Integrity in to Kill a Mockingbird

Integrity is having a standard of morals and ethics, and living by them. It is a willingness and ability to do the right thing even when it is hard. The story To Kill a Mockingbird is filled with integrity. For example, many of the people in Maycomb share a prejudiced sense of integrity when it comes to its racist views. However, it is Atticus Finch’s integrity throughout the novel that really embodies the idea of moral and ethical principles. He puts into action every moral idea that he supports.

Atticus is a role model to not only his children, but to the whole town of Maycomb, and his integrity is a great part of what makes him such a good example. Integrity breeds integrity. Harper Lee is suggesting that integrity within ourselves helps others to have integrity. Atticus brought up Jem and Scout by example.

His show of integrity instilled within his children their own sense of integrity. Both Jem and Scout are exposed to experiences throughout the novel their shape their perception of right and wrong.

For example, Atticus took up the case of Tom Robinson not only because he had to, but because he was fighting for an innocent life against injustice and racial prejudice. His display of integrity in Tom Robinson’s case was reflected onto his children. They soon came to know their father as a hero full of moral courage, and did their best to do him right in their own ways. Though they could have fought against their peers insults against them and Atticus, they showed adversity by not reciprocating. “As it was, we were compelled to hold our heads high and be, respectively, a gentlemen and a lady.”(Lee, pg. 247)

Furthermore, Scout shows integrity through her wisdom and compassion that goes beyond her years. Atticus is a strong role model to his children with his strong sense of integrity, and Scout and Jem develop their own integrity throughout To Kill a Mockingbird with his lead. Atticus’s integrity extends not only to his family, but to the whole community of Maycomb. The community of Maycomb was heartedly against Atticus defending Tom Robinson, a black man. Yet, once again, Atticus’s integrity shines through as he stands strong through the adversity.

During the trial, Atticus speaks firmly of the truth, and forces Maycomb to examine their conception of race and the equality of man. As Christians, they know that all men were equal. As Atticus finishes his speech, he says “In the name of god, believe him [Tom Robinson]” (Lee, Pg. 209). In saying this, he is reminding the jury of this integrity they are supposed to uphold. Though Maycomb convicted Tom Robinson, as Miss Maudie said “We’re making a step-it’s just a baby-step, but it’s a step.” (Lee, Pg.220) She is referring to the fact that Atticus had been able to force the jury to examine their views of race, as they were kept out so long. In this way, Atticus’s integrity got to every person of Maycomb.

Another example is when Reverend Sykes says to Scout “Miss Jean Louise, stand up, your father’s passin’.”(Lee, Pg 215) Reverend Sykes is demonstrating his respect for Atticus by telling Scout to show the same respect. Atticus’s integrity had a strong impact on the black community of Maycomb, and they demonstrated a great deal of their own integrity because of him. Atticus’s integrity reflects onto all of Maycomb county’s citizens. Today’s society can easily relate to the pressures on the individual’s and community’s integrity that is found in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Every day peer pressure instils within us the desire to be bigger and better than what we are. The media, how other’s view us, and the pressure put on us by others will all test our integrity on a daily basis.

Atticus and his children both had to deal with the adversity against them because of the communities differences in opinion. They kept their integrity through it all with Jem and scout having their father’s moral advice and support to help them. Though many succumb to the pressures put on us, there are also many Atticus’s out there that have a moral and ethical conscience backing them up. They become a role model that breeds integrity through their moral practices. “Before I can live with other folks I’ve got to live with myself. The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s conscience.” (Lee, pg.108)

To conclude, Atticus is a strong moral figure in the book To Kill a Mockingbird that demonstrates the quality of integrity to the fullest. His integrity helps others to have integrity. To explain, Atticus instils a strong sense of integrity within his children by teaching them by example. Furthermore, his example of integrity also extends to the community of Maycomb, as Atticus forces them to reflect upon their prejudiced racial views. We ourselves are every day tested with our own integrity, and the Atticus’s of the world and in ourselves can help strengthen our moral values. All in all, Integrity within ourselves helps others to have integrity.

To Kill A Mockingbird: Childhood Experience

A kid or a teenager who has experienced maybe a family death or witnessed a terrible event might become more mature because their experience made them more mature. In To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Jem and Scout grow and mature through experiences.
In To Kill A Mockingbird by Lee Harper, Scout and Jem grow and mature through experiences with Boo Radley. When she passed the Radley house for school, Scout felt sorry for Boo. “I sometimes felt a twinge of remorse when passing by the old place, at ever having taken part in what must have been a sheer torment to Arthur Radley” (Lee 324.

) Scout had matured enough to know what they had done to try and communicate with Boo, had quite possibly been torment. She felt almost ashamed of their antics. After Bob Ewell had attacked Scout walked Boo back to the Radley house. “Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know a person until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them.

Just standing on the Radley porch was enough” (374.)

Scout had always wondered what kept Boo in the house, and now that she had walked around in his shoes a little bit she started to understand more. Jem took the verdict of the trail hard, and Scout struggled to understand. “Naw, Jem, I think there’s just one kind of folks. Folks.”… “If there’s just one kind of folks, why can’t they get along with each other? If they’re all alike, why do they go out of their way to despise each other? Scout, I think I’m beginning to understand something. I think I’m started to understand why Boo Radley stayed shut up in the house all this time. It’s because he wants to” (304.) A part of growing up is realizing that the world’s not a pretty place and not everyone’s a nice person. Jem realized this with the outcome of the trial, he knew the verdict was unjust and Tom was convicted guilty simply because of people’s racial prejudice. Jem wonders why and how they could have done it. He thinks about it and instead of using a silly child’s story as to why Boo stays in the house, he starts to think that maybe this injustice in the world is the reason why Boo stays in the house. He thinks that maybe Boo wants to stay in the house because he also thinks the prejudice and unjust views of society are unfair and discriminatory.

In To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Jem and Scout grow and mature through experiences with Tom Robinson’s trial. After the verdict of the trial, Jem is angry at the injustice. ”It was Jem’s turn to cry. His face was streaked with angry tears as we made our way through the cheerful crowd. “It ain’t right” he muttered” (284.) Jem knew that Tom was innocent, he also knew that everyone else knew he was innocent, yet because of their racial prejudice, Tom was convicted guilty. Jem see’s this injustice and is greatly upset by it. Jem had matured enough to know it’s not right when the majority of the adults there didn’t and Scout just brushed it off. The trial led to Jem maturing and knowing people aren’t always good people. Scout, Miss Maudie, and Aunt Alexandra were given the news about Tom’s death while Aunt Alexandra was hosting a tea party. “After all if Aunty could be a lady at a time like this, so could I” (370.) Instead of throwing a temper tantrum or pouting and crying, like a kid her age might, Scout decides to act with maturity and dignity, just like Aunt Alexandra and Miss Maudie and return to the tea party. After the Bob Ewell attack, Atticus talks to Scout about what happened. “Scout,” He said. “Mr. Ewell fell on his knife. Can you possibly understand?” . . . “Yes sir, I understand,” I reassured him. “Mr. Tate was right.” Atticus disengaged himself and looked at me. “What do you mean?” “Well, It’d be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird wouldn’t it?” (370.) Scout, still a young child, was mature enough to understand the situation and reassure Atticus, who was probably under a lot of strain and stress that night. Also by using the analogy “it’s sort of like shootin’ a Mockingbird” Scout shows she paid attention to Atticus and Maudie when they told her that shooting mockingbirds is a sin.

In To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Jem grows and matures through life experiences. Scout tried to fight Walter because he made her start off on the wrong foot at school. “Come on home to dinner with us Walter” he [Jem] said “We’d be glad to have you” (30.) Scout angry at getting in trouble, childishly tried to fight Walter. When Jem got her off of him, Jem invited Walter to eat lunch at their house with them. Jem understood why Walter couldn’t afford lunch and wanted to help him. After the trial Dill, Jem, and Scout visit Miss. Maudie. “There should have three little ones. It was not like Miss. Maudie to forget Dill, and we must have shown it. But we understood when she cut from the big cake and gave a slice to Jem. (288.) The trial is when Jem lost his innocence of childhood, his “coming of age” in a sense. In a way, he “killed a Mockingbird” because mockingbirds are innocent, and the trial “killed” Jem’s childhood innocence. Miss. Maudie knows this, hence why Jem gets a slice from the big cake, the “adult cake.” He had matured past, his own little cake, unlike Scout and Dill. Scout finds Dill under her bed after he ran away from his parents in Meridian. “Jem was standing in a corner of the room looking like the traitor he was. “Dill I had to tell him,” he said. “You can’t run three hundred miles off without your mother knowin’.”(188.) While Scout would have kept it quiet, and kept her friends secret, Jem was mature enough to know that nobody knowing where Dill was was dangerous and scary. He knew it was irresponsible of Dill and that he should tell Atticus and did. Jem didn’t do it to tattle he did it for Dill’s safety, like a mature adult.
Scout and Jem grew and became more mature through the things they experienced, they used possibly bad experienced and learned how to act maturely from it. A part of growing up and “coming of age.”

To Kill a Mockingbird Newspaper Article

Big Scandal By: Jessica Morash Above shows defence Atticus Finch and Tom Robinson Under the authority of Judge Taylor in the small town of Maycomb County, a black man named Tom Robinson (age twenty-five) was allegedly accused of raping Mayella Ewell (age nineteen). The events being told had originally happened according to defense Atticus Finch, when we heard him ask the alleged accused, “Tom, what had happened to you on the night of November twenty-first of last year? ” One of the first witnesses is called to the stand by Mr.

Gilmer to testify on what happened the night Miss Ewell stated that she was raped.

The first witness was Heck Tate, Maycomb’s sheriff. According to his testimony, Mr. Tate stated that he was just leaving to go home when, “Mr. Ewell (Mayella’s father) came in, very excited he was, and said get out to his house quick, [a black man] raped his girl. ” In return, Mr. Tate was asked if he had indeed gone to Mr.

Ewell’s house, and he had given his response, “Certainly. Got in the car and went out as fast as I could. ” It was reported that Mr. Tate had seen Miss Ewell lying in the middle of the floor and was “pretty well beat up,” Mr.

Tate then continued, “I asked her who hurt her and she said it was Tom Robinson – asked her if he beat her like that, she said yes he had. Asked her if he took advantage of her and she said yes he did. So I went down to Robinson’s house and brought him back. She identified him as the one, so I took him in. That’s all there was to it,” he finished, and the Judge proceeded by asking if Atticus Finch would like to ask any questions to Mr. Tate, and responded yes. Mr. Finch, seeming very relaxed with his legs crossed and arm on the back of his chair asked, “Did you call a doctor, Sheriff? Did anybody call a doctor? In response Mr. Tate stated that no, he did not call a doctor. However, Mr. Finch wanted to make it clear to everyone in the room; he repeated himself twice more and in reaction to doing this, he responded with, “I just wanted to make sure, Judge. ” Afterward, we’ve learned that Miss Ewell had gotten many bruises, as well as around the neck and had a black eye on her right side. Shortly after, we heard the name, “Robert E. Lee Ewell! ” to be called to the stand. The man was very small, meek he was. Mr. Ewell started off by saying his first words as, “That’s m’name, cap’n,” and you could see Mr.

Gilmer’s back stiffen as he spoke. Mr. Ewell was then asked if he was the father of Mayella Ewell to which he retorted, “Well if I ain’t I can’t do nothing about it now, her ma’s dead. ” Judge Taylor stirred, re-asked the question, then Mr. Ewell came back with his words and said, “Yes, sir. ” Mr. Gilmer then proceeded to ask Mr. Ewell what had happened in his own words. He started, “Well, the night of November twenty-one I was comin’ in from the woods with a load o’kindlin and just as I got to the fence I heard Mayella screamin’ like a stuck hog inside the house. ” As Mr.

Gilmer interrupted, he asked what time of the day it was, and to his response he continued, “Just ‘fore sundown. Well I was sayin’ Mayella was screamin’ fit to beat Jesus, so I dropped m’load and run as fast as I could up to th’ window and I seen-“ His face grew scarlet red, and he pointed his finger to Mr. Tom Robinson. Continuing, “[…] I run for Tate quick as I could. I [knew] who it was, all right, lived down yonder [for fifteen years]. ” Seeming hurried, Mr. Gilmer ended his session giving a quick, “Thank you, Mr. Ewell,” and returned to his seat. Shortly after Mr.

Finch had risen as well as Mr. Ewell and both men ran right into each other, resulting a laughing court room. From this action, Mr. Finch asked if he could ask a few questions to Mr. Ewell. Atticus first asked if Mr. Ewell had ran to a doctor, this giving no surprise considered he already asked it three times before to Mr. Tate. In reply to Atticus, Mr. Ewell spoke, “[Wasn’t any] need to. I seen what happened. ” Mr. Ewell also said that he agreed to everything Mr. Heck Tate said. Sure after this, Mr. Finch asked if Mr. Ewell could read or write, to which gave a small dispute with Mr.

Gilmer because he didn’t think his literacy would have effect of the case. However Atticus overruled this by making sure to prove his point in the next question, which was following after Mr. Ewell responded with, “I most positively can. ” So Mr. Finch gave Mr. Ewell a piece of paper and asked him to write his name and show everyone (just to prove he actually could read and write). It was seen that Mr. Ewell was left-handed, but he had no clue how this had effect, either. Atticus finally dismissed him. The third witness was called to the stand, we see that it was Mayella Violet Ewell.

Judge Taylor started by saying, “Just tell us what happened. You can do that, can’t you? ” This issues Mayella to burst out crying, covering her mouth. After a few minutes passed and Judge Taylor had calmed her down, Mr. Gilmer took over once again to ask questions. Miss Ewell then began by saying how she was on her front porch that evening while Mr. Robinson was walking by. She had asked him to chop up an old chiffarobe for kindling. “I said come here, […] and bust up this old chiffarobe for me, I gotta nickel for you. He coulda done it easy enough, he could.

So he come in the yard an’ I went in the house to get him the nickel and I turned around an ‘fore I knew it he was on me. Just run up behind me, he did. He got me round the neck, [cursing and saying fowl things] – I fought ‘n’ hollered, but he had me round the neck. He hit me again an’ again. ” Mayella then finished with, “He done what he was after. ” A while after Atticus had begun; he had asked Miss Ewell if her father had ever beaten her. In reply, “My [father] never touched a hair o’ my head in my life […]. He never touched me. ” Atticus then wanted to clarify that the man was Tom Robinson.

He asked him to stand, and it revealed that Mr. Robinson’s left arm was shorter than his right which ended in a small shriveled hand that just hung by his side. Mr. Robinson supposedly had his arm caught in a cotton gin when he was a boy and it tore all of his muscles loose from his bones. Exposing this to the crowd, Atticus then asked, “Is this the man that raped you? ” Confirmed that it was by Miss Mayella, Atticus’s next question was one word long: “How? ” Miss Mayella was stuttering her answer revealing that it “all happened so fast,” and “I don’t know how he done it, he just did. By her saying this, Atticus replies back, “Now, Miss Mayella, you’ve testified that the defendant choked and beat you – you didn’t say that he sneaked up behind you and knocked you cold, but you turned around and there he was – do you wish to reconsider any of your testimony? ” Regarding this, Miss Mayella stood firm and didn’t change a thing. This is when Atticus asked one last time if she wanted to be open and tell us what happened. However, she wasn’t too impressed by Atticus’s invitation and yelled, “I got somethin’ to say an’ then I ain’t gonna say no more.

That [man] yonder took advantage of me an’ If you fine fancy gentlemen don’t wanta do nothing about it then you’re all yellow stinkin’ cowards, stinkin’ cowards, the lot of you. Your fancy airs don’t come to nothin’ – your ma’amin’ and Miss Mayellaerin’ don’t come to nothin’ Mr. Finch! ” and she burst out crying once again. The last witness left was called by Atticus. Tom Robinson sat down and Atticus started the questioning. He then asked Tom’s point of view of November twenty-first. He spoke clear, “Mr. Finch, I was going home as usual hat evenin’, and when I passed the Ewell place Miss Mayella were on the porch, like she said she were. It seemed real quiet like, an’ I didn’t quite know why. I was studyin’ why, just passin’ by, when she says for me to come there and help her a minute. Well, I went inside the fence and looked around for some kindling to work on, but I didn’t see none, and she says, ‘No, I got something for you to do in the house. The old door’s off its hinges and falls coming on pretty fast. ’ I said you got a screwdriver, Miss Mayella? She said yes. […]. I pulled it back and forth and those hinges was all right.

Then she shut the door in my face. Mr. Finch, I was wondering why it was so quiet like, and it come to me that there weren’t a child on the place, not one of them, and I said Miss Mayella, where are the children? ” She replied that they had gone to get ice cream. Then he continued, “Well, I said I best be goin’, I couldn’t do nothing for her, and she says oh yes I could, and I ask her what, and she says to just step on that chair yonder and get that box down from the top of the chiffarobe. Next thing I know, she grabbed me around the legs, and it scared me so bad. Tom continued and said that after he had gotten off the chair, she jumped on him, in a hugging manner, followed by Miss Mayella kissing Mr. Tom Robinson. He then stated that he had not raped Mayella Ewell, or had harmed her in any way. The final summation of the trial began with going over evidence. Judge Taylor was saying, “The absence of any corroborative evidence, this man was indicted on a capital charge and is now on trial for his life. ” About five minutes later Mr. Finch rises to the jury to begin his speech for defence of Tom Robinson.

Following is the conclusion of the speech: “I’m no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and in the jury system – that is no ideal to me, it is a living, working reality. Gentlemen, a court is no better than each man of you sitting before me on this jury. A court is only as sounds as its jury, and a jury is only as sounds as the men who make it up. I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this defendant to his family. In the name of God, do your duty. ”

To Kill a Mockingbird Film Review

To Kill a Mockingbrid Department of History History 314 April 14, 2012, 2012 One of the most important themes in To Kill a Mockingbird is the existence of social inequality, as well as whether people are essentially good or evil. Throughout out the movie we watch the transformation of Jem and Scout, two of the main characters who are children, from a view of childhood innocence where they assume everyone is good because they had never experienced evil. The children’s new more adult perspective in which they incorporate their understanding of evil into their view of the world is a very important transition in the movie.

This transition reveals the threat of hatred, prejudice and ignorance for innocent people. These three qualities are explored through the social inequalities that are prevalent in the movement. To Kill a Mockingbird takes place in Maycomb, Alabama, during the 1930s and is centered on Scout Finch and her Brother Jem. The story covers roughly three years and during this time Jem and Scout go through changes in their lives.

The children begin as innocent and carefree, and spend their time playing with each other while secretly spying on Arthur Radley, also called “Boo”.

The father of the children is Atticus Finch, he is a town lawyer who is idealistic and believes that people should be treated fairly and to stand up for what you believe in. Finch is given a case in which an innocent black man, Tom Robinson, has been accused of rape and is found guilty even though there is evidence that he was innocent. One of Finches main argument’s is that Robinson has a crippled left, and the assailant would have had to use his left arm extensively to go through with the crime. Another powerful argument Finch has is that the victim was not examined by a doctor after the assault, to check for signs of rape.

Finch is well aware of the racial prejudices felt by many in the town and he makes a plea to the Jury to put aside their racial bias and look at the facts. His attempts are in vain when Robinson takes the stand for himself and tells the jury he feels pity for the victim because of her circumstances, because of her father they were the poorest family in the town. Finch allows his children to attend the trial and this is a major event in their lives. Scout and Jem are exposed to the racism and hate that is in their town. The two children mature as a result as they are exposed to the obvious racism felt by the town.

Jem is thoroughly distraught after the case at the obvious failure of the justice system. Soon after the trial Finch find out that Robinson was killed in an attempt to escape from jail. Instantly because of his association with Robinson, Finch is turned into a villain in the eyes of the town people. The towns’ people see Finch as having sided with the criminal who was obviously a bad person because he attempted to escape from jail. After a few months the town dies down a bit but Bob Ewell, the father of the rape victim Mayella Ewell, who in fact was the assailant, has not settled down.

Ewell feels that Finches argument in the trial has made a fool of him and he has vowed revenge. After Jem and Scout go to a Halloween party they are attacked by Ewell who slashes at Scout with a knife but is protected by her costume. There is a fight and Jem is knocked out but then Ewell is overtaken by a shadowy figure who turns out to be Arthur “Boo” Radley. “Boo” overtakes Ewell and kills him as he has taken over a semi guardian angel attitude towards Scout and Jem because they had not taunted him like the other people in the town.

The underlying cause of all the hardship that took place in Maycomb, stems from the accusation that a black man assailed a white female. Although the movie is fictional it is still set in a time when racism was rampant. In the early 1930’s, in which “To Kill a Mockingbird” is set, the memories of the 1921 race riots in Tulsa are still vivid. There are similarities between the Tulsa riot incident and the events that transpired in “To Kill a Mockingbird”. In “To Kill a Mockingbird” the extreme fear and hate of blacks is expressed by the town people in the accusation and eventual decision that Robinson was guilty of rape.

As we have discussed in class the raping of white women by black men has been a fear that white men have shared since the introduction of Africans into the Americas. The fear created by this accusation proved to be incredibly devastating in Tulsa when a young black man was accused of attempting to rape a white woman and the majority of the whites proceeded to riot into the black neighborhoods. The whites turned what had been coined the “black wall street” into nothing more than destroyed buildings that had been owned by blacks.

The complicated social hierarchy of Maycomb represents the social inequalities of American society. There are the Finches who are near the top of the social hierarchy. As with the book “Native Son” the rich have much more compassion than the worse off families. For example it is an ignorant poor farmer who accuses Tom Robinson of raping his daughter and similarly it is the poor whites competing with blacks for jobs that demonstrate the greatest prejudice towards blacks. Contrastingly in “Native Son” there is Mr. Dalton and in “To Kill a Mockingbird” there is Atticus Finch who go out of their way to help out black people.

And they are the ones atop the social hierarchy in their respective fictional realms. Similarly characters like Bob Ewell, the father of the supposed rape victim is near the bottom of the social hierarchy, because he is and unemployed drunk. In his attempts to lift himself up above the black community he represents the dark side of racism: ignorance, poverty and hateful prejudice. As will the other characters Arthur “boo” Radley and Tom Robinson also represent a portion of society. Radley and Robinson both represent innocence that is wrongfully destroyed by evil.

Robinson is falsely accused of doing something he never would have done and as a result of the hate from the community he is shot and killed. Radley is an innocent in the movie as well, in which he is shown to be struggling with evil. His father was very cruel to him, which is why he spends most of his time avoiding people but in the end he shows up to protect those who have been decent to him. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Muhammad, Ismail. “The 1921 Tulsa Race Riot. ” The L. A. Sentinel, June 30, 2011: A5, 1. [ 2 ]. Wright, Richard. “Native Son”. New York, London: Harper & Brothers, 1940 50-65.

Courage in to Kill a Mockingbird

One likes to think of a hero, as strong, brave, and meeting all challenges head on. All the characters in this book have a different view as to what courage is, and they all show it in different ways through their everyday lives. Younger characters, like Jem and Scout, see the physical aspect of it, whereas Atticus believes this to be an extremely weak form of courage. He believes in the mental quality of courage. The ability to be in minority and not back down and to be able to change; he admires Mrs.

Dubose for her acts of courage that are against all odds.

For a younger character, like Scout, courage is often associated with a physical act that is usually dangerous. It is hard for young children to realize that courage can be shown in other aspects of life. Scout sees an example of courage in her father when he shoots the mad dog Tim Johnson (pg. 101). Although Atticus does not think of it as very courageous, Jem and Scout are proud of their father and the courage he showed in this dangerous situation.

Atticus views courage on a more intellectual level, as a moral thing not something that can be proved with a weapon.

Later on in the story, Jem and Scout encounter the vindictive, spiteful Mrs. Dubose who often shouts out racism directed at the passing children because of Atticus’ job. At one point she proclaimed, “Your father’s no better than the niggers and trash he works for! ” (pg. 111). When she blatantly made Atticus an object of ridicule like that, Jem decided that the best way to settle things was to ruin Mrs. Dubose’s camellias. Since he could not attack Mrs. Dubose directly, Jem decided to go for something close to her. He is committing a physical act of retaliation, which led to her suffering mental pain yet again.

It was a cowardly act, for he dared not step up and confront her. After Atticus heard about this stunt, Jem was made to read to her every afternoon for a month. He now needed mental valour, and he did find it more difficult to source this than the physical bravery he was used to displaying. This is made apparent by him refusing to walk past her house alone, and because Jem was at first terrified of going to see her. Mrs. Dubose was a very sick woman, and had used morphine to ease her pain but was now addicted. It was her goal to leave the world “beholden to nothing and nobody” (pg. 120).

She displayed what Atticus refers to as “real courage. ” (pg. 121). She showed “real courage” because she does not have the luxury of standing there with a gun pointed at her addiction. One single attempt could not free her from the addiction. Rather, it had to be a many staged process over an extended period of time. It was shear determination and “real courage” that allowed her to accomplish her goal. It was not until after she died that Atticus explained to Jem and Scout how courageous the woman was because she knew she was dying but was still determined to die free of the morphine.

She fought against great odds, even though she knew that she would surely die. Atticus tells his children that he wanted them to see “what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. ” He also says that she was the “bravest person he ever knew. ” (pg. 121) “Real courage” is when you fight for what is right regardless of whether you win or lose. Atticus Finch demonstrates “real courage” several times throughout the novel, in addition to the lessons that he teaches his children.

The largest and most important example would be the trial of Tom Robinson. When Atticus took the case, he went up against Maycomb, a generally prejudiced town, in order to defend Tom. He understood that taking the case would make him an object of ridicule and that no one would forgive him for believing a black man’s word over a white man’s. Even his own sister expresses disapproval at his decision, practically telling him he was bringing disgrace to the family. Nevertheless, no matter how much his reputation suffered, he did not change his mind.

Standing up for his morals and ethics was more important than what people thought about him. From the very start Atticus knows he will not win the case however he does his job and finishes what he set out to do. Atticus’s strong sense of morality and justice motivates him to defend Tom Robinson with determination, giving it all he has. He shows this when he says, “Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to try and win. ” (pg. 82). He says this to Scout after she comes home from school angry at Cecil Jacobs for making fun of Atticus in the schoolyard.

Atticus tells her to fight with her head instead of her fists. He wants the people of Maycomb to hear the truth about Tom, “That boy may go to the chair, but he’s not going till the truth’s told. ” (pg. 159). Atticus is putting everything a man holds dear, dignity, respect, honor and status, on the line to protect Tom. He later shows more bravery when he goes to the jailhouse to protect Tom from a mob. Without thinking twice, he rushed to Tom’s aid. He went willingly, knowing that if a mob did form he would be greatly outnumbered and would easily be beaten.

Still, he put Tom’s well being ahead of his own welfare. While serving justice, Atticus also showed great courage. For example, he did not go along with Heck Tate when he told a lie about what really happened the night Bob Ewell was found stabbed to death. Atticus put his life and career on the line because he knew that, as an officer of the court, withholding information from an investigation could have gotten Mr. Tate thrown into jail. Nonetheless, like many times before, doing what was right and fair prevailed in Atticus’s way of thinking.

In addition, Atticus went against his moral code and principles he had always upheld before, when Atticus is faced with the decision of abiding by the law or breaking it in order to do the right thing. He knew that incarcerating a man like Arthur Radley would have been unforgivable, especially after Arthur had just performed a great deed by saving his children’s lives. He knew that exposing him would be an awful way of repaying him; it would have been like “shooting a mockingbird. ” Therefore, Atticus chose to protect Boo from the public eye rather than abide by the law and his “honest” judicial ways he was so accustomed to follow.

Sometimes it takes even more courage to set a new level of morals than to stay in one’s comfort zone. (pg. 297-302). The courage to change habits and thoughts is very important, because not everyone is able to do it. A very good example of this courage is when Atticus asked Scout not to fight anymore. “When I committed myself to this act of cowardice. Word got around that Scout Finch wouldn’t fight anymore, her daddy wouldn’t let her. ” (pg. 97). That was a great act of courage because Scout used to fight a lot but as she had promised her father she would not fight anymore.

Scout, like Jem does not want to disappoint Atticus, so she makes a change. In conclusion, Atticus shows praiseworthy courage and behaviour in many instances throughout the story, not by fighting or killing, but by standing up for what he believed in a civilized and determined way. His strongest motivation, however, were his children. He wants to be a good example for his kids and encourage in them a strong sense of moral value. One time Scout asks him why he had taken a case he knew he was not going to win and he responded by saying, “For a number of reasons.

The main one is, if I didn’t I couldn’t hold up my head in town, I couldn’t represent this county in the legislature, I couldn’t even tell you or Jem not to do something again. ” (pg. 82). In other words, he would not have been able to talk to his kids about justice and standing up for what one believes when he himself had not stood for what he believed in. The lessons taught by Atticus and Mrs. Dubose show Jem and Scout what it is to be courageous, to be able to change, to tell the truth and most importantly to stand up for their own beliefs. All qoutes from Lee, Harper, 1960, To kill a Mokingbird, London, Pan Books

Comparing Atticus to Jake

To Kill a Mockingbird,? and Jake Brigance, the leading man of ? A Time to Kill,? are both brave, determined lawyers. Though they share some similar techniques in the way they defend their clients, overall their methods as lawyers are quite different. In the courtroom, Atticus? qualities are the same as they are in his everyday life. He takes being a lawyer seriously, and sees it as a calling, rather than a job. He is an experienced lawyer, and uses cross examination to discover that Bob Ewell was left handed, and that Tom Robinson? left arm was unusable ? both crucial pieces of evidence for his case.

Jake, on the other hand, is young and inexperienced. Near the beginning of the case, Jake says to Carl Lee, ? We’re going to lose this case, Carl lee. There are no more points of law to argue here. I want to cop a plea, maybe Buckley will cop us a second degree murder and we can get you just life in prison.

? He was given assistance by his mentor, Lucius, and used his methods, rather than his own. However, as it came to the end of the film, Jake learned how to successfully defend Carl Lee on his own.

He connected with the jury, realising what would help him win the case. ?Can you see her? Her raped, beaten, broken body soaked in their urine, soaked in their semen, soaked in her blood, left to die. Can you see her? I want you to picture that little girl. Now imagine she’s white.? Atticus? characteristics remain generally constant throughout the book, but he was swayed a little by his sister? s input. He maintained his dignity, even when Bob Ewell spat in his face, saying, ? So if spitting in my face and threatening me saved Mayella Ewell one extra beating, that’s something I’ll gladly take.

He had to take it out on somebody and I’d rather it be me than that houseful of children out there.? This persecution is also an example of Atticus being linked to the theme of prejudice in the story. Jake develops dramatically throughout the film. Over time he learned to accept help from Ellen Roark, instead of being proud, and showed self control when tempted by her. He tried to create a true friendship with Carl Lee, and learned to find his own witnesses for the case, instead of relying on his mentor. Jake? family are the most important thing to him, and were the main reason he took the case. ?When I look at her though, I cannot help but think about Tonya,? he said of his young daughter; he didn? t want the same thing to happen to her. He also didn? t compromise his marriage when given the chance. He speaks of truth and from his heart, questioning the courtroom, ? What is it in us that seeks the truth? Is it our minds or is it our hearts?? Jake also believed in the death penalty; therefore he was probably not a Christian.

Atticus, however, was a brave Christian man with moral values. He was polite and humble, and saw everyone as equals. Scout said of her father, ? It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars, was the bravest man who ever lived.? Atticus shows that he is above the people of Maycomb when he took Tom Robinson? s case, rather than sharing their racist feelings. However, he still respected their choice; ? They’re certainly entitled to think that, and they’re entitled to full respect for their opinions… ut before I can live with other folks I’ve got to live with myself. The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s conscience.? Even when he and his family were deemed as outcasts, he didn? t drop his case. He discouraged his children? s prejudiced attitude towards Boo and the other Radleys, because he chose not to believe the rumours that were spread around Maycomb. Jake opposed the rapists? racist and prejudiced attitude towards Negroes and women. He was not dispirited by the behaviours of the jury and injustice of the court system, or manipulated by the KKK.

At the end of the film, Jake breaks through and forms a friendship with Carl Lee when he shows him that he cares by taking his family to Carl Lee? s house for a barbeque. Both Atticus and Jake show great character throughout ? To Kill a Mockingbird? and ? A Time to Kill.? While Jake develops significantly during the film, ? A Time to Kill,? Atticus does not develop much throughout ? To Kill a Mockingbird? ; however, he was already a humble, courageous man in the beginning of the story. Both men stick up for what they believe in, and are not swayed by the thoughts and opinions of the townspeople where they live.

During his ordeal, Atticus shows greater character than Jake did, because he takes the case more seriously and with dignity. He remains calm, even when things are hard for him. Jake, on the other hand, feels the need to send his family away so that he doesn? t have to worry about them. The reason he took the case in the beginning was because for selfish reasons; because of his feeling of guilt, and not wanting the same thing to happen to his young daughter – rather than taking the case only out of the kindness of his heart, as Atticus did.

Tkam Chapter

Find a sentence which illustrates the following idea/attitude:pride in conformity and distrust of those who are different The Radleys kept to themselves and kept their shutters and doors closed on Sundays. 1. Chapter one introduces readers to the town of Maycomb, its appearance, its inhabitants, and the particular attitudes of many of its people. Find a sentence which illustrates the following idea/attitude:awareness of difference in social classes The Cunninghams from Old Sarum were the nearest thing to a gang in Maycomb.

“the wrong crowd” 1.

Chapter one introduces readers to the town of Maycomb, its appearance, its inhabitants, and the particular attitudes of many of its people. Find a sentence which illustrates the following idea/attitude:narrow span of interest and almost no interest in the world outside Maycomb superstition and gossip surrounding the Radleys 1. Approximately when does the story begin? Show evidence to support your answer. Two references help establish the time as the early 1930s: the movie Dracula and the reference to FDR’s address “.

. . nothing to fear but fear itself. ” 1. What do we know for certain about Boo Radley?

Boo had been kept a virtual prisoner in his home since misdemeanors in his teens. 1. Why is Boo fascinating to the children? Boo is fascinating to the children because he lives in a run-down, spooky house and is the subject of many superstitions. Because they have never seen him, the children are fascinated with pretending about Boo. Chapter Two 2. Scout makes three mistakes during her first day at school. What are her mistakes, and why do they make Miss Caroline so angry? On the first day of school, Scout reads, writes, and attempts to explain to Miss Caroline the kind of poor people the Cunninghams are.

Miss Caroline feels inadequate. 3. Why are the professional people in Maycomb poor at this time? Professional people are poor because the farmers were poor; Maycomb is farm country. 4. What is the WPA, and why won’t Mr. Cunningham work for it? WPA was the Works Progress Administration, a government-sponsored agency which created jobs constructing public buildings. It was part of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. Mr. Cunningham apparently disagreed politically. Chapter Three 5. Calpurnia lectures Scout on manners when Scout criticizes Walter’s manners and Atticus supports her.

What does this tell you about how both Calpurnia and Atticus feel about others? Cal believes anyone who is a guest in one’s house should be treated with courtesy. Atticus supports Cal. 6. Burris Ewell, Walter Cunningham, and Chuck Little are all from extremely poor families. However, there are great differences both in appearance and in attitudes, particularly between the Cunninghams and the Ewells. What are those differences and why do you suppose they exist? The instinctive courtesy of Chuck Little and the steely pride of Walter Cunningham contrast with the filthy, foul-mouthed Burris Ewell.

This may be a result of different attitudes and examples set for them by their parents. 7. Atticus tells Scout, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view. . . until you climb in his skin and walk around in it. ” What are some of the things that Scout begins to realize at this point? Scout has learned to try to look at things from another person’s point of view. 8. Why does Atticus say that the law is rigid for “common folk,” but it is bent in certain ways for the Ewells?

Atticus explains that the Ewells will never change; therefore, the law permits them to stay out of school and allows their father to hunt out of season so the children can have food. 9. What is the “compromise” which Atticus suggests? Atticus suggests a compromise of Scout’s attending school in return for being able to go on reading every night as they always have. Chapter 4 1. She says about her teacher, she also says about the different types of students and how the higher grades get out 30 min after them 2. They are coming from Boo Radley as gifts from him to the children.

He watches them all the time from inside his house. 3. Scout is scared of the laughing she heard from the Radley house when she rolled in the tire, and Atticus was already suspicious that the children were acting out Boo’s legend, or the “Boo Radley game. ” Chapter 5 1. A kind, cheerful, and witty neighbor and trusted friend of Scout’s, who also upholds a strong moral code and helps the children gain perspective on the events surrounding the trial. She also loves gardening. Miss. Maudie adds a gentleness to the mother figure that Calpurnia, although she cares geatly for Scout, can’t always give.

She helps Scout as Jem grows up and distances himself from her. Miss. Maudie reassures Scout when things get nasty and he neighbours criticize Atticus. Miss. Maudie not only nurtures Scout but shows her what is really important in life. I like her react when her house burns down. As she watches the flames devour her house, she simply states that she always wanted a “smaller one” with a bigger garden. 2. No she is not putting down all baptist because she is a baptist herself, she was just putting down the “foot washing” Baptists. 3. What she is saying is that religion makes people do worse things than whiskey.

At least, she is saying it is possible for that to happen. 4. Atticus wants equality for all and believes the court can be the equalizer. He believes that Radley deserves a right to privacy,just like everyone else. Chapter 6 5. because it is Dills last day in maycomb and he wants to see what the radley place looks like. 6. Jem says to Scout… “Scout I’m tellin’ you for the last time, shut your trap or go home I declare to the lord you’re gettin’ more like a girl every day! ” Then Scout states she no option but to join them (Jem and Dill) 7.

This tells us that Jem is fearful of him fathers authority and has a lot of respect for his father and wants to continue to have a good relationship with him. Chapter 7 1. Jem’s pants(Jemery Atticus Finch) had been left stuck under the fence of Boo’s yard. When jem returnded later that night to get his pants they had been untangles from the fence, sewn (very poorly), and folded and hung on the fence as if they were waiting for him. 2. It represented Boo’s friendly connection with the Finch children. Everyone thought Boowas a fearsome, crazy ‘phantom’ and awful rumours were spread around about him.

In actual fact, Boo was a nice person, except he didn’t have any contact with the outside world. He left gifts in the knothole for Jem and Scout to find, because he wanted to express his friendship. 3. Jem cries when Nathan Radley cemented the hole because he realises that Boo was trying to befriend them and Nathan Radley cut off that connection by depriving Boo of friendship, so to speak. he does not what Boo to contact the children. Chapter 8 1. They are trying to make fun of him. The reason is that he had insulted them by calling them sinners and saying the snow was all their fault. . He wants to protect Boo Radley from all the town gossip. he also wants to protect boo from getting punished by his brother 3.

When her house is destroyed, Miss Maudie does not mourn over her loss. The things she lost were just possessions which could be replaced. She was glad no one was hurt. Chapter 9 a Atticus says that the word N****** is common. 1. b. Atticus knew he could never live with himself if he did not defend Tom Robinson. Though he was black, Tom Robinson was obviously innocent. Atticus’s conscience would not let him send an innocent man to jail, black or not. . he disapproved of Scouts language and behavior. 2. Is Atticus’s sister and Jem and Scouts Aunt. b. He is Aunt Alexandra’s grandson and Scout and Jem’s second cousin c. Jem and Scouts Uncle and Atticus’s brother. d. Aunt Alexandra’s husband and Scout and Jem’s Uncle. Chapter 10 1. Scout thinks Atticus is no good, at least not as good as what they think he is anymore. One reason is because Atticus didn’t teach them for to use the air rifles and leave that task to Uncle Jack. Another reason is because he is older than most of their friends’ fathers, at nearly 50.

They see him as feeble. 2. She simply is saying because mockingbirds don’t do anything but keep to themselves we shouldn’t bother them ( the Radleys and Tom Robinson) 3. she explains it by saying how when god gives you a gift it is not to be taken advantage of and your father knew that their is a time and place for everything and when it was time he gave up hunting and shooting. he is a civilized man at heart 4. Jem wants Scout to pay attention and do well in school and not to brag that their father didn’t attend school. Chapter 11 1. ecause mrs dubose is addicted to her pain medicine and she is dying so she doesnt want to die addicted to something so every day when jem is reading she waits a little longer to take it until she is finally off of the medicine and she dies a month later Because she was sick and really was ugly, also it adds more of an effect when she dies. 2. Because she was sick and really was ugly, also it adds more of an effect when she dies. From the early description of Mrs. Dubose, we understand that she is a very selfish, and she don’t like black people. It gives you a dislike for her instantly.

However, later, we learn she wants to die free of her addiction, and we learn that she is brave and strong. The author does this (as in several other instances in the novel) to remind us people are good and bad and that people should not be judged on the surface. 3Atticus tells Scout that n——lover is just one of those terms that do not mean anything and that ignorant, trashy people use it when they think somebody’s favoring Negroes over and above themselves when they want a common, ugly term to label somebody. Atticus goes on to say that he is indeed n——lover, because he does his best to love everybody.

Atticus says that Mrs. Dubose has the most courage of any person he has ever known. He holds this opinion because she had the courage to fight and overcome her addiction to morphine. Atticus Finch really had no choice in defending Tom Robinson. He knew that he couldn’t hold his head up around town, that if he had turned down the case, he wouldn’t be able to tell his own children what to do and have them listen to He was appointed to the case but he wants to try and defend him because he thinks everyone should have the same chance

To Kill Mockingbird Symbolism

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, symbolism is used to show the innocence of the children and the innocence of some people. There are a few main children in this story. The main characters are, Jean Louise “Scout” Finch, Jeremy Atticus, “Jem” Finch, Charles Baker “Dill” Harris, Boo Radley and Tom Robinson. Boo symbolizes innocence even though he isn’t a child anymore. The mockingbird also symbolizes innocence.

The mockingbird shows symbolism because the mockingbird is innocent and all they do is sing beautiful songs.

Killing a mockingbird is a sin. A mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird isn’t an actual bird, it represents innocent, nice, only could do good, easy target to people in the Book. Like Tom Robinson or Boo Radley. The mockingbird symbolizes underprivileged black people. They are innocent and never would harm anyone just like the mockingbird. Boo Radley is also innocent and would never harm anyone therefore the mockingbird also symbolizes him. Boo Radley never comes out because he does not want to face the prejudice and corrupt world.

A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. The mockingbird symbolizes Boo Radley and Tom Robinson who were both peaceful people who never did any harm. To kill or harm them would be a sin. Atticus tells Scout and Jem:

“i’d rather you shoot at tin cans in the backyard but I know you’ll go after birds. Shoot all the blue jays you want if you hit ’em but remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird”

The mockingbird symbolizes these two characters because it does not have it own song. The blue jay is loud and obnoxious the mockingbird only sings other birds’ songs. Therefore the mockingbird is seen through the other birds. The people of Maycomb only knew Boo Radley and Tom Robinson by what others said about them. both of these characters do not really have their own “song” in a sense and therefore are characterized bu other people view points. When Atticus tells Jem and Scout that it is a sin to kill the mockingbird, this refers to the actions directed toward Tom and Boo. It was a sin to dislike Tom and Boo bases on what others say about them. they were punished by the people in Maycomb because they did not have their own voice. There are many people without their own voice in society. As it is a sin to kill these without a voice. The symbolism reveals the prejudice and narrow mindedness of the citizens of Maycomb county their fears and the immoral things they do. The mockingbird has a very deep and peaceful meaning in the novel. It represents peacefulness, innocence and kindness. Characters such as Boo Radley can be compared to the mockingbird. Tom Robinson can also be compared to the mockingbird. In conclusion, the mockingbird represents peace, innocence and kindness.

Boo Radley went through his life never wanting to hurt a fly. He left gum, pennies, and wax dolls for Scout and Jem. He sewed Jem’s pants and left them easily. He also saved Scout’s and Jem’s lives while risking his own. Boo was a fragile and gentle person. Throughout the novel, Scout, Jem, and Dill are curious about the “mysterious” Boo Radley because he never comes outside from his house or associated with anyone in the neighborhood. The children are afraid of him because of all the stories they hear about him from the people in maycomb. For example, Miss Stephanie tells the children that while Boo was sitting in the living room cutting a magazine

“he drove the scissors into his parents leg, pulled them out, wiped the on his pants, and resumed his activities”

After hearing stories like these the children consider him to be evil. The kids assume more about Boo because he never plays outside or with anyone and therefore the children are not convinced otherwise. Boo becomes a game and they act out Boo Radley scenarios that they believed to be true. These stories were based on gossip that goes through their neighborhood. Boo Radley can be compared to the mockingbird in the title of the novel. It is made clear in ch.10 when Atticus and Miss Maudie explain that you should never kill a mockingbird because all it does is sing beautiful songs and never hurts anyone and keeps to himself. Yet the title is “To Kill a Mockingbird” and the townsfolk “kill” Boo Radley because he is shy and does not come out of his house. He was a kind person, yet he was persecuted by society for being shy and not coming out of his house. The grey ghost is another symbol for Boo Radley whose “face was as white as his hands and his grey eyes were so colorless” a description fitting to one of a ghost. At the end of the Book, Scout finally meets Boo Radley after he helps her and Jem escape Mr. Ewell. She finds that her beliefs about him are not true. She finds the songs that the neighbors were “putting into his mouth” were not true. In the end, Scout says that it would be wrong to put Boo Radley on trial for killing Bob Ewell because he did it in order to protect her and Jem. Scout sees that things look the same from Boo Radley’s porch as they do from her’s. therefore Boo Radley is a perfect example of a mockingbird and the situation he is in is a pefect example of the title of the Book.

Chopping wood and doing whatever he could for Mayella Ewell was Tom Robinson’s only crime. Just like Boo Radley Tom never harmed a soul. He risked his own safety by helping Mayella and he did it because someone needed him. It was like a mockingbird being shot down when Robinson was accused of raping Mayella. To the people of Maycomb county, Tom is just a “sorry negro”, who committed an unthinkable crime. Tom represents the black race in American society at that time and was a victim of racism. Like Boo Redleye, Tom Robinson is characterized by what the people see him as an evil beast. During the trial while bob Ewell testifies, he points to Tom Robinson and says

“I seen that black begro yonder rutting on my Mayella”

according to Mr. Ewell, Tom Robinson is an animal who tormented and violated his daughter. Throughout the trial, Tom is portrayed in his manner because of the racist neutrality of the people in Maycomb. Even though there is a sufficient amount of proof which shows he did not commit the crime, Tom is a black man who will be denied justice, Atticus reinforces this idea when he tells Jem

“in our courts, when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s. the white man always wins”

Generally this was the mentality of most Americans at the time. Black people did not have their own song, other people sang their song their songs based on beliefs about them. like Boo Radley people only knew Tom Robinson through what others said about him. Boo is the outcast of the neighborhood, but at the time, Tom Robinson was the outcast of the society. Throughout the trial, Scout and Jem believe in Tom Robinsons innocence. They see him for who they believe he is, and do not know enough about racism to be part of it. they did not believe the trial was fair because they believed there was evidence in Tom Robinson’s favor.

Tom Robinson is another character who can be compared with the mockingbird. He was a genuinely kind person who in the end is destroyed by his willingness to help mayella ewell. Just like a mockingbird, Robinson never hurt anyone. Yet, he was also persecuted by society for his kindness and his race. Tom Robinson is a mockingbird figure in the Book. In the end, mr underwood also compares a harmless songbird that was shot down by a senseless hunter. At the end of the Book, hoever Scout realizes the same about Boo Radley. When she finally meets him, she sees how unfair she had been with him. Boo contradicts everything that the chidren believed about him. The fact that no one realized the unfair treatment of Tom Robinson made his death that much more tragic. Tom Robinson was killed because of his kindness and the color of his skin.

Another person who shows symbolism Is Atticus Finch. Atticus Finch shows symbolism because he is seen as a hero when he kills the rabid dog. Jem and Scout did not know their father was such a godo shoorter and they were very surprised to see him shooting.

” with movements so swift they seemed simultaneous. Atticus’s hand yanked a bolt tipped lever as he brought the gun to his shoulder. The rifle cracked. Tim Johnson leaped, flopped over and crumbled on the sidewalk In a brown and white heap. He did know to hit him”

Atticus is a father in that he shows love to his children. Atticus always tells his children

“shooting a mockingbird is a sin because they don’t do any harm. They are innocent creatures that make music.”

Atticus is a lawyer, he is a faithful servent of justice for all people, black or white. His wisdom lies not in his education but in the way he raises his children and his knowledge of peoples attitude. Atticus showed his courage when he accepted the Tom Robinson case even though he knew before hand that it was a lost battle. He advises Scout and Jem not to get carried away by peoples provocation and sets the example when he does not react to bob ewells threats. Atticus is the only one who refers to people’s prejudice as ‘disease’. He accepts the Robinson case in an effort to fight against that, even though he is sure to fail. Atticus is the only lawyer in maycomb that would represent a blackman. Atticus is seen as a hero for he kills racism and prejudice, not allowing it to spread any further. In a conversation with his brother. Jack bout the coming trial and how to

“get Jem and Scout through it without bitterness and most of all, without catching maycomb’s usual disease”

Atticus is a hero model to the community. Attius Finch, as well as his two children, who follow in his footsteps.

A place that shows symbolism would be the tree outside the Radley hosue. Another place and object that shows symbolism is the snowman, the fire in miss maudie atkinson’s house, are examples of symbolism. The snowman that Jem and Scout made infront of miss maudie atkinson’s hosue one winter was an example of symbolism. There was not enough snow for the snowman so Jem used dirt for the foundation and then covered It with the snow that they did have. The snowman is symbolic in that Jem is trying to cover up the black man and showing that he is the same as the white man. The fire in miss maudie Atkinson’s house shows symbolism in that it shows the prejudice of maycomb. The fire melted the snow from the snowman and left nothing but mud. The fire shows that blacks and whites are nothing alike. The fire and the snowman are not the only symbols of prejudice. Tim Johnson is another symbol of prejudice. Tim Johnson represents prejudice, and how, like a rabid dog, it spreads its disease throughout the town.

The symbolism reveals the prejudice of the citizens of maycomb, the fears they have, and all of the dishonest things they do. It also reveals an attempt to get rid of these feeling in maycob by a hero to the community, Atticus Finch and his children who will follow in his footsteps. Symbolism is basically what the Book is about. If this book did not have any type of symbolism it wouldn’t be complete.

Symbolism in the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee

Symbolism is a very important aspect of any story. Symbols can build on the theme of a book like a theme about good and evil.

It can also be the symbolism of a character or an animal like a Mockingbird.

In the novel, “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee, the symbolism of the Mockingbird and Boo Radley plays an important role in developing the key themes of tolerance and acceptance as well as good and evil. Boo Radley is a character who throughout the book, helps the children in many ways and he develops the theme of good and evil. The children go from seeing him as an evil person to seeing him as a good person. This is shown when Lee writes, “Boo was about six-and-a-half feet tall, judging from his tracks; he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch, that’s why his hands were bloodstained — if you ate an animal raw, you could never wash the blood off.

There was a long-jagged scar that ran across his face; what teeth he had were yellow and rotten, his eyes popped, and he drooled most of the time.” (Lee, 13). This quote shows how the kids thought of Boo Radley in the beginning of the book, but when compared to the end of the book, they are very thankful towards him because he saved their lives. It builds on one of the main themes of good and evil because, in the beginning of the book, Scout and Jem thought that the whole Radley family was on the evil side, but when he helps them in ways like he sewed Jem’s pants and he put little surprises in the tree, they see he isn’t actually bad. They see how he is actually a good person when Scout thinks, “He was still leaning against the wall. He had been leaning against the wall when I came into the room, his arms down and across his chest. As I pointed he brought his arms down and pressed the palms of his hands against the wall. They were white hands, sickly white hands that had never seen the sun, so white they stood out garishly against the dull cream wall in the dim light of Jem’s room…His face was as white as his hands, but for a shadow on his jutting chin. His cheeks were thin to hollowness; his mouth was wide; there were shallow, almost delicate indentations at his temples, and his gray eyes were so colorless I thought he was blind….as I gazed at him in wonder the tension slowly drained from his face. His lips parted into a timid smile, and our neighbor’s image blurred with my sudden tears.” (Lee, 270).

In this passage, Scout realizes that her neighbor isn’t a bad person and that he is a good person. She sees how he is actually a nice person who wouldn’t hurt them in any way. Boo saved them because he isn’t a bad person. He is a person who was trapped by his parents and that made people think he was bad. This builds on the theme of good and evil because he has now switched to the side of goodness, in the children’s eyes, and now they trust him as a person who they can count on. This shows why Boo is a person who helps the children throughout the book and builds on the theme of good and evil. In “To Kill a Mockingbird” the symbol of the mockingbird can develop the key theme of tolerance and acceptance in Maycomb.

In the novel, Tom Robinson is one of the people that can be represented as a Mockingbird. This can be seen when Tom says, “A soft husky voice came from the darkness above: ‘They gone?’ Atticus stepped back and looked up. ‘They’ve gone,’ he said. ‘Get some sleep, Tom. They won’t bother you anymore.’ (Lee, 155). This quote shows how Tom was afraid of the people that had come to silence him, like a hunter trying to silence a mockingbird because it was singing its song. Also, this shows how because he was a Mockingbird, they didn’t want to hear his song and accept it, so they resort to trying to kill it. Tom knew that he had done nothing wrong by helping Mayella those days and he was just trying to be nice, just like how a Mockingbird will sing its song because they want us to hear their songs. Because the people do not accept Tom Robinson and the black population as a whole, they don’t tolerate when they try to act like they are the same as the white population. This is shown when Atticus says, “There’s something in our world that makes men lose their heads –they couldn’t be fair if they tried. In our courts, when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s, the white man always wins. They’re ugly, but those are the facts of life.” (Lee, 220).

When Tom helped Mayella, they could not tolerate that a black person would help a white woman without doing something terrible to her. This shows their racist views of the black population and how they could never accept one of the black population, but only their own population. When Tom was caught, he was a trapped bird and when they sentenced him to jail, he was a silenced mockingbird that would never sing again.

This shows how the symbol of the mockingbird can be used to develop the theme of tolerance and acceptance. All the examples provided are proof that in the novel, “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee, the symbolism of the Mockingbird and Boo Radley plays an important role in developing the key themes of tolerance and acceptance as well as good and evil. A society that is not accepting and has no tolerance for the black population creates situations like Tom Robinson’s trial. Also, the misconception of Boo Radley made the children think he was an evil existence in Maycomb when he was, in fact, a person who they could count on with their lives. Harper Lee is able to effectively use symbolism throughout the novel, “To Kill a Mockingbird”, and the Mockingbird serves as a very important symbol in this fantastic novel.

To Kill A Mockingbird’ by Harper Lee

To Kill A Mockingbird’ by Harper Lee is a novel published in 1960. In this novel, Harper Lee explores her concerns in the setting of 1930s Maycomb County, Alabama, of different moralities throughout the novel, the unjust ways of the harsh expectations forced upon women and their behaviour, and the flaws in the law system. She portrays and identifies issues of society through the eyes of a 6-year-old character in the novel, Jean Louise Finch, better known as Scout. Lee approaches these concerns in such a way that allows the reader to perceive her exploration of the text and encourages the reader to compare the society of 1930’s Alabama and today’s society and recognise the differences and the similarities in her concerns.

With the ongoing threat of World War II, society’s morals contrasted from person to person. Harper Lee expresses this by portraying the drastic differences in moralities between Atticus Finch, Bob Ewell and the rest of the community, presenting the difference between good and evil in the characters.

An example of differing moralities is displayed in the novel when Atticus states that In our courts, all men are created equal. Lee uses allusion to the Declaration of Independence to further add context to the novel and emphasise Atticus’ morals and how they contrast from other characters in the novel such as Bob Ewell. When Ewell is overheard saying One down and about two more to go it foreshadows Bob’s attempt to murder Atticus’ children after the defence of Tom Robinson, also displaying the evil’ in him. These two quotes portray the morals expressed through Lee’s use of dialogue of her characters and how drastically different they are. The contrast is used by the audience to gain a deeper understanding of Lee’s concerns in society through the use of ranging morals portrayed by different characters. In 1930’s Alabama, gender roles were very common, and Scout challenges these gender stereotypes. Women were expected to be housewives and conduct themselves like how women were supposed to behave in a patriarchal society. Harper Lee uses Alexandra Finch Hancock, otherwise known as Aunt Alexandra, as one of the characters that represents sexism. She explores traditional gender roles through Scout, as Scout grows up and gets familiarised with the society she is growing up in, Aunt Alexandra tries to teach Scout what is expected of her as a little girl growing up, enforcing rules upon Scout about what is ladylike’ and what is not. Lee heavily characterises Aunt Alexandra by giving the reader insight into Alexandra’s nature and her beliefs about how a proper’ woman should behave. It’s not ladylike folks don’t like to have somebody around knowing more than they do. Tone further demonstrates Aunt Alexandra’s beliefs, that education is not important for woman, but instead, they are expected to stay at home and attend to chores such as cooking, cleaning, and taking care of the children inside the house. Jem is another character who believes in traditional gender roles as influenced by the society, Jem told me I was being a girl, that girls always imagined things, that’s why other people hated them. The irony used in this reveals that Jem and other boys his age have been thought by the society that girls are to be hated, they are not to be liked. Lee further emphasises this since no female character in the novel had a job, except Calpurnia, albeit a housekeeper.Throughout the novel, Harper Lee wanted to express her concern about the flaws in the legal system concerning Tom Robinson’s rape trial. Innocent 6-year-old Scout reveals to us the harsh truth about the law system when she declares Atticus had no case. Tom was a dead man. Lee used a metaphor when she says that Tom was a dead man, meaning he had no chance of being proven innocent. Lee also uses foreshadowing to hint to the fact that Tom would die. Symbolism was expressed through the characterisation of Atticus such as when he said knowing you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway. This quote portrays his strong values and beliefs about justice and that he would try to attain it no matter what the outcome may be, thus Atticus was presented as a symbol for justice and equality displaying real courage.The reader obtains an extensive understanding of Lee’s concern about the law system through her exploration of how unjust and biased the system was.Through the use of many techniques including symbolism, allusion, foreshadowing, characterization, and tone, Harper Lee encourages us to reflect and realise the importance of differing morals, misogyny and the flaws that lie in the law and social judicial system and how they affect the society. This has an effect on the reader and motivates us to compare the society of Maycomb County and the society we live in today, noting the differences and similarities in the way morals, sexism, and the law system has changed, applying this knowledge to the process of self-actualisation.Word count: 842′