The Descriptive and Reflective elements of Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey” and Gray’s “Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College”

In his article On Reading Romantic Poetry, L. J. Swingle identifies the Romantic poet’s tendency to “think into the human heart” by using rustic description to explore “the naked dignity of man”. This analysis certainly holds true for William Wordsworth’s Tintern Abbey and Thomas Gray’s Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College, two eighteenth century prospect poems that examine humanity and man’s changing relationship with nature through an expressive overview of a place of emotional significance. Both poems, written during a period of considerable upheaval in the countryside, place an emphasis on physical, temporal and metaphorical distance in order to examine complex questions relating to the poet’s past and future. In this way, the descriptive and reflective elements of the texts interact with each other, enabling the poets to poignantly communicate ideas of memory, loss, and, ultimately, the restorative power of nature. The first stanza of Tintern Abbey imitates the process of recollection by conveying the narrator’s experience of the landscape before him in intricate detail. Wordsworth delights in depicting the tranquil serenity of his surroundings, appearing to savour such particulars as the “soft inland murmur” of the waters “rolling from their mountain springs”. His gentle use of assonance enhances the sensuous nature of the piece, suggesting that the narrator’s thirst is being quenched – albeit from a distance – after the aesthetic drought of “five long winters” in the city. This interplay between sense and recollection exposes an important aspect of much prospect poetry – the power of reflection and memory. Indeed, it is significant that Wordsworth writes of “Thoughts of more deep seclusion” , thus reminding the reader that the poem is not simply an objective description of the landscape. The rural surroundings impress beliefs and resonance on the narrator, enabling Wordsworth to present “two consciousnesses belonging to the poet at different points of his life” , bound together by memory and used as tools in an exploration of humanity. Similarly, Gray’s Ode highlights the importance of memory through the romanticised, almost childlike, tone adopted to describe his previous perception of the grounds at Eton College (“Ah, happy hills, ah, pleasing shade, / Ah, fields beloved in vain”), thus expressing the important relationship between the mind, reminiscence and natural description. However, it is important not to undermine the role of dislocation in the prospect poem, especially with regards to Wordsworth and Gray’s reflections on distance. In Tintern Abbey, for example, Wordsworth demonstrates how memories of the abbey regularly work upon the narrator during his absence from the countryside, summoning spiritual feelings even within the confines of the city:“But oft, in lonely rooms and ‘mid the dinOf towns and cities, I have owed to themIn hours of weariness, sensations sweet”. We are reminded that, rather than existing fully apart, the country and the city often intrude upon each other, bearing a considerable influence over Wordsworth’s thoughts and deeds. Furthermore, Clarke draws attention to the poet’s allusion to “vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods”, claiming that Wordsworth tends to recall features that are “just out of sight or beyond definition”. This brings forth the possibility that the commotion of urban life has rendered certain aspects of the landscape inaccessible for Wordsworth. Even a location of tranquillity and great emotional significance, such as Tintern Abbey, cannot avoid being tainted by the experiences gained from “this unintelligible world” , thus ensuring that childhood’s pure communion with nature can no longer be retrieved. This sense of impenetrability is more explicitly conveyed in Gray’s Ode, where he poignantly depicts the wholesome landscape being ambushed by personified, adult passions: “Disdainful Anger, pallid Fear, / And Shame that skulks behind”. The attachment of human characteristics to these blemished emotions – augmented by the poet’s use of capitalisation – enables Gray to equip them with an almost unstoppable power, demonstrating how the immorality of city life inevitably imposes itself upon the countryside. This feeling of alienation from the scene being remembered lends credence to Williams’ observation that much eighteenth century pastoral literature, including prospect poetry, “contrasted the worthy simplicities of rural life with the corruption of the town”, thereby demonstrating how even the most charming of rural environments cannot escape from the vices of urban life. In this way, both poems lay emphasis on the concept of distance, ranging from the physical to the temporal and metaphorical . Wordsworth and Gray explore the loss of youth’s carefree, unpolluted relationship with nature, implying that certain factors, such as the passing of time and a growing realisation of the inevitability of hardship, have severed their childlike connection with the countryside. The only way in which this union can be preserved, therefore, is through memory. For example, Gray is able to use his distance from Eton College, in both a physical and temporal sense, to regard his own schooldays in a different context, leading him to brand the young inhabitants of the grounds “little victims”, unsuspecting of their impending “doom”. This sense of remoteness can be more fully appreciated when one considers the agricultural changes that took place during the eighteenth century. While this period was one of tremendous progress, it was also one of significant doubt, with the Enclosures leading to restricted access and the decline of the common lands. Consequently, it is possible that, through the comprehensive use of memory and imagination in their poetry, Wordsworth and Gray intended to compensate for their lack of proximity to the countryside, instead emphasising the benefits of distance in exploring the hopes and doubts involved with living in eighteenth century society. It is this interaction between hope and doubt that exposes the importance of the reflective elements of prospect poetry, enabling Wordsworth and Gray to engage both in past reminiscence and future speculation. These musings often amount to reflections on gain and loss – for example, although his childhood experiences along the Wye have allowed Wordsworth to acquire “food / For future years”, this realisation is bittersweet, as he has also lost his childlike, unquestioning communion with nature. In this respect, Wordsworth’s allusion to “unripe fruits” may be interpreted as a metaphor for unfulfilled dreams, adding an additional layer to the poem’s theme of loss. However, although ideas relating to loss feature in both poems, it is important to consider the enriching sense of rejuvenation associated with the countryside, which is implicit in Wordsworth and Gray’s writing. While the pupils described by Gray stand as a reincarnation of his younger self’s carefree pleasure in the grounds of Eton College (“Yet ah! why should they know their fate?”), Wordsworth’s heartfelt address to his “dear Sister” towards the end of Tintern Abbey both reaffirms his own past and demonstrates a deeper appreciation for his surroundings, thereby exposing the cyclical, restorative power of the countryside. In conclusion, both Tintern Abbey and Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College successfully exemplify the interconnection between descriptive and reflective elements in the eighteenth century prospect poem. Using the concept of distance as an expressive tool, Wordsworth and Gray apply bucolic description and meaningful introspection in order to view the scenery of their childhood in a different context, thus exploring the wider philosophical themes of memory, imagination, loss, and restoration. References:L. J. Swingle, “On Reading Romantic Poetry”. In PMLA, Vol. 86, No. 5. (New York: Modern Language Association, 1971), p. 976. Andrew Cooper, Doubt and Identity in Romantic Poetry. (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1988), p. 159. Charles Sherry, Wordsworth’s Poetry of the Imagination. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 18. C. C. Clarke, Romantic Paradox. (Oxford: Alden Press Ltd, 1962), p. 50.

Immortality in Thomas Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”

Thomas Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” is a melancholic poem that considers the possibility of immortality for the people buried in the churchyard the speaker visits. Although previous sections of the poem explore different ideas, such as the speaker’s remorse for those who passed their earthly lives ignobly and seemingly without consequence, “Elegy” closes with five strong quatrains and the epitaph, which emphasize Gray’s belief in the (at least figurative) immortality of the dead. The poem’s other seemingly unconnected themes appear connected to the main theme of life after death. Finally, the poem considers the nature of the speaker’s own immortality as a possibility in either a physical or figurative sense. Ultimately, “Elegy” argues that the dead do seem to live and achieve a kind of immortality. For the first twelve quatrains of the poem, the speaker appears content to bemoan the presence of death which cancels out of all the small pleasures of life. Somber adjectives such as “solemn,” “lowly,” and “fleeting” permeate his descriptions of dying, and emphasize on the simple pleasurable experiences of everyday life: “For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn, or busy housewife ply her evening care; No children run to lisp their sire’s return, Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share” (21-24). The speaker in this section highlights not immortality, but the fragility and fleetingness of human existence. Gray’s purpose in doing this seemingly runs counter to the idea of immortality. Rather, the speaker glorifies life and urges the reader to appreciate even it’s trivialities and savor every moment on earth. Man’s inescapable doom is also emphasized, with the speaker especially noting the social equality present in death: “The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, And all that beauty, all that wealth e’er gave, Awaits alike the inevitable hour:- The paths of glory lead but to the grave” (33-36) The following section of the work, consisting of eight quatrains, concerns the unsung accomplishments of those buried in the churchyard, as well as the potential greatness that died with them. The grim reality of death again here seems to be the focus–the speaker is, once more, preoccupied with the transient physical world, and gives little thought to any kind of “immortality,” other than, perhaps, to mourn its impossbility: “Th’ applause of list’ning senates to command, The threats of pain and ruin to despise, To scatter plenty o’er a smiling land, And read their history in a nation’s eyes, Their lot forbad:..(61-65) The poem’s continued emphasis on the melancholy aspects of temporary earthly life is again anything but indicative of the final theme of “Elegy.” Gray continues to underscore the lack of any sort of fame or “immortality” possessed by the deceased individuals buried around the churchyard due to their lack of noted accomplishments. For the speaker, the fact that none of their actions were ever great enough to garner acclaim is what robbed them of their immortality, or perhaps “killed” them. Only in death are these people noteworthy at all, and then only as noticeable as those ornaments that adorn their graves: “Yet even these bones from insult to protect Some frail memorial still erected nigh, With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture decked, Implores the passing tribute of a sigh” (77-80). This section sets up the final significant portion of the poem, which begins at line 97 and runs through the end of the work. The theme of immortality in “Elegy” appears for the first time in the poem’s final section. Lines 97-116 simply recount the memories some “hoary-headed swain” had of someone we assume to be no more than an average local man. However, the mere fact that this man is in fact being recalled already puts him leagues ahead of the many nameless dead mentioned earlier in the poem. The man is not even being recalled for any sort of heroic or particularly noteworthy feat, but rather for his everyday activities. In the end it was not some noble action that drew the attention of onlookers, but rather the enactment of a regular life that made an impression. The fact that this onlooker is able to expound upon the common activities of the deceased for several quatrains is a testament to the validity of an unspectacular existence. Even the epitaph acknowledges the deceased as “A youth to Fortune and to Fame unknown” (118), and yet in this case it is mistaken. It is only here at the end of the work does the type of immortality the speaker is detailing becomes apparent: it makes absolutely no difference what you accomplish or succeed in during your lifetime, because the impressions left on those surrounding you are going to be your only legacy. From what can be gathered from the work as a whole, the poem suggests, “immortality” is almost entirely disconnected to those things which we would commonly associate fame or remembrance-wealth, power, accomplishment, circumstance. Instead, immortality is achieved in the recollections of those one has spent his or her life with: loved ones, co-workers, acquaintances, and by-standers. Thomas Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” does in fact suggest a theme of immortality for those passed, but in a somewhat unconventional manner that can only be detected after completely reading through the work. While, at first, the speaker is more interested in the transient earthly life, and for most of the laments the lack of distinction of those lying dead and buried around him, by the end of the work it is apparent that he does believe at least in a figurative immortality for the dead. Of course, he suggests, a figurative life-after-death is all we on earth can substantiate. The beginning and middle of the poem, which at first appear to reject the concept of life after death, turn out instead to complement the figurative life after death that the poem posits in its final section.

The Immortality of a Dead Cat

Her beauty defied comparison. Her joy in life’s simplest pleasures endeared her to all who knew her. Her insatiable curiosity drove her to constantly explore, examine, and engage in the world around her. All these qualities make her loss seem all the more tragic. She left a void that could never be filled, that is, until someone buys a new family cat. Through his subtle use of several literary devices, Thomas Gray creates a humorous mock eulogy in his “Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes.” Superficially, Gray employs the praise and lament indicative of traditional, somber eulogies. Yet with his playful verse form, exotic and regal metaphors, and mythical allusions, he unveils a less serious perspective on mortality. Through this unconventional look at death, Gray argues that life has its difficulties, trials and tribulations, but he also holds that life’s little subtleties can be amusing. Through this meticulously crafted and humorous account of Selima’s loss, the poet comforts his friend in his time of grief. The cat may have died. It may have been both sad and disturbing at the time. Gray, however, emphasizes that the sadness should not completely overshadow the humor in a cat that drowns in a goldfish pond. While the poet paints a humorous image of death with his language, the very structure of the piece lends itself to that tone. The most basic, prevalent and consistent aspect of this poem that makes it a mock rather than somber eulogy is its verse form. Although it may seem a mechanical and detached literary device, verse form, like a human heart beat, gives this poem its life force. Primarily written in iambic feet, the lines resemble natural human speech: not excessively emotional or emphatic but, rather, consistent. Had Gray been particularly distraught by the cruel twist of fate, perhaps he would have incorporated an occasional spondee or caesura to emphasize the tragedy. As it stands, however, the poem retains a matter-of-fact intonation. Furthermore, the line lengths are brief, with two lines of tetrameter followed by a line of trimeter, and are therefore reminiscent of a ballad stanza. Rather than painstakingly dote on the fond remembrance of a beloved cat, these lines dance along in a buoyant manner. Similarly, the rhyme scheme of “aabccb” throughout all six stanzas favors a musical and lively reading. Given that the subject matter of this poem revolves about the loss of life in a violent manner, the verse form dramatically undermines the topic thereby allowing a sense of humor to accompany the sorrow.Foreign lands, precious stones, and vivid imagery collide in the metaphors that describe a simple, ordinary house cat. Through these images and comparisons, Selima rises from a mere domestic pet to a praiseworthy and majestic goddess, especially in the eyes of her human family. With her “snowy beard,” the “velvet of her paws,” jet black ears, and “emerald eyes,” she becomes an untouchable paragon of perfection (lines 8, 9, 10, 11). Had Gray simply described these features in dull terms, such as “white,” “soft,” “black” or “green,” his description would fail to fully capture her beauty and majesty and thereby serve a grave injustice to her memory. Having illustrated her handsome exterior, the poet then proceeds to depict the vanity and greed of “the presumptuous maid” through both her self-doting and her “ardent wish…to reach the prize” of the goldfish (25, 21, 22). A lady of leisure and wealth, Selima is wont to getting attention and possessing all that she desires. Through these metaphors and images, Gray illustrates a spoiled and self-absorbed princess, thus rendering her ultimate death all the more amusing. His closing metaphor applies not only to the “golden gleam” of the goldfish, but likewise to Selima: she too “glisters,” but is not “gold” (18, 42). The rich and exotic description of the cat and her desires lends itself to the humorous tone of this poem. Beyond describing the features and qualities of this unfortunate cat, the literary allusions Gray employs evokes mythical and epic images. The goldfish, as “genii of the stream,” are thus connected with Roman spirits, while their scaly Tyrian-hued armor suggests an ancient luxurious purple dye (15, “genii,” 16). Armed for the epic battle, the fish prepare as Selima, the narcissistic and “hapless nymph,” falls victim to the cruelty and interference of “Fate” (19, 28). Nymphs and the three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, appear frequently in both Roman and Greek mythology: the nymphs typically serve as stock characters whereas the Fates have control over (human) destiny (“nymph,” “fates”). Gray’s subtle use of these characters acts to artificially inflate the plight of a mere cat. Neither Arion’s dolphin nor a “Nereid” comes to her rescue despite her entreaties to “every watery god” (34, 34, 32). The juxtaposition of a cat with the epic heroes, like Achilles and Odysseus, further mocks the “tragedy” of her death. These heroes challenged the gods, powerful beasts, the vicious elements, and their own wills whereas Selima merely died because she fell in a tub of water. Through literary allusion, Gray ridicules the significance of Selima’s death by describing it in epic and mythological terms. Although the loss of a loved one may be traumatic and seem senseless, Gray argues that people must keep perspective, especially when that loved one is just a cat. Through the verse form, from the meter to the number of feet to the rhyme scheme, Gray maintains a lively beat to a poem concerning death. This element alone sets the tone of the poem. The metaphors and imagery illustrate a mere house cat as an exotic, spoiled goddess. Gray furthers this image with literary allusions, hearkening to Greek and Roman mythology. Through these comparisons and allusions, the poet juxtaposes a cat with queens, heroes, and goddesses. Rather than give her death greater importance, he ridicules her folly and the tragedy of her demise. The humor conveyed by these literary devices make the poem a mock eulogy, both amusing to its readers and compassionate to her family. The wit of the mock eulogy makes Selima more than just a dead cat: in her death, she has become immortal. Works Cited”fates, n”, “genii, n”, “nymph, n”. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press. 4 Apr. 2000 .Gray, Thomas. “Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes.” The Longman Anthology of British Literature. Ed. David Damrosch. 2nd ed. Vol. 1C. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, 2003. 4 vols. 2714-2715.

Poetry Elements Come to Life

In Thomas Gray’s poem, “Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes,” he shares a story about a cat named Selima while also teaching a lesson to readers. Even though the poem is amusing, it is written and arranged cleverly. Gray integrates humor, imagery, and advice into a story to form a poem that will never be forgotten. Both the poem itself, and the message conveyed in it are relatable. Thomas Gray’s style and use of imagery, diction, and structure in his attractive poem help to warn his readers of seeking opulence and superiority.

The style and message of Thomas Gray’s poem allow me to easily connect to it. First, he portrays an amusing scene of a cat with great detail that is fun to read. There is an iambic rhythm throughout the poem as well as a rhyme pattern. At first glance his writing may seem too immature or playful, but beneath the surface Thomas Gray is skillfully arranging words and structure. I connect with his style because I am very goofy myself and like fun poetry with a deeper meaning. As for giving advice to readers, I will always remember this poem and Thomas Gray’s warning. He absorbs the readers and grabs their attention when describing the story of the cat, much like a children’s fable. Gray allows the readers, including myself, to place themselves in the cats’ shoes. He builds up the anticipation and tempts the readers throughout the poem until we fall into the poem’s trap of a warning, realizing our mistake too late.

Thomas Gray integrates imagery of different senses to draw readers into the poem so that they can relate to Selima the cat. For visual imagery, he begins by giving readers a visual perspective of a cat. He describes the vase’s side in detail, “where China’s gayest art had dyed” (line 2), because at the cat’s level of vision the side of the vase is “lofty” (line 1). Rather than acting as a bystander of the scene, Gray forces the readers to share in the cat’s experience. Similarly, Gray uses tactile imagery to further connect readers to the cat. In the beginning, readers physically feel the happiness of the cat when Selima’s “conscious tail her joy declared” (line 7). Likewise, readers feel themselves slip and fall into the tub when the “slippery verge her feet beguiled” (line 29), and then they tumble “headlong in” (line 30). Although the poem is not written from a personal point of view, Gray effectively places readers in the scene so that they will learn from Selima’s mistake.

Thomas Gray uses diction throughout the entire poem to effectively deliver his advice to avoid temptations of opulence and superiority. The words he uses to describe the physical appearance of the cat have connotations of nobility and luxury. For example, her paws are “velvet” (line 9), her ears are “jet” (line 11), and her eyes are “emerald” (line 11). Thus, Gray warns readers of cats or people who ornately decorate themselves. In addition, the cat has a desire to be superior and noble. She is initially attracted to the “lofty” vase (line 1) with its “azure flowers” (line 3). Azure is defined as the color of the sky as well as a heraldic blue. Furthermore, Selima seeks the goldfish who have “scaly armour’s Tyrian hue through richest purple” (line 17) and “betrayed a golden gleam” (18). Grays choice of “betrayed” foreshadows the end of the poem and Selima’s fall. Thus, Gray suggests that a vain desire to appear superior and noble can be even more dangerous than a craving for ornate objects.

The structure of the poem enhances the deceit of goldfish in addition to the falsity of superiority and luxury. Overall, the poem has an upbeat rhythm and fun rhyming patterns that attract readers to the poem, yet Gray also masks its true motives. Although the poem seems happy and playful at first, its main purposes are to tell a story of a cat’s tragic death and to give advice to readers. In this way, the poem’s structure is deceptive just as the goldfish are. Gray also cleverly arranges structure within the poem to draw readers into the scene. For example, the first stanza is iambic until the last line when Selima “gazed on the lake below” (line 6). The water also grabs the attention of readers because the beat falls on “gazed” and does not follow the iambic rhythm. The word and sound of “gazed” is stretched out, and readers are compelled to look at the poem like Selima looks at the water. Moreover, in the fifth stanza structure reflects events occurring in the scene of the poem. There is a pause and a visual space after “the gulf between” (line 27) like there is a gulf between Selima’s face and the water. In addition, “between” (line 27) and “in” (line 30) are unique slight rhymes. The poem’s structure slips and is disrupted just as Selima’s loses control.

Thomas Gray in “Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat” combines many different aspects of poetry to present an easily relatable poem for me and for other readers. The key to the poem’s attractiveness is its ability to draw in the readers. He does this by telling a compelling story that is easy to read and follow. Nevertheless, he also grabs the readers’ attention on a deeper level using creative imagery, diction, and structure. He relates to the undeceived reader when he asks rhetorical questions in the fourth stanza, “What female heart can gold despise?” (line 23) and “What cat’s averse to fish?” (line 24). The readers and cat fall for these questions, and he tricks his audience by calling them a “presumptuous maid!” (line 25) in the next stanza. As a reader, I am not simply reading a story of a cat’s tragedy, but am also experiencing her same temptations and feelings during the poem. Thomas Gray has deceived my desire to be absorbed by a poem, however, and I will be with caution bold when I read more poetry and try to relate to it.

Loss in ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’ and ‘Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat’

Thomas Gray and Thomas Hardy both explore the treatment of loss in their poems ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’, ‘Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Goldfishes’, and ‘The Voice’. Each of these works provide a contrasting presentation of the concept of loss, which underlines the fact that as humans we react to grief differently. Whilst Gray’s ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’ is a satirical poem, mocking the death of his friend Horace Walpole’s cat Selima, his ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’ has a far more sombre, sincere tone. Similarly, Hardy’s ‘The Voice’ reflects his own pain following the death of his wife Emma in 1912, as he reveals his desperate longing to hear her voice once again. However this poem remains focused on the notion of denial, whereas Gray’s sonnet is more bitter, conveying a sense of futility with regards to the loss of friend since preparatory school, who died at age twenty-six. Despite the varied approaches to the theme of loss, it is to be noted that the texts have certain elements in common, such as the use of natural imagery, but also the elevated language in each of Gray’s works which serves to produce either a humorous or a formal effect.

The unconventional presentation of loss in Thomas Gray’s ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’ almost mimics human sentimentality, as the exaggerated and grandiose language is more amusing than sorrowful. Despite its refined appearance, as the poem develops the reader discovers that the aggrandized expressions simply mark the lack of sympathy for the loss of Walpole’s cat. Gray’s lack of interest is evident in the first manuscript of the poem, a letter to Walpole, where Gray asks “Selima was it? or Fatima?” when writing his condolences. Gray goes on to say “you will excuse me if I do not begin to cry”, which further demonstrates his lack of compassion on the sensitive matter. The language of the poem is lofty, and far more extravagant than necessary when describing such an inane occurrence. As a result, Gray cleverly produces a clear contrast between the style of language utilized and the event being described; implying that the poem is merely mocking the cat’s death. Gray likens the cat’s plight to the tragic fall of an epic hero, constructing a majestic, almost mythical image of Selima, the ‘hapless nymph’ (l.19). This metaphor is humorous due to its obscurity; the use of the word ‘nymph’ is so out of context to the domestic incident that the reader is forced to imagine the event in a more dignified light. However, the sheer contrast between the image of the cat desperately drowning and that of a divine spirit only serves to provide amusement. Likewise, the incorporation of religious language produces a comical effect due to its incongruousness in relation to the occurrence. For example, the cat is described as ‘emerging from the flood’ (l.31) – this carries religious connotations of the Genesis Flood and adds to the poem’s sense of sophistication, yet at the same time this builds on the insincere tone as it is somewhat laughable that the image of a cat in a fishbowl is by any means comparable to The Great Flood. Gray’s use of religious language is also embedded in the third stanza:

Still had she gazed; but ’midst the tide Two angel forms were seen to glide, The genii of the stream; (ll. 13-15)

To an extent, the elegant language presents the death of the cat as beautiful, as the metaphorical description of the fish as ‘angel forms’ makes the event seem rather peaceful and dreamy. Furthermore, the choice of the word ‘genii’ refers to guardian spirits – this suggests that the fish are holy, therefore implying that the cat’s death is the natural work of God. This description of the celestial nature of the fish is somewhat reassuring – the reader is led to believe that the loss of Selima is tranquil rather than erratic. Nevertheless, it’s likely that Gray’s intentions are not to present Selima’s end as peaceful, but rather to continue building up comedic effect, as the bizarre link between the cat and God contributes to the overall insincerity.

Despite the fact that the title of the poem refers to the piece as an ode, it is rather a parody of the ode form – again hinting at the lack of seriousness. Regardless of this, the poem is, in some ways, characteristic of an Horatian ode, due to the gentle use of humor and the reflective style. The text also possesses a sense of detachment when discussing the loss of Selima, whilst maintaining an elegant and dignified tone; an aspect often present in Horatian odes. The stanzaic rhyme scheme builds on this sense of uniformity, however, at the same time this contributes to the satirical feel – the regular rhyme produces a light-hearted and strangely upbeat feel to the poem. This mock-heroic style is unusual, and differs to the majority of Gray’s other poems which are often more gloomy – such as his ‘Hymn to Adversity’ which has a deeply melancholic mood. On the other hand, it is evident that the treatment of loss in ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’ is insincere, as Gray denotes the over-sentimentality of man by transforming a standard event into an exaggerated account.

Gray’s poem, ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’ adopts a similar level of elevated language, however, the tone of the poem appears far more genuine and sombre than the ode. The poem is spoken through the voice of Gray himself, as he reveals his sorrows on the death of his dearest friend. Gray’s translation of his lament acts as a cathartic release, as the reader can consider how Gray himself is pained by grief – something which is not addressed in the previous poem. The opening of the poem instantly informs the reader of the speaker’s aggrieved attitude:

In vain to me the smiling mornings shine, And reddening Phœbus lifts his golden fire; The birds in vain their amorous descant join; Or cheerful fields resume their green attire; These ears, alas! for other notes repine, (ll.1-5)

The abrupt nature of the phrase ‘in vain’ marks Gray’s anger at the injustice of Mr. West’s death – this phrase is repeated on another two occasions in the poem, stressing the futility of his loss. This bitter attitude is further demonstrated by the sibilance of ‘smiling mornings shine’, as the harsh, piercing sound produced hints at the distress of Gray. The constant use of alliteration throughout the poem builds on the speaker’s resentment, as the poet’s choice of jarring sounds means the text carries a sense of annoyance throughout. For example, the alliteration in ‘Phoebus lifts his golden fire’ creates a forceful and somewhat explosive tone. The sonnet is also embedded with sibilance, producing an almost continuous sense of joltiness – again reflecting Gray’s agony. For example, the use of the words ‘birds’, ‘amorous’, ‘descant’, ‘fields’, ‘resume’, ‘ears’, ‘alas’ and ‘notes’ in the lines above produces a semi-constant hiss. This builds an eerie, solemn mood, yet similarly, it conveys a sense of slight aggression in the speaker’s voice – meaning that when read aloud, the reader is able to notice his frustration. The pain of loss is also intensified by the use of ecphonesis, as the exclamation ‘these ears, alas!’ hints at Gray’s inability to maintain total composure. This outburst indicates how loss can lead to erratic, uncontrolled behavior. The repeated use of personal pronouns also reveals how the grief has deeply affected Gray himself, as the speaker refers to ‘me, my, mine, I’, and there is no mention of ‘him’ [Mr. West] until line thirteen. This may be indicative of the fact that loss can make some people selfish – perhaps Gray is demonstrating how death can lead one to become absorbed in self-pity rather than viewing matters from a wider, more sensible perspective. Nevertheless, at the same time the speaker’s focus on himself allows the poem to become an act of self-exploration; a therapeutic manner of coping with the effects of loss.

The significance of the death of Mr. West is also demonstrated by the use of natural imagery, as Gray implies that the courses of nature have now been tainted. This links to Gray’s ‘Ode on the Spring’, written in 1742, which displaces Spring’s association with restoration, and replaces it with that of death. This sombre stance is likely influenced by the fact that Gray’s life himself was plagued by hardship – as he reveals in a letter to West, declaring himself a frequent victim of ‘a white Melancholy, or rather Leucocholy’. Gray’s pessimistic attitude is captured in the opening of the sonnet as he discusses how the sun and the birds have no real purpose – merely referring to their actions as ‘in vain’. The dramatic description of nature being futile is to a certain degree, similar to the style of ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’, as the hyperbolized notion of the natural world being pointless is somewhat ridiculous – like the strangely elevated and spiritual description of the cat’s death.

The use of the Italian sonnet form also demonstrates the importance of Mr. West’s death, as it’s traditionally used for love poems. Perhaps the choice of a sonnet is Gray’s attempt to express his affection and love for his friend, however, similarly, it could be another example of a poem mocking the conventions – like the ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’. On the other hand, the use of iambic pentameter means that the poem possesses a heightened sense of formality, as the regular rhythm produces a sense of control. This indicates the sincerity of Gray in this poem – the smart structural layout allows the speaker to express his lament clearly and appropriately. The use of alternative rhyme means the text maintains an ordered structure, perhaps indicating how Gray is trying to make sense of matters following the shock of his dear friend’s death. Nevertheless, the rhyme carries a lot of repetition of the vowel ‘i’, for example in the words ‘shine’, ‘fire’, ‘attire’, ‘repine’, ‘require’ – again producing a somewhat whiny undertone. In addition, the sonnet has a similar internal rhyme: ‘smiling…shine’ (l.1), ‘cheerful fields’ (l.4), ‘lonely…no’ (l.7). This only heightens the melancholic undertones of the poem, and builds on the idea that loss causes great agony for those left behind.

Thomas Hardy’s ‘The Voice’ is similar to Gray’s sonnet in the sense that the use of natural imagery is incorporated in order to express the concept of loss. Despite this, the poem’s approach to the theme is slightly different, as the speaker remains dominated by their overwhelming feelings of denial. In this case, the speaker is Hardy himself, as he is reflecting on the death of his wife Emma, in 1912. Hardy’s longing to hear her voice is captured in the opening stanza of the poem:

Woman much missed, how you call to me, call to me,Saying that now you are not as you wereWhen you had changed from the one who was all to me,But as at first, when our day was fair. (ll.1-4)

The repetition of ‘call to me’ in the first line instantly highlights the speakers’ desperation to communicate with his dead wife once again, as Hardy creates a dazed, chant-like feel – this suggests that perhaps the speaker is not fully accepting of his loss. The use of triple rhymes also adds to this sense of bewilderment – ‘call to me’, ‘all to me’, ‘view you then’ (l.5), ‘knew you then’ (l. 7). This allows the reader to consider the effects of loss with regards to one’s rationality; it would appear as if the speaker is unable to view matters coherently. The overuse of rhyme in the poem makes the work sound somewhat artificial, and for this reason it is unclear as to whether the voice can truly be heard, or if it is simply imagined. The speaker’s lack of control would suggest that the voice is imagined, as upon reading the poem, one can see the obscurity of their thoughts. Likewise, this adds to the presentation of denial, as the overdeveloped rhyme links to the speaker’s unhealthy dwelling on the voice. Hardy’s choice to use dactylic tetrameter further contributes to the disorientated feel of the poem, as the uncommon metre has a dizzying effect – implying that the speaker is not compos mentis. In the last two stanzas of the poem Hardy use of sibilance and alliteration continues to build on the confused attitude of the speaker, as this makes the poem rather dense:

Or is it only the breeze, in its listlessnessTravelling across the wet mead to me here,You being ever dissolved to wan wistlessness, (ll.9-11)

Here the sibilance is onomatopoeic of the wind; therefore indicating how the speaker is desperately struggling to hold onto his wife’s voice. The use of natural imagery is similar to that of Gray’s sonnet, yet here the loss of the wife seems to have given nature a greater purpose – as the wind is said to carry her voice, whereas in Gray’s poem Mr. West’s death is said to have made nature futile. The last stanza of the poem disrupts the rhythmic scheme meaning all focus is drawn to the state of the speaker, who is ‘faltering forward’ (l.13) with leaves ‘falling’ (l.14) around him. The alliteration here is quite sharp, producing a slightly jarring effect. Likewise, the caesura and end stopping in this last stanza creates a faltering rhythm; implying that life is forcing him onward, yet his renewed feelings for his dead wife mean that he keeps stumbling. This lamentable tone is characteristic to Hardy’s lyrical poetry which is often distinguished by its pervasive fatalism.

When considering the treatment of loss in the above poems, it is evident that the concept can be explored from a variety of angles. Whilst both of Gray’s poems are significantly different in terms of sincerity, it is to be noted that they are from notably different contexts. For example, Gray’s comedic approach towards the loss of Walpole’s cat contrasts greatly with his sonnet for his dearest friend – perhaps due to the personal involvement behind the poem. Similarly, the serious tone of Hardy’s poem for his wife is likely due to the fact that he is discussing a loss that is extremely important on his behalf. Consequently, it is clear that the portrayal of death in poetry is determined by the circumstances under which the text is created – with regards to the above poems, the author’s emotions of bitterness, frustration, despair and denial are all reflective of the importance of their loss experienced in their own life.

Death in ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’ and ‘Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat’.

Thomas Gray and Thomas Hardy both explore the treatment of loss in their poems ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’, ‘Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Goldfishes’, and ‘The Voice’. Each of these works provide a contrasting presentation of the concept of loss, which underlines the fact that as humans we react to grief differently. Whilst Gray’s ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’ is a satirical poem, mocking the death of his friend Horace Walpole’s cat Selima, his ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’ has a far more sombre, sincere tone. Similarly, Hardy’s ‘The Voice’ reflects his own pain following the death of his wife Emma in 1912, as he reveals his desperate longing to hear her voice once again. However this poem remains focused on the notion of denial, whereas Gray’s sonnet is more bitter, conveying a sense of futility with regards to the loss of friend since preparatory school, who died at age twenty-six. Despite the varied approaches to the theme of loss, it is to be noted that the texts have certain elements in common, such as the use of natural imagery, but also the elevated language in each of Gray’s works which serves to produce either a humorous or a formal effect.

The unconventional presentation of loss in Thomas Gray’s ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’ almost mimics human sentimentality, as the exaggerated and grandiose language is more amusing than sorrowful. Despite its refined appearance, as the poem develops the reader discovers that the aggrandized expressions simply mark the lack of sympathy for the loss of Walpole’s cat. Gray’s disinterest is evident in the first manuscript of the poem, a letter to Walpole, where Gray asks “Selima was it? or Fatima?” when writing his condolences. Gray goes on to say “you will excuse me if I do not begin to cry”, which further demonstrates his lack of compassion on the sensitive matter. The language of the poem is lofty, and far more extravagant than necessary when describing such an inane occurrence. As a result, Gray cleverly produces a clear contrast between the style of language utilized and the event being described; implying that the poem is merely mocking the cat’s death. Gray likens the cat’s plight to the tragic fall of an epic hero, constructing a majestic, almost mythical image of Selima, the ‘hapless nymph’ (l.19). This metaphor is humorous due to its obscurity; the use of the word ‘nymph’ is so out of context to the domestic incident that the reader is forced to imagine the event in a more dignified light. However, the sheer contrast between the image of the cat desperately drowning and that of a divine spirit only serves to provide amusement. Likewise, the incorporation of religious language produces a comical effect due to its incongruousness in relation to the occurrence. For example, the cat is described as ‘emerging from the flood’ (l.31) – this carries religious connotations of the Genesis Flood and adds to the poem’s sense of sophistication, yet at the same time this builds on the insincere tone as it is somewhat laughable that the image of a cat in a fishbowl is by any means comparable to The Great Flood. Gray’s use of religious language is also embedded in the third stanza:

Still had she gazed; but ’midst the tide Two angel forms were seen to glide, The genii of the stream; (ll. 13-15)

To an extent, the elegant language presents the death of the cat as beautiful, as the metaphorical description of the fish as ‘angel forms’ makes the event seem rather peaceful and dreamy. Furthermore, the choice of the word ‘genii’ refers to guardian spirits – this suggests that the fish are holy, therefore implying that the cat’s death is the natural work of God. This description of the celestial nature of the fish is somewhat reassuring – the reader is led to believe that the loss of Selima is tranquil rather than erratic. Nevertheless, it’s likely that Gray’s intentions are not to present Selima’s end as peaceful, but rather to continue building up comedic effect, as the bizarre link between the cat and God contributes to the overall insincerity.

Despite the fact that the title of the poem refers to the piece as an ode, it is rather a parody of the ode form – again hinting at the lack of seriousness. Regardless of this, the poem is, in some ways, characteristic of an Horatian ode, due to the gentle use of humour and the reflective style. The text also possesses a sense of detachment when discussing the loss of Selima, whilst maintaining an elegant and dignified tone; an aspect often present in Horatian odes. The stanzaic rhyme scheme builds on this sense of uniformity, however, at the same time this contributes to the satirical feel – the regular rhyme produces a light-hearted and strangely upbeat feel to the poem. This mock-heroic style is unusual, and differs to the majority of Gray’s other poems which are often more gloomy – such as his ‘Hymn to Adversity’ which has a deeply melancholic mood. On the other hand, it is evident that the treatment of loss in ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’ is insincere, as Gray denotes the over-sentimentality of man by transforming a standard event into an exaggerated account.

Gray’s poem, ‘Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West’ adopts a similar level of elevated language, however, the tone of the poem appears far more genuine and sombre than the ode. The poem is spoken through the voice of Gray himself, as he reveals his sorrows on the death of his dearest friend. Gray’s translation of his lament acts as a cathartic release, as the reader can consider how Gray himself is pained by grief – something which is not addressed in the previous poem. The opening of the poem instantly informs the reader of the speaker’s aggrieved attitude:

In vain to me the smiling mornings shine, And reddening Phœbus lifts his golden fire; The birds in vain their amorous descant join; Or cheerful fields resume their green attire; These ears, alas! for other notes repine, (ll.1-5)

The abrupt nature of the phrase ‘in vain’ marks Gray’s anger at the injustice of Mr. West’s death – this phrase is repeated on another two occasions in the poem, stressing the futility of his loss. This bitter attitude is further demonstrated by the sibilance of ‘smiling mornings shine’, as the harsh, piercing sound produced hints at the distress of Gray. The constant use of alliteration throughout the poem builds on the speaker’s resentment, as the poet’s choice of jarring sounds means the text carries a sense of annoyance throughout. For example, the alliteration in ‘Phoebus lifts his golden fire’ creates a forceful and somewhat explosive tone. The sonnet is also embedded with sibilance, producing an almost continuous sense of joltiness – again reflecting Gray’s agony. For example, the use of the words ‘birds’, ‘amorous’, ‘descant’, ‘fields’, ‘resume’, ‘ears’, ‘alas’ and ‘notes’ in the lines above produces a semi-constant hiss. This builds an eerie, solemn mood, yet similarly, it conveys a sense of slight aggression in the speaker’s voice – meaning that when read aloud, the reader is able to notice his frustration. The pain of loss is also intensified by the use of ecphonesis, as the exclamation ‘these ears, alas!’ hints at Gray’s inability to maintain total composure. This outburst indicates how loss can lead to erratic, uncontrolled behavior. The repeated use of personal pronouns also reveals how the grief has deeply affected Gray himself, as the speaker refers to ‘me, my, mine, I’, and there is no mention of ‘him’ [Mr. West] until line thirteen. This may be indicative of the fact that loss can make some people selfish – perhaps Gray is demonstrating how death can lead one to become absorbed in self-pity rather than viewing matters from a wider, more sensible perspective. Nevertheless, at the same time the speaker’s focus on himself allows the poem to become an act of self-exploration; a therapeutic manner of coping with the effects of loss.

The significance of the death of Mr. West is also demonstrated by the use of natural imagery, as Gray implies that the courses of nature have now been tainted. This links to Gray’s ‘Ode on the Spring’, written in 1742, which displaces Spring’s association with restoration, and replaces it with that of death. This sombre stance is likely influenced by the fact that Gray’s life himself was plagued by hardship – as he reveals in a letter to West, declaring himself a frequent victim of ‘a white Melancholy, or rather Leucocholy’. Gray’s pessimistic attitude is captured in the opening of the sonnet as he discusses how the sun and the birds have no real purpose – merely referring to their actions as ‘in vain’. The dramatic description of nature being futile is to a certain degree, similar to the style of ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’, as the hyperbolized notion of the natural world being pointless is somewhat ridiculous – like the strangely elevated and spiritual description of the cat’s death.

The use of the Italian sonnet form also demonstrates the importance of Mr. West’s death, as it’s traditionally used for love poems. Perhaps the choice of a sonnet is Gray’s attempt to express his affection and love for his friend, however, similarly, it could be another example of a poem mocking the conventions – like the ‘Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat’. On the other hand, the use of iambic pentameter means that the poem possesses a heightened sense of formality, as the regular rhythm produces a sense of control. This indicates the sincerity of Gray in this poem – the smart structural layout allows the speaker to express his lament clearly and appropriately. The use of alternative rhyme means the text maintains an ordered structure, perhaps indicating how Gray is trying to make sense of matters following the shock of his dear friend’s death. Nevertheless, the rhyme carries a lot of repetition of the vowel ‘i’, for example in the words ‘shine’, ‘fire’, ‘attire’, ‘repine’, ‘require’ – again producing a somewhat whiny undertone. In addition, the sonnet has a similar internal rhyme: ‘smiling…shine’ (l.1), ‘cheerful fields’ (l.4), ‘lonely…no’ (l.7). This only heightens the melancholic undertones of the poem, and builds on the idea that loss causes great agony for those left behind.

Thomas Hardy’s ‘The Voice’ is similar to Gray’s sonnet in the sense that the use of natural imagery is incorporated in order to express the concept of loss. Despite this, the poem’s approach to the theme is slightly different, as the speaker remains dominated by their overwhelming feelings of denial. In this case, the speaker is Hardy himself, as he is reflecting on the death of his wife Emma, in 1912. Hardy’s longing to hear her voice is captured in the opening stanza of the poem:

Woman much missed, how you call to me, call to me,Saying that now you are not as you wereWhen you had changed from the one who was all to me,But as at first, when our day was fair. (ll.1-4)

The repetition of ‘call to me’ in the first line instantly highlights the speakers’ desperation to communicate with his dead wife once again, as Hardy creates a dazed, chant-like feel – this suggests that perhaps the speaker is not fully accepting of his loss. The use of triple rhymes also adds to this sense of bewilderment – ‘call to me’, ‘all to me’, ‘view you then’ (l.5), ‘knew you then’ (l. 7). This allows the reader to consider the effects of loss with regards to one’s rationality; it would appear as if the speaker is unable to view matters coherently. The overuse of rhyme in the poem makes the work sound somewhat artificial, and for this reason it is unclear as to whether the voice can truly be heard, or if it is simply imagined. The speaker’s lack of control would suggest that the voice is imagined, as upon reading the poem, one can see the obscurity of their thoughts. Likewise, this adds to the presentation of denial, as the overdeveloped rhyme links to the speaker’s unhealthy dwelling on the voice. Hardy’s choice to use dactylic tetrameter further contributes to the disorientated feel of the poem, as the uncommon meter has a dizzying effect – implying that the speaker is not compos mentis. In the last two stanzas of the poem Hardy use of sibilance and alliteration continues to build on the confused attitude of the speaker, as this makes the poem rather dense:

Or is it only the breeze, in its listlessnessTravelling across the wet mead to me here,You being ever dissolved to wan wistlessness, (ll.9-11)

Here the sibilance is onomatopoeic of the wind; therefore indicating how the speaker is desperately struggling to hold onto his wife’s voice. The use of natural imagery is similar to that of Gray’s sonnet, yet here the loss of the wife seems to have given nature a greater purpose – as the wind is said to carry her voice, whereas in Gray’s poem Mr. West’s death is said to have made nature futile. The last stanza of the poem disrupts the rhythmic scheme meaning all focus is drawn to the state of the speaker, who is ‘faltering forward’ (l.13) with leaves ‘falling’ (l.14) around him. The alliteration here is quite sharp, producing a slightly jarring effect. Likewise, the caesura and end stopping in this last stanza creates a faltering rhythm; implying that life is forcing him onward, yet his renewed feelings for his dead wife mean that he keeps stumbling. This lamentable tone is characteristic to Hardy’s lyrical poetry which is often distinguished by its pervasive fatalism.

When considering the treatment of loss in the above poems, it is evident that the concept can be explored from a variety of angles. Whilst both of Gray’s poems are significantly different in terms of sincerity, it is to be noted that they are from notably different contexts. For example, Gray’s comedic approach towards the loss of Walpole’s cat contrasts greatly with his sonnet for his dearest friend – perhaps due to the personal involvement behind the poem. Similarly, the serious tone of Hardy’s poem for his wife is likely due to the fact that he is discussing a loss that is extremely important on his behalf. Consequently, it is clear that the portrayal of death in poetry is determined by the circumstances under which the text is created – with regards to the above poems, the author’s emotions of bitterness, frustration, despair and denial are all reflective of the importance of their loss experienced in their own life.