrs. Mallard “she wept at once with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sisters arms”. When told her husband was in an accident and died one viewing this would feel sorrow for Mrs. Mallard, Once Mrs. mallard was alone her thoughts became her own and a moment of illumination came over her. “She was a free body and soul”. Once Mrs. Mallard touches “the elixir of life” to have it stolen away within minutes was too much to bare and Mrs. Mallard died seeing her husband alive. Chopin predicted what a mind can do while Sinclair “From the Jungle” allowed us to see what a working environment can do to humans. Going from healthy humans to horror unknown to most. Working conditions that cause diseases and missing body parts to death. “Most people would have been skeptical” to believe such things but could not be skeptical about the workers that bore the evidence of “joints on fingers being eaten by acid”, “one by one”, would bring awareness and change to the work placed and humans.

Each author depicted describes how elements can break down a human. Rather it be from the weather, the mind, or on the conditions one is experiencing, all seem to suffer one way or another. Only by putting their story on paper does it awaken an awareness is us that one may or may not react to but will never forget.

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164

My Desire To Study English Literature At A Level

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

It seems that the greatest situational irony encountered is life itself. For this reason I chose to study English Literature at A Level. Language is ceaseless and boundless and its only limits stem from the conscious decisions of the author, hence, every literary device and subtle inference is valid. All the artist begins with is an idea, from which all else blossoms; this idea is then nurtured and cared for, context is applied, structure is refined, vocabulary perfected and the masterpiece is born.

The art of literature ignites my curiosity, that feeling when you are reading and get so engrossed in the book that suddenly you can’t hear yourself saying the words anymore, only scenarios being played out in your head. I love how completely out of touch with reality I am when I’m reading, it’s the strangest most exhilarating feeling. I’m swept up into another place and time, be it 1930’s America alongside Maya Angelou fighting oppression or trying to uncover the secrets of the Holy Grail in Dan Brown’s nail biting conspiracy thriller. I love how words can totally transport me. This is why I want to study English combined with a social science at University.

I am fascinated by non-quintessential style of writing, in particular Vladimir Nabokov’s work, a short story, “A Letter That Never Reached Russia”, The plot of the story is concealed in the description. The letter is addressed to his “charming, dear, distant one”, Nabokov utilizes complex syntax reminiscing when we would meet, skipping school, on a frosty Petersburg morning, in the Suvorov Museum, so dusty, so small, so similar to a glorified snuffbox… how dazzled we were by the silvery blaze of the Tavri’cheski Park, and how odd it was to hear the cheery, avid, deep-fetched grunts of soldiers, lunging on command, slithering across the icy ground, plunging a bayonet into the straw-bellied German-helmeted dummy” In this sentence alone, Nabokov explores how much he valued the time he spent with his lover. This is through the attention to detail in his description of the day; it outlines how much he cherishes the memories. In addition to that, it also gives an insight into how important his lover was to him as well as revealing that the writer must have been filled with melancholy due to his loss.

In addition, I enjoy analyzing novels thematically. Orwell’s collection of essays depicts his conflicted writing style, as he is simultaneously both patriotic to the British tradition, and opposed to it. Orwell’s uncovering of a falsified British glory, correlates with Fitzgerald’s disillusionment with the American Dream in The Great Gatsby. Furthermore, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness can be also be compared to Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant. Both battle with British imperialism, and the falsified power that the Empire possessed, similarly, they argue that the superior ‘civilized white man’ dominated the natives apathetically and brutally, thus, dissolving the pretense of imperial glory.

Also, I believe that the study of psychology has helped me to develop key evaluative and analytical skills that correspond with the skills used when studying English Literature. Thus, I believe that the fusion of linguistic subjectivity of English and scientific objectivity of psychology merge together seamlessly. Freudian psychoanalysis commenced an era of psychological discovery, however, it is still an ever growing, developing art form. Skinner’s operational conditioning was another leap for mankind. Skinner let us discover how world dictators could indoctrinate and manipulate generations into submission.

Recently, in my sixth form we spent months of meticulous planning and fundraising with the aim to organize an evening of entertainment for the local elderly, the evening itself was an inspiring experience because I learned to put aside any preconceptions that I may have had, and understand that people of all ages are important. These experiences will help me to cope with the pressure of university and to dedicate myself to my studies by being a leader, a team member, as well as an independent learner. University will be a new and exciting adventure that I am more than ready to start.

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131

Perspectives On Childhood In The Glass Castle

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

The Glass Castle has been a controversial topic of discussion since publication in 2005. The memoir is a reflection of the author’s childhood, wherein Jeannette Walls and her three siblings are forced to become independent while their erratic, maverick parents toggle between acting as inspiration and obstacles in their lives. When encumbered by his dilapidating alcohol addiction, her father was dishonest and violent, a man incapable of maintaining a job.

However when sober, the brilliant and charismatic Rex Walls offered a cornucopia of knowledge, teaching Jeannette physics, geology, and how to embrace life fearlessly. Rose Mary, his wife, despised domesticity and rejected the socially constructed nurturing characteristics of the maternal role in family structure. She was a self-ascribed “excitement addict” (Walls, 93) who pursued freedom over responsibility and romanticized instability. Nevertheless, Rose Mary provided for her children in a different sense, through her unwavering sense of optimism and ability to uncover the beauty in everything. Jeannette Walls’ childhood was distinct as it contained a series of unconventional and unfortunate events that can be traced back to the lifestyle her parents provided. Jeannette rapidly discovered that her family’s nomadic lifestyle had a number of painful lessons to teach her. At the vulnerable age of 3, Walls was so severely burned while boiling herself hot dogs that she required extensive hospital care. Not only was she left with physical disfiguration, but she was also mentally scarred and developed a strange fixation for the element; she had developed pediatric pyromania. At age 17, Rex Walls ransacked her piggy bank and stole all of the money to feed his alcohol addiction. Jeannette had set that money aside to fund her move to New York City, and her father’s betrayal left her bereft and devoid of hope.

Despite their apparent lack of parenting skills as displayed in Jeannette’s childhood, Rex and Rose Mary Walls helped expand her mind through all the learning experiences they exposed her to. When burned at age 3, Walls’ father labeled it a learning experience, declaring that she had to “get right back in the saddle, [as] you can’t live in fear of something as basic as fire” (Walls, 2). This taught Jeannette Walls resilience and to remain brave in the face of adversity. This raises an important question: does the author believe her parents chose to live outside the boundaries of society voluntarily to teach her grit? Additionally, despite financial hardships, Rose Mary Walls insisted the family buy a piano, as she valued emotional desires over physical needs. She taught her children to appreciate culture as an instrument to higher learning. Rose Mary and Rex Walls activated the desire to learn in Jeannette Walls, and this is what gave her a fighting chance for survival.

This memoir has reinforced the love I have for my parents, as they provided me with a polar opposite adolescence from the one Jeannette Walls experienced. In contrast to Jeannette Walls, I was extremely privileged to never have to worry about financial struggle or question my safety when growing up. Much like their banking habits, my parents were also very structured when it came to disciplining me. They advocated structure, form, and obeying authority figures. This was different from Walls parents, as Rose Mary Walls encouraged self-sufficiency and tended to remain independent from her children’s lives altogether. However, I also noticed unfortunate similarities between our lives. When Jeanette was berated by her mother for finishing the last of their food, she responded with defiance and Rose Mary was startled. Jeanette had broken one of their unspoken rules: they were always supposed to pretend their lives were “one long and incredibly fun adventure” (Walls, 69). When there is conflict my parents tend to withhold from discussing the topic and instead ignore it altogether.

Our parents share this self-sabotaging defense mechanism of denial. I believe this to be a contributing factor as to why there is a disconnect in Jeannette’s ability to be honest about her past. Walls was meticulous in her writing style, using her powerful memory to recollect the most minuscule of details in order to bring her past back to life. In the flashbacks, Walls shows us exactly how easily she and her siblings were convinced that their chaotic life was actually an exciting adventure (Prose, 2005). She describes her feelings of betrayal towards her parents transparently, holding nothing back. However, the sections of the memoir which recount her childhood are interesting. She does not attempt to psychoanalyze or theorize the past behavior of her parents. She does not condemn or spite her parents for the way they raised her but rather remains detached.

There is an obvious disconnect between the way Walls speaks candidly about her feelings as her younger self versus her ambiguity as her older self. This makes it hard to connect with and understand her experiences. I can speculate that this is due to embarassment of the lifestyle her parents ultimately chose, as Walls chose instead to assimilate into societal culture. This theory brings up the important question: Why does the author actually diverge on her approach to expressing feelings at different parts of the book? When reading this memoir, I was rudely awakened to the mass amount of privilege I hold. It is crucial to recognize that each of us contributes to the system of institutionalized privilege, and I am privileged in class (both social and economic), education, and also in ability.

Previously, I had normalized a singular type of childhood and disregarded all others because of my positionality as an educated middle-class, able-bodied female. Learning about Walls’ life as someone who experienced a different upbringing than mine made me aware of my unintentional tendency to exclude and ignore certain groups of people. I became aware of how my actions (both direct and indirect) as a privileged person contribute to the subordination of others. I learned I must make an ongoing effort to recognize my advantages and how they affect my life. The recognition of my privilege is my first play of resistance against the unequal distribution of power to deconstruct the system of institutionalized privilege. This memoir solidifies my impression of family as enduring, because despite her parent’s inability to support her, Walls never gives up on them. Nowadays, Jeannette Walls is an esteemed author with a loving family and net worth of $4 million dollars. This raises another important question I would like addressed: does Walls attribute her success in adulthood to the hardships she faced in childhood?

Although Jeannette Walls was expected to develop a virtually absolute sense of self-sufficiency while her parents pursued their own self-serving needs, they still provided her with invaluable life lessons and she never gave up on their relationship.

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143

The Hero’s Journey

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

The Glass Castle by Jeanette Walls is a memoir based upon the life of the author herself. She takes us on her journey to her past and provides substantial information as well as detail and imagery to allow us to go on her life’s journey with her. The story is one of pain, heartache, life lessons and more. Jeanette did not have an entirely pleasant childhood, thus teaching her many lessons as she goes through life. The Hero’s Journey is prevalent throughout the book and even in the plotline of the movie, which was released after the book. Jeanette being the Hero, goes through the seven steps of The Hero’s Journey which are Call to Adventure, Supernatural Aid, Threshold, Challenges, Abyss, Transformation, and conclusively, Return. Jeanette does eventually come out extremely successful, this being the final step, return. Call to Adventure. Jeanette Walls comes to terms with her family’s financial situation and decides that she wants, and needs, to do something about it. Throughout the book, the audience gains a sense of how important her siblings are to her, and how much they assist her throughout the entire journey, thus forming her “supernatural” aid. After facing all the heartache and pain in her life, she rises to the top on her return journey and becomes surpassingly successful, a famed writer known for her works, one of them being her memoir, The Glass Castle. Upon reaching the end of the memoir, her life’s story, or journey therefore, comes full-circle and essentially completes itself.

The story begins when Jeanette is only three years old. She is inside one of her countless childhood homes with her mother, Rosemary Walls, who is working on a painting. Her older sister Lori and her younger brother Brian are outside with their father, Rex Walls. Jeanette tells her mother that she is hungry, and rather than doing the conscientious thing as a parent, Rosemary shockingly says “why should I cook a meal that will last an hour when I can do a painting that will last forever? ”. Jeanette then goes on to cook her own meal over a stove, after her mother instructs her to do so. While Jeanette is cooking, her frilly tutu ultimately catches fire, causing the fire to spread all over her miniature body. Jeanette ends out in a hospital, with a body cast, and the following day, her father arrives with the rest of her family, after concocting a master plan to sneak Jeanette out of the hospital without paying the fees. This truly sets the tone for the rest of the memoir, as the irresponsibility of Rex and Rosemary’s actions are not only witnessed in this section of the text, but consistently throughout the text. Their irresponsibility turns into the Call to Adventure, as Jeanette realizes the faults in her parents actions more and more as she gets older and realizes in turn how it is affecting the family as a whole. This motivates her to do something about not only her financial situation, but her educational circumstance as well.

At the start of the text, we are introduced to Jeanette’s siblings, Lori and Brian Walls. As we near the middle of the novel, Rex and Rosemary have another baby, Maureen. Lori, the oldest and wisest of the four children, tends to take on a motherly role in Jeanette’s life, as her mother was not consistently there for them. Her strongest support, Lori was always there to comfort Jeanette whenever the comfort was needed, and because of her, Jeanette was motivated to follow her dreams and turn them into a reality. Brian and Maureen, although the youngest of the four children, became an extreme sense of motivation for Jeanette to change their financial situation and make a living for themselves. They were in a poor financial state and often times, there was an extreme lack of food in the family. Generally, Lori stood up for and was the peacemaker for the children, and this can be seen in various circumstances. For example, on page 146 and 147, it states, “I told Lori that Erma was touching Brian in a way she ought not to be…’I know what I saw’ I said ‘She’s a pervert!’ Erma reached over to slap me, but Lori caught her hand. ‘Let’s all calm down,’ Lori said in the same voice she used when Mom and Dad got carried away, arguing. ‘Everybody. Calm down. ’” This evidence clearly demonstrates Lori’s calm nature, even while protecting her siblings from something that would have made any person extremely angry. This also proves how Lori is a very crucial part of Jeanette’s supernatural aid.

As mentioned previously, Jeanette Walls experienced lots of challenges and temptations throughout her childhood such as, lack of food, an alcoholic father, an unreliable mother, no steady home to count on, and she never really had any positive influence on her besides her siblings and maybe the school environment she was in for a short period of time. Jeanette along with her siblings were getting made fun of in their school, an environment meant to be safe for learning, all because they were too skinny. At one point in the memoir, Brian discovers Rosemary eating a large bar of chocolate during a time when her family had no food. Jeanette gets sexually assaulted by her uncle, and her mother brushes it off as “a crime of perception”. This truly shaped her journey as our hero in this text, because she needed these hardships in life to be able to realize her purpose in life. On pages 68 and 69 the text states, “‘Lori, what are you eating? ’ ‘Margarine,’ she said. I wrinkled my nose. ‘Really? ’ ‘Yeah,’ she said ‘. . . tastes just like frosting’. . . didn’t taste like frosting… But I ate it all anyway. When mom got home that evening…’What happened to the stick of margarine? ’. . . ‘we ate it’ Mom got angry. She was saving it, she said, to butter the bread. We already ate all the bread, I said… It was because of my and Lori’s selfishness, she said, that if we had any bread, we’d have to eat it without butter… got me a little mad. ‘It was the only thing to eat in the whole house,’ I said. Raising my voice, I added, ‘I was hungry’. . . ‘It’s not my fault you’re hungry!’ She shouted” This evidence demonstrates not only the lack of basic necessities in Jeanette’s childhood household, but also her mother’s disgusting reaction to her children’s hunger.

We reach the abyss. This is Jeanette’s lowest point. As mentioned above, Jeanette’s education was not always the best it could have been. She has a strong passion for journalism, likely part of the reason why she became an author. When Jeanette makes the final decision to follow Lori to New York for college to get the best education in Journalism, she begins collecting an abundance of money in a plastic piggy bank which she named ‘Oz’ to pay for a one-way bus ticket to New York City. Jeanette makes the wise decision to not tell her father about her plans. However, Rex finds out during a trip to the bar where Jeanette followed him there to ensure his safety, and before almost getting sexually assaulted for the second time, Jeanette tells a man who she was instructed to distract and talk to, in order to assist her father in winning at pool against him. After she shares her plans with him, The man raises a toast towards “Jeanette’s big move to New York” and ultimately this is how Rex finds out. Needless to say, he becomes extremely unhappy and bitter towards Jeanette. Rex then takes it upon himself to find her money that she had been working hard for, steal it and spend it on the materialistic thing that he seems to love the most, alcohol. Jeanette’s own father stole her literal ticket to education, because of his selfish desire. On page 228, the text states “I began looking through all the junk in the bedroom and finally found Oz on the floor. Someone had slashed him apart with a knife and stolen all the money. I knew it was Dad, but at the same time, I couldn’t believe he’d stoop this low… ‘You ——-!’ Lori shouted. ‘You stole our money!’ ‘What the ——- hell are you talking about? ’ Dad asked ‘And watch your language. ’. . . Lori held up the slashed pig and threw it as hard as she could at Dad…”

The transformation truly begins when Jeanette comes to terms with the fact that if she doesn’t do something about her life now, she never will. Jeanette becomes more strong willed, and brave as well.

Lastly, on the return journey, Jeanette makes it to New York, gets married, and becomes an immensely successful writer and is able to help her family move to New York as well and get them on their feet. This concludes Jeanette Walls’ hero’s journey throughout her life and how she eventually became surpassingly prosperous and fortunate even when no one else thought she could be.

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252

There Will Come Soft Rains: Analysis

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

The bond between man and technology has rapidly grown over the past two centuries. In the 50’s, people were fearful of a nuclear holocaust, and they were fearful of being made obsolete by advancing technology. Bradbury produces the image of a lone house, surrounded by desolation, in a world of ruins that seem to have once been flourishing. The house runs itself, seeming abandoned, it continues with its daily routine. It is clear a great tragedy has occurred, clues point to some sort of nuclear war as the city has a radiating glow about it. Bradbury gives symbols throughout the story of how humans bond with technology, although seemingly beneficial, was the ultimate source of obliteration.

The scene is abnormally serene, as the house goes about its routine, reading off a schedule into emptiness, the reader is left wondering where the human residents of this home are. It reads off a date into the future, August 4 2026 revealing that the house is more advanced than anything of todays age. Outside it is raining, the rain pays no mind to this empty world and it continues to fall softly echoing through the lonely home. We are given more evidence to what has occurred here as the sun rises, the house stands alone in a city of rubble that gives off a radioactive glow for miles. We see an image on the side of the house where all of the paint has been charred off except for 4 sillhouettes. A man and woman doing yard work, and two children throwing a ball that never came down. They symbolize a loss of hope, humanities fate due to a fault of technology.

This is where we realize a nuclear holocaust has occurred, leaving the world empty and scarred. Weapons that could destroy the world dozens of times over were unleashed upon the earth, leaving nothing but a solemn empty world, and a lone house. The house seems to be protecting itself from the outside, as it will not even allow a bird to touch its frame. It is protecting the thousands of attendants inside, none of which living. Technology has seemed to outlive mankind, as well as destroyed it. Making the theme clear, how something beneficial can quickly become destructive and perilous. The house shows that technology is humanities last ‘living’ footprint on earth, it creates a struggle between nature and technology as the reamining wildlife come to the house to seek refuge. A mangled dog whines at the door, and is let in as the house recognizes the voice. As the dog walks in he is not greeted by friendly human faces, but instead robots seemingly angry at the mess he brings in. This event shows the irony of the entity of the house, as it acts human as if it has emotions, although impossible. The animal goes into a frenzy and dies, and the house cleans it up as if nothing occurred dragging its body into the furnace, another symbol of lost hope. It is here where the house begins to read a poem, seemingly pessimestic until you realize how optimistic it really is in comparison to what has really occurred. The poem depicts a world where humans have perished, and explains that not a single animal nor tree would know or even care we are gone. But the horrific reality is shown by the mangled dog that died on the floor of the house, the war brought by humans has left the dog tortured and has left the world outside charred.

Nature seems to enact revenge upon the house, sending a tree branch flying through the kitchen window causing a large fire. The house panics, and hastily attempts to save itself. The house battles the fire and almost succeeds but the fire grows too strong, and the house runs out of its water reserve. Nature overcomes technology, the house joins its neighbors as a smoking pile of rubble, while a lone voice reads off poetry. This depicts an incredibly sad mood, and further supports the theme of downfall at the hands of technology. The message Bradbury gives is that our mechanized world will eventually destroy our people if we do not be careful and control what we do with technology. His message also shows that technology can never truly replace mankind, only mimic the actions of its creators. Bradbury wrote most of his stories in the 1950s, at the time of the nuclear scare and where people thought robots were going to take all their jobs. Bradbury gives solemn tones of ignorance, ignorance of technology and how it could easily obliterate all of mankind, and harm nature as well. Bradbury writes this story as a warning of our future, and the actions we must take to prevent this horrific outcome.

The house itself represents mankind, having many parts working to keep it running fluidly but ultimately failing due to its imbalance with nature. There is no doubt that advancement in technology is crucial in advancing the human race, as it has for centuries. But the harm can easily begin to outweigh the benefit if mankind allows ignorance prevail, and people blindly allow the advancing technology to take over our lives. Technology can never replace our conscience or emotions always giving man, the creator, the ultimate advantage.

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185

Sula By Toni Morrison:The Friendship Of Sula And Nel

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

While Sula and Nel are playing near the river on a summer day, when they come across another boy named Chicken Little. When he is playing with Sula, she “picked him up by his hands and swung him outward then around and around”. Afterwards, Chicken Little “slipped from her hands and sailed away out over the water” where he drowned. Sula and Nel seem to be two innocent girls who are having fun playing. However, as the story develops, readers are shown this friendship leads to external conflicts. Being Sula is the leader of the pair due to her chaotic background and family life, she seems to drag Nel into trouble.

This foreshadows that Nel would be the follower in the friendship while Sula would peer pressure her into trouble with the law. It can be predicted that Nel would give in more and more into Sula’s problems, which can be seen when she pulled out a knife, threatening the white boys.

After the funeral, Sula and Nel walked home holding hands with guilt as they “knew that only the coffin would lie in the earth” but Chicken Little’s laugh would be with them forever. While walking, “they relaxed slowly… wondering what happened to butterflies in the winter”.

It can be seen that after Chicken Little’s funeral, both the girls immediately felt guilty about his death. Sula and Nel walk home holding hands, but readers see that they quickly forget about the murder as thoughts began to wander, such as butterflies.Clearly, the murder does not seem like a big deal to the girls as they forget about it quickly. This can foreshadow larger, more complex conflicts in the future as they get away with the death of Chicken Little/do not understand that it is a big deal.

What is the significance of Eva’s survival despite its irony?

When Hannah was outside trying to light a fire, she accidentally caught herself on fire, which made Eva jump out of a window to save her. After both women were injured, an ambulance took them. However, “Hannah died on the way to the hospital”. Also, Eva was forgotten and was left without help, but Willy Fields saved her. This scene can be a climax because the death of Sula’s mother can impact the young girl and her childhood development. Without a mother figure to teach her the difference of right and wrong, this foreshadows Sula getting into more trouble. It is ironic that despite all of this chaos, Eva comes out alive. Even though Eva is much older, has one leg, jumped out of a window, and was forgotten at the hospital, she somehow remains alive “for thirty-seven years thereafter”.

Because of Eva’s cruel nature caused from from BoyBoy’s divorce, she could possibly take on Sula’s mother figure and influence her in a negative manner. Based on the way Eva treats the Deweys, this could cause Sula to become very violent as she grows older and develops her own identity.

What can be predicted from Sula’s behavior based on events in this section?

After Eva survives the fall from a window and leaves the hospital alive, she recalls a memory when she was crawling to Hannah. “She had seen Sula standing on the back porch just looking”. While friends doubted her, thinking Sula was shocked, Eva believes that Sula “had watched Hannah burn not because she was paralyzed, but because she was interested”.

This observation shows evidence that Sula’s cruel nature is already developing because she did not help save her mother, Hannah. This can be drawn parallel to the death of Chicken Little because after being thrown into the water, Sula and Nel just stared and did not attempt to even save him. These two deaths slowly reveal Sula’s true intentions as more death is foreshadowed for the rest of the novel.

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119

Lying or Withholding the Truth in the Medical Setting

April 28, 2022 by Essay Writer

Withholding the truth about a patient’s health, health outcomes, or treatment can be taxing for families and medical providers. Doing so could also be in direct violation of a patient’s autonomy, their right to make rational decisions and choices regarding one’s overall well-being (Vaughn, 2013, p. 71). Based on the case study provided, the decision of the doctors and patient’s family members to administer a flu shot to Mr. Simpson without his informed consent is a clear form of medical paternalism and limitation to one’s autonomy. Using the Kantian perspective about the morality of truth-telling, I claim that withholding truth or lying should never be permissible, especially in a medical setting.

Mr. Simpson, a fairly healthy eighty-year-old man with slightly weak lungs, has continuously rejected receiving an annual flu shot out of fear of contracting the flu. Although Mr. Simpson has been informed that the flu shot may help him fight off or prevent him from getting the flu, he is unwavering in his decision to not receive the shot. Because of his unwavering decision, his family has asked his doctor(s) to administer the flu shot but withhold the “truth” about the shot from the patient. Knowing that Mr. Simpson has a desire to live a long seemingly healthy life and is open to receiving treatment that will “boost his immune system”, his family has made a decision that would override Mr. Simpson’s ability to make an autonomous decision about his own health.

Despite the many attempts from his doctors, Mr. Simpson is clearly standing his ground on his decision to refuse the flu shot. Mr. Simpson, like many patients his age, may be in a stage of his life in which he feels that the flu shot would do more harm than good. He may be unwilling to express his “truth” with his family because he may not want to overwhelm them with sadness or fears about his decision. Of course, lying or withholding the truth from his family is also wrong, nevertheless, Mr. Simpson has a moral obligation to himself to be happy. Whatever consequences that arise from his decisions would be something he would have to live with or without depending on his health outcome.

Lying to patients is a clear violation of one’s autonomy. The doctors in Mr. Simpson’s case have a duty to honor his decision to refuse the flu shot even when they believe the shot would ultimately decrease his chances from catching the flu. According to Kantian ethics, “informed consent of the patient for any treatment [including the flu shot] would be mandatory and misleading the patient about treatment would be out of the question” (Vaughn, 2013, p. 77). If the doctors choose to adhere to the family’s wishes about lying to and/or misleading Mr. Simpson and something goes wrong, the doctors would be held accountable for any negative health outcomes. In the cases of Cobbs v. Grant (1972) and Bouvia v. Superior Court (1986), courts have ruled that “competent adults have a ‘constitutionally guaranteed right’ to decide for themselves whether to submit to medical treatments” (Vaughn, 2013, p. 78). Doctors or medical providers who go against their patients right to refuse [in the absence of informed consent] are subject to actionable battery.

Not only is lying or withholding the truth from a patient morally wrong and violates his or her autonomy, asking or trying to force the doctors to lie to the patient is also in direct violation of their autonomy as well. A request of this type presumes that the medical provider isn’t capable of making a logical and/or rational decision on his or her own. This is the same as Mr. Simpson’s family trying to force him to receive the flu shot against his will. Lying, from a Kantian perspective, “is wrong because it undermines personal autonomy” (Vaughn, 2013, p. 9).

Although the argument against lying and/or withholding the truth from patients may seem like the morally obvious thing to do, there are arguments that claim that lying and/or withholding the truth should be permissible in some cases. First, one may say that Mr. Simpson is not capable of making competent decisions about his health because of his age. As individuals age, their cognitive functions typically decline. Older adults may develop Dementia, Alzheimer’s, or other cognitive disorders that limit their ability to make rational decisions concerning their health. In such cases, some would argue that medical providers and/or family members have the right or consent to withhold the truth from patients if and only if the information that’s being withheld does no harm to the patient.

While the previous argument may hold truth in some cases, Mr. Simpson’s scenario clearly states that he is in “fairly good physical health” aside from weakened lungs. There is no indication that Mr. Simpson is nonautonomous, someone who has the inability to make autonomous decisions on his or her own behalf. Regardless of an individuals age, respect for his or her autonomy should always be taken in consideration. Family members and medical providers have a moral obligation to respect and respond to the needs of patients as they arise. In other words, “individuals should do unto others as they would have them do unto them”.

Another argument that can be possibly made for lying and/or withholding the truth from patients is that telling the truth could possibly do more harm than good. Some providers may lie or withhold the truth about a patient’s illness/condition in hopes of the patient getting better. According to Vaughn (2013), it was once speculated that patients with serious/terminal illness benefited from their provider withholding the truth about their condition. Withholding the truth or lying in this case would have been considered justifiable because the provider would have been “protecting” or “shielding” the patient from anxiety or worry about his or her condition (p. 154).

Granting the previous argument is plausible, trying to “protect” or “shield” patients from anxiety or worry still does not give providers the right to override one’s ability to make rational decisions about his or her care. In fact, according to Kant, “the act of lying [can possibly] cause injury”…For [a lie] always injures another; if not another individual, yet mankind generally, since it vitiates the source of justice” (Kant, 1909, as cited in Vaughn 2013, p. 147). In other words, there should never be a reason for anyone to lie or withhold the truth, regardless of the situation or outcome. Individuals, especially medical providers, have a moral duty to honest, open, and transparent about a patient’s health whether positive or negative.

Lying should always be proceeded with a level of caution and concern in all aspects of one’s life especially in a medical setting. A lie can diminish any type of trust, rapport, and/or credibility that a patient relies on when seeking medical advice or guidance. If medical providers accept lying as an acceptable way of overriding a patient’s decisions, informed consent should become a thing of the past. Withholding the truth or lying in a medical setting should be avoided if possible and without judgement. Any instances in which medical providers refuse to fully inform their patients of treatment should be questioned because a patient’s life and personal decisions are more important than those of the doctor or the patient’s family. Based on the arguments against and for lying or withholding the truth from patients, it can be concluded that an individual’s right to decide is more important than the decisions of medical providers and family members. Although the patient expresses the desire to live, it is ultimately his choice to refuse getting the flu shot regardless of the benefits he has been made aware of. Therefore, in Mr. Simpson’s case, doctors should adhere to the patient’s decision to refuse the flu shot because it would be the most ethical and morally right thing to do.

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