The Miniature Social Values Reflected in Barbie: A Critical Reading of Marge Piercy’s Poem: Barbie Doll

Barbie doll as a popular icon in American culture has been carried with a long history. However, it is also a controversial toy that often critic by its unrealistic body image and the women stereotype imposed on her. Marge Piercy’s poem presents the theme about women’s loss of self-esteem and the coercion of external forces through the Barbie dolls. This paper aims to take a textual analysis of the subject matters and images the author’s view from a critical perspective. Irony and satiric tone are also used to reinforce the prevailing trend of twisted social and cultural values throughout the poem.

Starts with an unfamiliar word “girlchild”, the author emphasizes the infant’s biological gender, which seems to degrade one’s gender identity. The girl was born with nothing especially and received a typical toy, thus leaving she a conventional role and foreseeable prospect of a female character. For example, the doll was carried with “miniature stoves” and “iron”, symbolizes her domestic role—a household worked in the kitchen. Besides, the word “miniature” and “wee lipsticks” indicate the “normal” image in the adult forces world in miniature. With a potentially patriarchal value, the adult forces women to stay inside, at home or within the restricted space. Then the girl came to puberty, the tone here became sharp and ironic with the word “magic”. She was mocked as “a great big nose” and “fat legs” by her classmates. During the puberty, the girl has possessed intelligence and judgement, but most concepts and ideas are derived from the adult. Thus teenagers start to care more about their appearance. Sadly their notion of beauty has been twisted by the conventional values.

In the second stanza, the girl grown up mentally and physically, while prejudice or biased views of beauty have changed her thought and influenced her values. The young woman felt a sense of guilt and said apologies about her imperfect appearance. Here we find the poet’s criticism that people tend to prioritize women’s superficial outlook rather than their intrinsic characteristics. This preconception has ironically forced the young woman to apologize for “her own mistake”. Although both stanzas two and three begin with the subject “she”, the girl characters have been divided into two kinds in her life. In the stanza three, the girl was advised to act as the one in keeping with social value, and became the one who she’s not. Eventually her good nature was “worn out like a fan belt”. The simile here presents an image of a machine with gear, because the girl’s good nature doesn’t work or fit to the machine (social expectation). Time after time it was broken apart at all. As critical as the tone goes, the poet moves the poem to a climax: the girl cut off her legs and offered herself up, in order to meet the social conventions. Her good nature depleted, her physical function damaged and she became the victim of the social oppression. It sounds absurd and shocking when the girl mutilated herself. However, this kind of tragedy actually happens in today’s society as well, for instance, people tend to go through plastic or cosmetic surgery to make themselves look better. In fact, what the poet tries to address to is the issue of social values and its impact on the shaping of the youth’s behavior.

In the last stanza, the “physical mutilated” girl lied in the casket with her “putty nose”, beautiful make-up and elaborated dressed in “pink and white nightie”. She looked pretty in others’ eyes. It draws reader’s attention that the “nightie” here has some sexual metaphors, which implies that the girl was offended even after she was dead. Furthermore, the “casket” could be understood as a pun: a coffin to bury the girl’s dead body, or a small case for jewels and other valuables. On one hand, the girl was naturally dead and laid in the casket, the “stain” was like a winding sheet to cover her body. On the other hand, she was given a second life with a pretty appearance that meets the social expectation, and she was on display in the casket like a treasure with a satin. At the end, Piercy ironically and sadly creates a fairytale “happy ending”: the girl is in such a doll-like creature, pretty but lifeless. The author presents that the happy ending is not just for the girl character but for all women as well, as if all women doomed to experience it: willing to become a beauty even at the cost of death.

The poem reads like a gothic tale full of sarcasm in a depressing tone. Piercy shares her sharp but sad feeling towards the social pressures on the women with the reader. In the poem we see how the society and family play a dominant role in shaping behavior. Women’s conventional role, appearance and the ignorance of their intrinsic qualities all have impacted on their growth. Although the narrative in Piercy’s poem reads a bit exaggerated, the similar situation actually continues to happen but in different ways. Thus, Piercy’s poem revokes the readers to re-examine women’s right in the society which is dominated by the patriarchy, and also driven by the profit.

Cadences of Sacrifice

Music has historically been a means of expression and a way of portraying the conditions of the time in which it was written, and the feelings and circumstances of the person by which it was created. This way of expression through music can be seem in the poem “Burying blues for Janis,” by Marge Piercy; in this poem, Janis Joplin is portrayed as pouring her soul out, through her music, and the poem casts her in a different light than society typically saw her. The words of the poem portray Janis as a strong voice which recounts the hardship that women must endure in men-women relationships. Similarly to Janis Joplin, Joni Mitchell is another timeless and unique voice that describes the relationships between men and women, particularly during the 1960’s and 1970’s (Hedley 17). Through their lyrics, Janis Joplin and Joni Mitchell describe the condition of women in the 1960’s and 1970’s, and more specifically of themselves, as needing to sacrifice themselves and their own happiness in their romantic relationships. Many songs by these musicians, including but not limited to, “Piece of My Heart,” and “The Last Time,” by Janis Joplin and “I Had a King,” and “The Gallery” by Joni Mitchell describe or allude to the sacrificial nature of romantic relationships. In “Burying blues for Janis,” Piercy insightfully describes how Janis’ performances of her music reveal her self-sacrifice.

In the poem “Burying blues for Janis” Marge Piercy displays her ability to reach out to readers in a way that is identifiable but also revelatory (Payant 63). Her description of the way that Janis sings calls upon many of the things that audiences of Janis had likely believed about her yet were unable to express in words. In the first stanza of the poem, Piercy connects the voice of Janis to what she feels in her own life, in terms of being a woman when she says “Your voice always whacked me right on the funny bone of the great-hearted suffering bitch fantasy that ruled me like a huge copper moon with its phases until I could partially, break free.” Piercy is describing how Janis’ music and lyrics touched on a very particular idea or circumstance in her mind, which is that all women must suffer, especially at the hands of men and relationships. Piercy vividly describes the soulful raspy sound of Janis’ voice when she writes “Your voice would grate right on the marrow-filled bone that cooks up that rich stew of masochism where we swim.” The poem blatantly states what was earlier implied when it says “Woman is born to suffer, mistreated and cheated.” This statement is a radical one, but is a very prevalent theme in Janis’ music (Willet 8). Although Janis Joplin’s lyrics perhaps did not directly state these pessimistic circumstances, her voice, lyrics and the cadences of the music all expressed the depths of her soul in a way that let the listener know everything contained within (Willet 12) (Piercy 39).

The circumstance of women described in the first stanza is beautifully summed up by the lines “Never do we feel so alive, so in character as when we’re walking the floor with the all-night blues.” The tone of these lines is subtly sarcastic, because of the words “so in character.” These words help to bring about the inevitability of women having to suffer. Piercy again demonstrates her keen ability to relate to the bleeding suffering hearts of women everywhere when she describes the effect of the absence of a man can have on a woman by writing, “When some man not being there who’s better gone becomes a lack that swells up to a gaseous balloon and flattens from us all thinking and sensing and purpose.” This line is very identifiable, as most women can relate to pain and heartache brought on by the absence of a man that they care about, even if he is not good for them anyway. The “lack” of this man is difficult to deal with, and the essence of the lack acts as a constant pain that the woman is reminded of, even when it “flattens,” and the pain should be gone, but is only in a different, less immediate form. This stanza deeply and strongly depicts the hardship women often face, due to men. Piercy not only accurately and uniquely describes Janis’ music and the way it relates to relationships and the suffering of women, but she also describes the struggle of women in a way that is undeniably true, even for somebody who has never listened to Janis Joplin music (Payant 79) (Piercy 39).

In the second stanza of “Burying blues for Janis,” Piercy continues on with the theme of women being brought down by men, but she describes more about the necessary sacrifice which women are subjected to. This stanza ties together all of the related but not necessarily cohesive parts of the first stanza, and it also unquestionably reveals the main theme and Piercy’s main conclusion about Janis and her music. The very first line refers to Janis’ music as “the downtrodden, juicy longdrawn female blues,” which is powerful and also surprising, because it ties together the entire first stanza to form a bold conclusion about what Janis’ music does. For Piercy to describe her music as “downtrodden” is audacious and unprecedented as most audiences and listeners undoubtedly saw Janis as strong and confident; however, through the lyrics and sounds of her music, there is a certain theme of “downtrodden blues” (Willet 22). Piercy also writes that Janis’ life was fuel for her powerful music, which adds to the depth of feeling in her music, as it is confessional and personal (Willet 15). The theme of Janis’ sacrifice becomes especially evident when Piercy writes, “You embodied that good done-in mama who gives and gives like a fountain of boozy chicken soup to a rat race of men.” This line is crucial to the overall theme of the poem, as it portrays the way that Janis sacrificed herself. She “[gave] and [gave]” to men, like a “done-in” mother; the words done-in portray her as used by men and as tired and as having little left of herself to give. The line “like a fountain of boozy chicken soup” represents the way in which she sacrifices herself; it is not in a wholesome way which allows her to reap happiness from it as well (Willet 25). The word “boozy” indicates that she is giving part of herself away in a way that is fickle and unhealthy, a way that will ultimately lead to no happiness or personal fulfillment (Piercy 39).

Another section which describes this sacrifice and is very crucial in understanding this poem is, “You embodied the beautiful blowzy gum of passivity, woman on her back to the world endlessly hopelessly raggedly offering a brave front to be fucked.” Much of Janis Joplin’s and Joni Mitchell’s music deal with this circumstance; this describes Janis as willing to do anything to be loved, even to the extent of offering up herself to men who will not treat her with care. These lines are where the distinction is made between Janis’ raggedness as being a form of rebellion and her raggedness being a form of courage and a result of sacrificing herself. The final lines of the poem are the most raw and descriptive in their portrayal of Janis’ music and the inherent sacrifice when they say “That willingness to hang on the meathook and call it love, that need for loving like a screaming hollow in the soul, that’s the drug that hangs us and drags us down deadly as the icy sleet of skag that froze your blood.” Janis’ music touches a lot on the “willingness to hang on the meathook and call it love” in many different ways, but all sharing the common theme.

It is evident that the theme through much of Janis Joplin’s music is about how relationships bring women down through the way that the need for loving “like a screaming hollow in the soul” drags people down. Piercy then makes a comparison between the need for love being “the drug that hangs us and drags us down” and “the icy sleet of skag that froze [Janis’] blood,” which shows that she is attributing Janis’ death partly to her own self sacrifice and her “need for love” and “willingness to hang on the meathook.” Here Piercy implies that Janis’ sacrifice, which was well-intentioned and merely to serve her need for love, is what ultimately led to her death. The poem also implies that all women are subjected to such necessary sacrifice in order to be loved by men and that Janis Joplin is merely representative of this sad truth (Piercy 39). Much of the music of Janis Joplin and Joni Mitchell deals with the ways in which women are dragged down by relationships and how they sacrifice themselves.

Janis Joplin has a unique and powerful way of making an audience of listeners feel her pain through her music and feel everything that she is saying as if they were experiencing it themselves. Therefore, it is easy to hear her music and feel personally connected and to identify with the words that she sings (Friedman 72). When Janis sings about relationships, the intensity of emotion is very evident, and the feelings of being “done-in” and of giving more and more of herself away, are very evident as well (Willet 25). The song “Piece of My Heart” is about how her relationship with a man brings her down and about how she sacrifices her own happiness in the relationship. Especially evident from the poem “Burying the blues for Janis” in the song “Piece of My Heart” is the fact that “Woman is born to suffer, mistreated and cheated,” and also the circumstance of “woman on her back to the world endlessly hopelessly raggedly offering a brave front to be fucked.” The song starts off with Janis asking the question “Didn’t I give you nearly everything that a woman possibly can?” (Janis Joplin). This shows that she feels that while she gave everything possible, that he is still dissatisfied with her. The chorus of this song is very confessional, and gets at the main point of the song, when Janis sings “Take another little piece of my heart now, baby/ Break another little piece of my heart now darling” (Janis Joplin). From the way Janis sings these words, the listener can tell the depth of her feelings regarding the words she sings, and the lyrics show that she feels like a man is taking part of herself, and it is breaking her heart. This song is particularly about Janis’ feelings of emotional and mental suffering and of being mistreated, which is particularly made clear when she sings “And each time I tell myself that I, well I can’t stand the pain, But when you hold me in your arms, I’ll sing it once again” (Janis Joplin). These lyrics show Janis’ frustrations with her inability to let the relationship go, even though she knows it is not good for her, which leads back to the “rich stew of masochism where we swim” that Piercy wrote about (Willet 70). Janis’ lyrics often refer indirectly to her masochism or her self-destruction, which were often in the form of drugs and emotionally abusive or sacrificial relationships, which were problems that were perpetuated by men (Friedman 38).

The lyrics of “The Last Time” by Janis Joplin also show a form of sacrifice and of hardship faced by Janis in a similar way, which is that of a man who is fickle and does not keep his word to her, yet she “gives and gives like a fountain of boozy chicken soup.” The song begins with Janis’ raspy, soulful voice pleading “Make it the last time, make it the last time” and the listener can already relate to her pleading, desperate voice. The lyrics of this song describe how Janis sacrifices her own happiness in order to love this man, whose love is inconsistent and only leaves her unhappy and unfulfilled in the end. The lyrics:

“And every time you leave I make the very same vow

That when you come back I ain’t gonna love you no how.

But when you return you look so fine to me

I can’t stand no more, my darling, it’s just got to be” (Janis Joplin)

and the way in which she sings them tell the reader of the way in which this relationship leaves her feeling down and feeling taken advantage of (Janis Joplin). It is apparent through the lyrics that Janis wants to stop herself from loving this man, and that he takes advantage of her weakness and of her love for him, in a way that causes her to sacrifice her own feelings. This song ends with Janis displaying her sensitivity and vulnerability when she sings “Hold on to my heart, I’ll believe it till you’re leaving, Then I’ll cry, yeah” (Janis Joplin). When juxtaposed with the image most people have of the kind of musician Janis Joplin was, which is one who represents strength, hardness, and rebellion, these lyrics cause people to see her in a totally different light, especially due to the emotion and pain in her voice as she sings them (Willet 72). As “Burying blues for Janis” describes, Janis Joplin sings about her own personal suffering about sacrificing at the hands of relationships and men, and she is a voice of the suffering of women in relationships, in general.

Joni Mitchell is another female musician around Janis Joplin’s time who sings about personal sacrifice in relationships and the suffering women must endure. While Joni Mitchell’s style is different, many of her overall themes are very similar to those of Janis Joplin. Joni’s song “I Had A King” describes in a very insightful and metaphorical way, how her marriage to a man she did not love caused her to sacrifice much of herself for a time (Joni Mitchell). The lyrics of this song that are most directly related to the sacrifice in the relationship are:

“I had a king in a salt-rusted carriage

Who carried me off to his country for marriage too soon

Beware of the power of moons

There’s no one to blame

No there’s no one to name as a traitor here” (jonimitchell.com)

This song, with Joni’s soft yet powerful and haunting voice and vividly metaphorical lyrics, describes her sacrifice involved in marrying a man too young, and how she feels that she sacrificed her happiness and a part of her youth. However, the lines “Beware of the power of moons, There’s no one to blame, No there’s no one to name as the traitor here,” demonstrate that while she feels she sacrificed herself, she does not blame the man. She attributes the suffering and the mistake that she made to “the power of moons” and believes that there was no deliberate betrayal (Joni Mitchell). Yet her feeling of having sacrificed herself is very apparent in the sound and lyrics of the song. It is also apparent through the lyrics

“I had a king dressed in drip-dry and paisley

Lately he’s taken to saying I’m crazy and blind

He lives in another time

Ladies in gingham still blush

While he sings them of wars and wine

But I in my leather and lace

I can never become that kind.”

This verse shows that Joni feels that this man is from “another time” and that he does not understand her. This is evident through the fact that he calls her “crazy and blind.” Throughout this song, Joni does not blame the man for her circumstance, yet she still feels somehow violated and taken advantage of, likely by the pressures of society to be married, which pushes her into marrying the wrong man (Joni Mitchell). However, the end of this verse, while very sad and full of raw emotion, can also be seen as hopeful since Joni acknowledges that she has married the wrong man and concludes “But I in my leather and lace, I can never become that kind.” While the listener can identify with her sadness regarding having sold herself out for a time, it is clear that she will change her circumstances, particularly in the upcoming chorus: “I can’t go back there anymore,You know my keys won’t fit the door,You know my thoughts don’t fit the man, They never can they never can.” The song ends with repetition of the phrase “They never can,” which she ends by singing very low and full of power. This represents a contrast between the music of Joni and of Janis. While Joni ends the song on a hopeful note, saying that she will not go back to her sacrificial circumstances, Janis ends many of her songs pleading with men, or singing the blues.

Another song by Joni Mitchell which tells of a woman sacrificing herself in a romantic relationship, which Joni uses to represent her own personal circumstance, is The Gallery. This song is about being with a man who does not return to her all of the love which she gives him, and is possibly unfaithful. The fact that this man does not treat Joni as well as she treats him is portrayed by the lines “I keep your house in fit repair, I dust the portraits daily, Your mail comes here from everywhere,The writing looks like ladies.'” These lines show that while Joni tries to make keep this man happy in every way that she can, she suspects that he is being disloyal with her. However, this man pleads “Lady, please love me now, I am dead. I am a saint, turn down your bed,” and she is caught in the endless cycle of sacrifice and suffering. The song goes onto to say how Joni sacrificed many of her good years for his sake through the lyrics “I gave you all my pretty years, Then we began to weather. And I was left to winter here, While you went west for pleasure.” These lines embody the essence of this entire song, which is that of a woman who sacrifices herself for a man who she cares about, while he does not care for her nearly as much, and he does everything selfishly in order to please himself. The fact that this man left her after she gave him her “pretty years” and went to find pleasure through other women with no regard for her shows the incredible degree of sacrifice which was present in the relationship. This song connects back to “that willingness to hang on the meathook and call it love” that Piercy wrote about. It demonstrates how women in romantic relationships, much like Joni in this song, will often give up everything because of their need for loving, “like a screaming hollow in the soul.”

Janis Joplin and Joni Mitchell are different in their approaches and in their musical style, but they both write about the suffering they have endured and the sacrifices they have made in relationships with men. Janis’ style is more rough and more ragged and more closely embodies the “great-hearted suffering bitch fantasy” that Piercy refers to in “Burying Blues for Janis,” while Joni is more metaphorical and subtle, in terms of both her lyrics and her voice. While it is Janis’ voice that tends more to “grate” on the bone, and she is more likely to perform in a way that more immediately comes across as the “downtrodden juicy longdrawn female blues,” both women’s music shows that women “are trained to that hothouse of exploitation” and both women embody a “woman on her back to the world endlessly hopelessly raggedly offering a brave front to be fucked,” and the need for loving “hangs” and “drags” them both down (Piercy 39). Their voices and lyrical choice and even musical genre are all vastly different, but the ways in which the two women portray their relationships with men share many similarities. Both musicians depict their relationships with a great deal of suffering and sacrifice.

In conclusion, while Joni Mitchell and Janis Joplin have very different music, there is a common theme that ties their music together. It is the theme that Marge piercy writes about in “Burying Blues for Janis”, which is self-sacrifice. As suggested by the words of the poem, Janis Joplin- and Joni Mitchell as well- are confessional musicians who express themselves and the greatest depth of their feelings through their music. Both of these women are strong and distinct voices who serve as accounts of sacrificial relationships which men subject women to. Through the writing of Marge Piercy, it is clear that Janis Joplin and Joni Mitchell are testaments to the suffering and sacrifice they had had to face in their own personal relationships, and also to the condition of women in the late 60’s and early 70’s.

Works Cited

Friedman, Myra. Buried Alive: the Biography of Janis Joplin. New York: Harmony, 1992. Print.

Hedley, Jane. I Made You to Find Me: the Coming of Age of the Woman Poet and the Politics of Poetic Address. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2009. Print.

“Janis Joplin Lyrics, Photos, Pictures, Paroles, Letras, Text for Every Songs.” LYRICS – Always On The Run – Artists and Songs Daily Update since 1995 ! Web. 22 Dec. 2010. .

“Janis Joplin Lyrics, Photos, Pictures, Paroles, Letras, Text for Every Songs.” LYRICS – Always On The Run – Artists and Songs Daily Update since 1995 ! Web. 22 Dec. 2010. .

Joni Mitchell: Woman of Heart and Mind. Dvd.

The Official Website of Joni Mitchell. Web. 22 Dec. 2010. .

Payant, Katherine B. Becoming and Bonding: Contemporary Feminism and Popular Fiction by American Women Writers. Westport, Conn. U.a.: Greenwood, 1993. Print.

Willett, Edward. Janis Joplin: Take Another Little Piece of My Heart. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2008. Print.

An Analysis of The Secretary Chant by Marge Piercy

The poem “The Secretary Chant,” by Marge Piercy, holds many characteristics that are meant to pull the reader in. As with any poem, the words mean more than they appear to. Each line is written with a purpose. Every word has significance and without it, the poem would not come across the same. “My hips are a desk.” The first line of the poem acts as a tone setting for the whole poem. She is starting off by personifying a desk as her hips. This metaphor is crucial to the rest of the poem. When you think of a desk, what is it that you think of? Often it is a station for working. It is the place where all supplies are laid out and all work is to be done. She says that her hips are a desk because they are a foundation for her body. The poem is filled with metaphors comparing body parts to office supplies. The meaning of this poem is to show a transformation from woman to a walking work machine. She feels as though she does everything, she is the foundation to all workers in the perceived office setting.“From my ears hang chains of paper clips. Rubber bands form my hair.” These two lines have multiple meanings. An obvious meaning for these phrases is that she is the place where everyone goes to obtain their office supplies. There is a deeper meaning to these sentences. Paper clips and rubber bands hold what uses? They are made to hold things together. By saying that she is made up of these two objects is implying that a secretary is the glue that holds the whole office together. Without her, the rest of the office is simply some scattered paper or objects.There are four onomatopoeias in this poem: buzz, click, zing, tinkle. These words are very important to the poem. With these words, Piercy is able to add to the effect that she is creating with the rest of the personification of office supplies. These words are grouped in pairs on the seventh and fourteenth lines of the poem. The placements of the words alone create a certain feeling. It is as if the sounds are interrupting the poem, creating a more mechanical feel to the poem.Piercy goes on to describe her head in two different ways. The first is a comparison of her head to a badly organized file. This is stated because a secretary has many different things to keep track of. Piercy then writes, “My head is a switchboard where crossed lines crackle.” A secretary in an office setting most likely has more than one person that she has to keep organized. When she says that crossed lines crackle, she is saying that she may often confuse certain information.After the second set of onomatopoeias, Piercy goes on to say, “Swollen, heavy, rectangular I am about to be delivered of a baby Xerox machine.” This is included in the poem to add to the depressing feel of unimportance. What Piercy meant by this is how she feels that women may never amount to anything more than a secretary. She says that she is delivering a Xerox machine, means that her offspring is going to end up doing exactly as she did. Also, she uses the term Xerox because all a Xerox machine was used for was making copies. This is ironic because she is making an exact copy of herself, just as a Xerox machine would do. The overall meaning of this poem can be found in the last line. “File me under W because I once was a woman.” It was written to show the reader a transformation that women in the workplace go through. Piercy wrote this to express her feelings. She feels as though her job has over taken her existence as a person. Back in 1973 when she wrote the poem, women were still struggling for equality to men. The ending phrase helps bring the message across that it was still a workplace dominated by men because she ended up not being seen as a woman. The poem has both a literal meaning and an underlying message. She feels as though women are not seen as equal in the work place and she uses metaphors and personification to help bring her points across. The onomatopoeias break up the body of the poem and the effect makes the poem seem even gloomier.