Albert Einstein

Reducing the Global Nuclear Risk

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

When asked how World War 3 would look like, Albert Einstein remarked that if the war was ever fought, then people would fight with sticks and stones. The nuclear war would be so devastating that human civilization would be drawn back to the Stone Age, left to fend off enemies by the means of primary weapons like sticks and stones. But all speculation aside, the principal question remains whether the countries would go to that extent over an issue, whatever the reasons may be, to wipe out life from the planet. I believe we as a new generation of people, post- cold war should take it on ourselves to minimize that possibility as much as we can.

All of us should work together to bring down the possibility of nuclear confrontation. Albert Einstein despised the use of Nuclear weapons and actively supported peace in the world. When asked whether he wanted to become the president of Israel after it was formed he refused the offer. Having said that it is also true that his formula was one of the major reasons for the curation of Nuclear weapons, I consider this past reality an ironic happening. But that was a long time ago. The nuclear weapons we have now are much more sophisticated and technically fit enough to destroy the world ten times over. Even more serious matter is that a lot of countries have it and many of them don’t get along very much. From where I come from, Nepal, the most advanced things we got to see were Fords and Ducati Motorcycles. When there, the possibility of annihilation of the entire human species by the use of a certain bomb on some other country seemed pretty bleak to me. But the threat existed I knew even back then. But why would any country want to bomb another when it would sign its own death warrant by doing so? The clear answer to me for this question is – They just won’t. People are unpredictable but they also fear for their lives just as much. No matter how many trade wars China and the US fight against each other, they most probably will not go all out nuclear on each other. They’ve got too much to lose. But there are other countries in this world as well. Unstable countries like Pakistan and North Korea, who have irresponsibly armed themselves with nuclear warheads. The United Nations should make it a big priority that those nations be constrained and watched, to stop them from doing anything reckless.

In the Indian subcontinent, the regional scriptures like Mahabharata explain that a war much like a nuclear war had happened in the olden times, thousands of years ago. They did not use ICBM’s to launch their missiles but spelled out a special Mantra before loading a single arrow on their bows. When they shot it afterwards, hellfire enraptured the entire opposition army, a single arrow multiplied thousands of times and blazoned with fire and supernatural energy. It is quite impossible to actually think of a scenario like this but it also seems queer that Einstein was able to formulate a single formula which explains space and time and matter and energy without experimentation. Isn’t it a profound thing he was able to grasp that?I believe this is what all comes down to. Human intelligence, morality and the ability to persevere even in the toughest conditions, against implacable odds. World war two happened, Hitler seemed unbeatable but in the end, he was. Cold war happened, two superpowers were accumulating nuclear warheads just to use against each other but in the end, everything came back to normal. Righteousness eventually wins but the process might not be a bed of roses. Hitler killed millions of people, tore off families apart and tried to wipe out an entire race. The new generation of people who will lead our world in the coming years are not that flamboyant to use nuclear war heads on each other. They are more individualistic and liberal than we can ever imagine. Bought up in the age of Internet most of them regard the process of globalization as a boon and not a curse. They have the knowledge of the entire world in their fingertips which they do not regard as being vivid or awe inspiring as many people of the previous generation think. The previous generation are Digital Immigrants whereas the present ones, who are going to lead tomorrow are digital natives.

In my experience I have been able to draw parallels between the people of my age, all over the world. All I ever wanted was a good job, a café nearby my home to drink and talk ideas and the freedom to go to different places and learn various cultures. When I came to America, I have found people, of different places and ethnicity, with different set of principles but nevertheless bought up in the same age, the digital age and aspiring for the same things I long for. When this generation of people goes on to take the center stage, I think a lot of the problems put forward by the nuclear race will come to an end. Because, it’s just not worth it. To stop the possibility of a nuclear confrontation at any time in the future, the world will have to get smaller, our differences put aside and all our goals aligned towards a particular direction. That direction may be traversing through space and finding new life forms in other galaxies. Or maybe colonizing the distant planets. In that case, it wouldn’t be terribly bad if we bombed an uninhabited planet, will it? But all of this space exploration may not be as feasible as we may think. It will still take two or three generations more for our children to settle on other planets.

What common cause do we find then, to stop our fellow men from going barbaric on each other with nuclear warheads? What common cause can we find among us that makes us human? I believe, it is the sheer ability of a single human being to become satanic like Hitler or a compassionate soul like Mahatma Gandhi or Martin Luther King. An animal, say a tiger, will hunt when it’s hungry and sleep when it is time for it. It cannot differentiate between good and evil. It doesn’t see a deer, it sees food. But for us humans, we are plagued with choices of right and wrong, good and evil, ever since we were born.

So, to make this world a better place and stop the nuclear catastrophe from ever happening it is of vital importance that we use our dollars to pull people out of poverty, fill hungry stomachs everywhere on the planet, help people fight depression and launch a final war on all wars, not by using weapons but words filled with heavy emotions. Our goals should be to bring out the Martin Luther King from every disillusioned soul in this planet and stifle any remnants of Hitler, if present in any Human Being. My argument may seem a little idealistic for a lot of people. But isn’t this already being done. Aren’t there people in this world by the millions who selflessly help the less fortunate? We have the UN which floods a country with aid when in crisis. If a catastrophe falls upon a country, does the rest of the world wait and watch or line up to help? It’s the latter, we have all seen it in the news. To me, human behavior is like a very large amoeba. It can shape itself in any number of patterns. There are 7 billion people on this world who make it up and if we could all find a common cause and direct the amoeba in a proper direction, then we would be able to control its movement and prevent any possibility of death of the amoeba.

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A Mysterious Personality of Mobius Physicist

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Newton and Einstein have faked their madness in order to spy on Mobius, Who Is The Most Brilliant Physicist Alive. Newton and Einstein are secret agents that both come from different countries and organizations which have ordered them to bring back the secrets of physics and nuclear weapons Mobius possesses and perhaps even bring back Mobius. Mobius, afraid that his findings will be exposed to the outside which will lead to destruction of the world, fakes his madness as well in order to stay inside the sanatorium and keep his work safe. Mobius believes that mankind is not ready to encounter the new ideas he has discovered and thus the world will lead to chaos. On the other hand, Newton believes Mobius’s work should be revealed to the world since he believes in the freedom of science, as physicists Newton thinks they need to advance their knowledge and thrive for new developments with no responsibility, whether humanity turns that into chaos is humanities problem. Einstein believes that the work should be revealed but in favor of only one side that gets ahold of the knowledge and power.

I understand everyone’s point of view but I mostly agree with Newton. I feel that the chaos that might happen can be avoided by giving everyone equal knowledge of the new developments. The problem after that can be solved on its own through negotiating or from other solutions. I can relate this to the world today, both North Korea and the United states possess nuclear weapons that can cause damage to each other’s countries but that problem has been resolved after a meeting with both presidents. Mobius’ plan will not work because there will come a time in the future when a new genius is born and that genius will eventually discover what Mobius was trying to hide. It is better to make the right decision now than for it to fall in the hands of someone evil. As physicists they deserve to be free with their research and further find new discoveries and advance the world’s knowledge. It is not the physicist’s job to decide whether the world will fall into chaos, if the world decides to turn the knowledge into chaos it is the world’s duty to resolve its own issues.

Newton is right to preserve the freedom of science. I also disagree with Einstein because giving a certain group of people the knowledge and power that other people don’t have will certainly lead to more bad things than good. The best chance they have at avoiding conflict is by going with New- ton’s idea, by opening the new horizons of physics more developments and discoveries will be made and during that process a solution can also be found. As humans we can’t hide new discoveries forever, the world keeps on advancing and all the mysteries will be solved eventually. By sharing new information and discoveries we can advance altogether and work together for the better. In the event that Newton’s decision did lead to chaos that means it would have happened anyway in the future.

New discoveries are being made every day and people have to make these kinds of decisions, hiding them will only lengthen the inevitable. It was extremely hard for me to pick who I agreed with most and I can surely say I agree with all of them. What got me to make my decision was the events that had happened recently around the world. South Korea and North Korea have decided to make peace with each other and the same goes for North Korea and USA. Both countries went from threatening each other to resolving their own issues without violence. In this world conflict is inevitable, and we keep advancing. New problems and conflicts will always emerge and it is our responsibility as humans to solve them.

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“Einstein’s Letter”: a Story About Genius Physicist

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The film titled “Einstein’s Letter” depicts the historical events that took place beginning the summer of 1939; world renowned physicist Albert Einstein agreed to sign a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt that would change the world forever. He was visited at his Long Island home by Hungarian physicists Leo Szilard and Eugene Wigner in order to get his help in urging the President to build a nuclear bomb. They felt that the building of this atomic bomb and the treat of its detonation would save the world. Szilard presumed that this big, scary weapon would deter war and force nations into peace. However; he needed Einstein’s help to set his theory in motion. Driven by intense fear of Nazi Germany having an unbeatable lead on the development of these atomic bombs, Szilard went full speed ahead with his plans to get an atomic bomb completed in America. At that time no one knew who Szilard or Wigner were but almost everyone knew of Albert Einstein. So, that beautiful, sunny, summer day they sought out Einstein to reap the benefits of his scientific reputation. Einstein would play an intricate role in getting the powerful officials to take them seriously. The first signed letter, delivered on October 11, 1939, did as intended when it reached President Roosevelt. He took immediate action by ordering a meeting with the top military officials and leading atomic scientist to discuss the feasibility of what it took to built and actual atomic bomb. Albert Einstein was invited to this meeting; he generously declined because of his status as a serious pacifist. Resulting from the meeting, Szilard and his team received the “go ahead” from the government for the atomic project, but were later denied the funds they were promised. In a second letter (blackmail letter) to the President, signed by Albert Einstein, Szilard threatened to publish his chain reactor design. Prompted by this letter, President Roosevelt ordered the Uranium committee to release the funds to the atomic project, now known as the top secret Manhattan project. Once the United States entered World War II, the urgency of the bomb gained heightened importance. After a test proved that chain reaction was possible and the potential devastation of the atomic bomb was realized to be horrific, Szilard drafted another letter to the President urging him not to use the atomic bomb. Before the letter could be delivered, the President died. On August 05, 1945, the atomic bomb “Little Boy” was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan taking thousands of lives. With these events as our focus, we will examine how they changed society from the perspective of the symbolic interactionists, the functionalist, and the conflict theorists.

“Symbolic interactionists study how people use symbols to develop their views of the world and to communicate with one another. Symbols define for us what relationships are… without symbols, our social life would lack sophistication” (Henslin, 2006:15). The significance these happenings had on social change would mean nothing in our history if everyone and everything did not have a particular symbol. Unable to specify title, materials, or goals Albert Einstein would have not been labeled with the status he had achieved as world most famous physicist, Nazi Germany would have not been feared, Szilard would have not had his ideas he, the President would have not had the such tremendous power, the materials to build an atomic bomb would have not existed, there would be no wars, and so on. In a nutshell, “symbolic interactionists analyze how our behaviors depend on the way we define both ourselves and others. They study face-to-face interactions; they look at how people work out their relationships and how they make sense out of life and their place in it” (Henslin, 2006: 15). Leo Szilard knew at a young age he wanted to save the world. As a symbolic interactionist, Let us look at Szilard’s ideas and behavior and how they changed as symbols changed. The social interaction between Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein was a key factor in making the atomic bomb possible. Einstein’s fame and membership to a high social class enabled Szilard to make contact with the people who could put his plans in action. The letter Szilard drafted and signed by Einstein was symbolic; it was the first step of many toward peace in a war torn society. The reading of the letter to the President ushered in a new relationship between the government and physicists. In their first meeting to discuss this new technology, the American government did not think these men, with strong Hungarian accents, could be trusted. When funds for the building of this bomb were withheld, Szilard reverted by to his relationship with Einstein. Drafting up a second letter to blackmail the government into releasing the funds, Szilard wrote about publishing his reactor design if they did not receive the funds they were promised. Consequently, the committee freed up the money and the project continued through to completion. Once Szilard and his team removed the control rods from their test reactor, he realized the magnitude of what they had just built. Now drafting up letter number three, asking that the bomb not be used, Szilard was too late. President Roosevelt had died. Without the social connection with the current President, Harry S. Truman, Szilard was unable to relay his message before the bomb was dropped. The devastation forced Szilard to quit physics and pick up biology. He then dedicated his life to make sure the bomb was not used again. Albert Einstein also, devoted his life to insuring the atomic bomb was not used again. The fear of the Nazi’s building the weapon first and using it, was the original cause of him signing the letters, but after seeing what the bomb did, he was very regretful. If nothing else, Einstein could at least say that he had a big part in changing society by strengthening the relationship between the government and physicists.

“Functionalist view society as being composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium. Robert Merton used the term functions to refer to the beneficial consequences of people’s actions. In contrast, he used the term dysfunctions to refer to the consequences that harm society” (Henslin, 2006:16). Throughout this film, a functionalist would say the chain of events resulted in both functions and dysfunctions. The social change that ushered in the atomic bomb era began with the discovery of Uranium in the mines of Germany. Szilard feared that Hitler, with his hate filled agenda, would definitely be working on his own nuclear weapon. These premonitions drove Szilard into action. First, he met with his fellow physicists to devise a plan to get the government involved with his atomic bomb project. His idea was to make sure the United States of America was the first country to build such bomb; by doing so, war would be deterred due to the treat of the detonation of this scary weapon. For Szilard the manifest function of this atomic bomb was to save the world. With Einstein’s endorsement of the letters to the President urging the build of the atomic bomb, the relationship between the physicists and the government was now very important. While the physicist came up with how to build the atomic bomb, the government controlled the funds to build the bomb and the ultimate use of it. Upon completion the bomb was dropped on Japan, physicist realized the devastation they helped to create. The latent dysfunction of the bombing of Hiroshima, Japan left thousands killed and thousands more wounded and burned. After witnessing the aftermath of the bomb detonation, Szilard quit physics and opted for biology. A latent function of the bombing was Einstein and Szilard both dedicated their lives to making sure the atomic bomb was not used again. Society now had two very intelligent physicists working against the deployment of a weapon that would create such havoc. It was ironic that they were instrumental in building the atomic weapon, but then work tirelessly to rid the world of its destruction. At the end of the day, Szilard accomplished what he intended in the first place. “His weapon did end up saving the world by forcing humans to see what they do to each other, which in some way limited the destruction of our wars” (Williams, 2006). Therefore, Szilard’s manifest function for the purpose of the bomb changed our society forever; also, physicists are not as invisible to our government as they once were.

“Conflict theorists stress that society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources” (Henslin, 2006: 18). The events of this historical time began with conflict. Hitler was using his power to brutally exterminate the Jews from Germany because of his prejudice toward them. Knowing the ruthlessness of this authoritarian leader, Szilard had legitimate reasons to be fearful. With Germany under Nazi control, Szilard felt that he was in a race to finish an atomic bomb before they did. As Leo Szilard and Enrico Fermi met with the government and explained what needed to happen, they had to do major convincing to get the support they needed. In this case, the bourgeoisie, capitalists who own the means to produce wealth, were the government officials; the proletariats, workers who are exploited by the bourgeoisie, were the physicists. The government promised to fund Szilard’s reactor project, but did not want to release the fund because they felt that the two physicists were security risks because of their accents and nationalities. According to Karl Marx, “The key to human history is class conflict” (Henslin, 2006:18). It was obvious these two groups were of completely different social classes because they continually bump heads on a collision course. The struggle between these two groups ended when Szilard wrote a second letter (blackmail letter) to the President, signed by Einstein. The President ordered the Uranium committee to release the funds for the Manhattan project. If the final say was up to the committee, the atomic bomb might have not been completed in America first. Who knows how that might have affected our society today? Nevertheless; the bomb was invented, which changed today’s society for the best. Knowing that the construction of an atomic bomb is possible keeps us alert and on our toes.

In conclusion, all three theoretical perspectives are important in analyzing any event. When a situation is only studied from one perspective it is very complicated to get the whole picture. Watching the film “Einstein’s letter” and interpreting what was happening from the perspective of the symbolic interactionist, showed us how important symbols are to the history of society. Without them there would have been no event to mention. While from a functionalist perspective, we see that everything in our society has a function, whether it is negative or positive. Throughout this film many parts, from the government official, the physicist, to the bomb itself, functioned together to create social change. Conflict theorist, illustrated how the capitalist wield their power over the physicists by denying them the resources that were needed for the project to continue. It took the order of the President, a higher power, to make them give the physicists what they were promised. For optimum understanding of the events depicted in the film, all the different perspectives had to be formulated and then combined. Only then can there be a bigger and better view of the whole picture.

Works Cited

  • Henslin, James M. (2006). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. 7th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Williams, Marco. 2006. “10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America” [videorecording]/ a History Channel Production. New York: A&E Television Networks.
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    A Glorious Life of Einstein

    October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

    Albert Einstein was born Ulm, Wurttemberg, Germany March 14 1879. A German-born physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, among other feats. He is considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. Albert Einstein had a passion for inquiry that eventually led him to develop the special and general theories of relativity.

    Einstein was not considered smart since the day he was born; during his childhood he was a slow learner to speak. His parents hired a doctor in order to check on the young boy, because of his learning habits of being slow in learning, speaking, and other things. This did not matter to the young Einstein, but the slow verbal development made him curious about ordinary things.

    When Albert Einstein was four or five years old, his father gave him a magnetic pocket compass to play while he was sick in bed. Einstein love the way how the compass move to every direction the needle points to . “ I can still remember… That this experience made a deep lasting impression on me. Something deeply hidden had to be behind things.”-Albert Einstein.

    At the age 16 Einstein SAT the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich , but he failed to reach the required the standards in the general part of examination. Einstein obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics also he attended the Argovian cantonal school in Aurau, Switzerland to complete his secondary schooling. Einstein professor was Jost Winteler, and he fell in love with Winteler’s daughter, Marie.

    During that time period Einstein gained his father approval to renounce his citizenship in the German Kingdom of Wurttemberg to avoid military service. Einstein and Marie got married the young couple were truly in love with each other they had their first daughter in september 1903, but the young couple put the little girl for adoption they didn ‘t knew that their first daughter past away from a severe cold “Scarlet Fever” she passed away on September 15, 1903.

    A year past from giving their first child for adoption they had another child this time it was a young boy he was born on May 1904 his name was Hans Albert Einstein, and also was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second son was born in Zurich in July 1910, but in 1914 the young couple separated; Einstein moved to Berlin and his wife remained in Zurich with their sons. They divorced on February 14 1919 as time passed their second son had a mental breakdown the young lad was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Einstein married Elsa, Lowenthal on June 2 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912.

    Albert Einstein started in 1900, when he was granted a teaching diploma by ETH school in Zurich; Einstein there wrote his first published paper titled “Consequences of the observations of capillarity phenomena”. After his graduation the young lad couldn’t find a higher education teaching post, but the father of a classmate helped him obtained a job as a technical assistant examiner as the Swiss Patent Office in 1902, and he obtained his doctorate after submitting his thesis “ A new determination of molecular dimensions”.

    Einstein science career really took off on the year of 1905; he wrote four articles that provided the foundation of modern psychics. The paper were on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity later on he won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1921 with the paper on the photoelectric effect. Einstein greatest accomplishment was the explanation of General Relativity in his theory Einstein determined the laws of psychics are the same for all non-accelerating observers, and he showed that the speed of light within a vacuum is the same no matter the speed at which an observer travels. As a result, he found that space and time were interwoven into a single continuum known as space time, and also Einstein realized that a massive object can caused the distortion in space time. This theory changed Newton’s law of gravity, Einstein Field Equations; this was really the defining moment of Albert Einstein.

    When world war 2 was happening Adolf Hitler influenced other scientists to label Einstein work “Jewish psychics” also all jewish citizens were barred from university work and other officials jobs, and Einstein himself was targeted to be killed.(Biography.com)

    Einstein decided to move to the United States, because of the horrible events happening in Germany. He took the position at the institute for Advanced study at Princeton, New Jersey and never went back to his native land. Einstein wasnt the only one scientist that left Germany and immigrated to the state, with their concern over Nazi strategies to create an atomic weapon. Einstein took quick actions with another fellow Leo Szillard wrote a letter to president Franklin D. Roosevelt to alert him of possibility of a Nazi bomb and to galvanize the United States to create its own nuclear bomb. The U.S. would eventually initiate the Manhattan Project, though Einstein would not take direct part in its implementation due to his pacifist and social affiliations.

    In 1935, Einstein was granted permanent residency in his adopted country and became an American Citizen a few years later.(Biography.com) During WWII, he worked on Navy-based weapons system and made a big monetary donations to the military by auctioning off manuscript worth millions of dollars. After the huge announcement of the Hiroshima disaster, Einstein became a major player in effort to curtail usage of the A-Bomb.

    Einstein regret informing president Franklin D. Roosevelt about the Nazi creating a atomic bomb. Years pass of the horrible destruction of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, Japan “ Had i known that the Germans would not succeed in producing an atomic bomb,” he said “I would have never lifted a finger.”

    Another successful invention that Einstein refrigerator in an invention that uses green technology he co-invented with with Leo Szillard who was one of his former physics student. The refrigerator was introduced in 1834, however the invention had some concerns of poisoning leaks because faulty seals in the mechanical compressors would leak toxic gases such as methyl choices chloride and sulfur dioxide.(Inventor-strategies.com) During the process of creating the refrigerator a family died in Germany from such an event and it is believed that is a tragedy motivated Einstein to design his wonderful invention. The Einstein refrigerator uses an absorption where changes in pressure between liquids and gases also drops the temperature in a food compartment.

    Einstein accomplished a lot during his glorious life, creating his own theory, earning a nobel prize, warning the U.S. about the Nazi party plan of creating a nuclear bomb, and creating a refrigerator that stop family to parish from toxic gases. Unfortunely Einstein got sick he suffer from abdominal aortic aneurysm; he was rushed to the University Medical Center at Princeton for treatment, but Einstein refused surgery. Einstein believed that he lived his life, and was ready to accept his fate he stated “I want to go when I want” he also stated “ “It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.” Later on Einstein passed away April 18, 1955 at the age of 76. The wonderful life that he had was amazing proving everyone how knowledge can change the world, and the future. Therefore Einstein changed the world by inventing his wonderful invention and other things that he succeed in his career by proving knowledge comes from the heart you have to gained it in order to show the world what are you capable off.

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    Albert Einstein and Rosa Parks: Path to Leadership

    October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

    As people develop new experiences and gain wisdom throughout their lives, their viewpoints will inevitably change. Many people may experience an event that alters their perspective on the world. Others may not change their viewpoint based on an experience, but such an experience can make them feel even more strongly about their cause. The former of these two descriptions applies to Albert Einstein; while known primarily for being a “genius” throughout most of his life, he changed his beliefs upon witnessing the rise of Adolf Hitler and used his wisdom to change the world as it is currently known. The latter applies to Rosa Parks; while she had fought hard as a civil rights activist before she refused to give up her seat on the bus on that fateful night, the experience pushed her to become a leader in the movement. A follower becomes a leader when they not only have developed the experiences necessary to identify with their movement, but also when they have a platform to make their voices heard.

    Due to the brutality of World War I, Albert Einstein was a strong pacifist and supporter of Gandhian nonviolence. However, upon witnessing the rise of Nazi Germany, Einstein was forced to shift his views. While his pacifistic views never completely disappeared, Einstein took a more cautious approach in his beliefs (Slate Lecture 10-17). His awareness of the horrors about to occur in his country drove him to make a larger impact in international affairs. To begin his accelerated involvement with politics, he warned United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt about Germany’s experimenting with nuclear fission and possible possession of an atomic bomb (Einstein Video 2). The United States responded with the planned creation of their own atomic bomb, and Einstein’s changed mind regarding militarism led him to play a significant role in what is now called The Manhattan Project. Nevertheless, Einstein would never have the platform to play such a large role in the development of the bomb if not for his prior reputation as a physicist. As a result of the combination of Adolf Hitler’s rise to power and Einstein’s foundation as a notable figure in the world, Albert Einstein was able to make a difference in creating the atomic bomb to end World War II and transition into a leader rather than a follower.

    Even though Einstein had already changed his mind once regarding his views on militarism, the results of the Manhattan Project pushed him to not only change his mind yet again, but also to become an even better leader. Concerned with the United States’ awareness of the potential consequences resulting from the bomb, Einstein penned another letter to President Roosevelt, emphasizing his “[great concern] about the lack of adequate contact between [scientists] who are doing this work and [Cabinet members] who are responsible for formulating policy” (Einstein, Letters to Roosevelt). Even though his communication was too late to change the United States’ mind about dropping the bomb, the outcomes of the resulting explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki led Einstein to fight for world peace. Einstein’s battle for issues such as international control of weapons and freedom of speech were complicated significantly by the Cold War, but he stood by his beliefs until his final days (Einstein Video 3). Looking back on Einstein’s life, it can be said that his experiences with changing his mind due to world events prompted him to become a leader, and his work with physics throughout his life gave him the platform to communicate his views with any audience.

    Rosa Parks took a different path to leadership than Albert Einstein. While she was not nationally well known before the day she refused to give up her seat, she had always been a devoted follower in the civil rights movement. As a secretary working with the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People, Parks had previously helped organize a large network that would eventually make the Montgomery Bus Boycott a success (Parks Video 1). Upon Parks’s release from jail, her expanded platform drove her to not only take a larger role in advancing the civil rights movement, but also to inspire other African-Americans to spark their movements. Although the movements of activists such as Pauli Murray and Bayard Rustin failed to garner the same mainstream attention as Rosa Parks’s refusal to stand up, they demonstrate how one small movement can lead to another in a larger cause (Parks Video 3). During the years prior to the boycott, Rosa Parks played a role in the civil rights movement, but it was not until the night of December 1, 1955 when she finally had the people’s attention and the experience necessary to truly become a leader.

    As proven by two influential figures driven by experience and desire for change, the path for followers to become leaders is paved by these aforementioned factors. Albert Einstein spent most of his life as a follower of Gandhian nonviolence, but his experiences with the world allowed him to be a leader both times he changed his mind on his militaristic beliefs. Rosa Parks never stopped fighting for civil rights, but the night of her arrest gave her the platform to make a larger difference in her movement. The way these two differ in their paths to leadership is that while Einstein had the platform and needed to gain experience to become a leader, Parks had the experience and never had a platform until her arrest. All in all, Albert Einstein and Rosa Parks show that both experience and being well known by the public are necessary to transition from a follower to a leader.

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