“A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner and “Hills Like White Elephants” by Ernest Hemingway

The short story ‘A Rose for Emily’ by William Faulkner and ‘Hills Like White Elephants’ by Ernest Hemingway are not comparable when it comes to the plots of the stories, but both stories have many similarities. Both stories have women characters with tragic occurrences. The women, Emily from ‘A Rose for Emily’ and Jig from ‘Hills Like White Elephants’ consume leading roles and have or had the strong influence of a dominant male, which sculpted their life. Emily and Jig are also isolated, Emily who isolates herself from her community and Jig who feels isolated by ‘The American’s’ feelings towards her pregnancy.

Both stories also deal with murder, although not in the same since. In ‘Hills Like White Elephants’ Jig is having a conversation with the American about having an abortion, and in ‘A Rose for Emily’ Emily murders her lover Homer. These two stories situations could not be more different; however, the tragedies are equally frightening. The tragedies in ‘A Rose for Emily’ come down to the fact that Miss Emily Grierson lived a life of turmoil.

Her whole life could be described in loneliness and death. Emily is confined to her home by self-imprisonment after what some may call a blind devotion to her father, her lover and her home. Emily’s childhood was dominated by a controlling father. Her upbringing was severely oppressed, and she was unable to socialize as a young woman. Her father felt her to be too good for any of the local men and made sure that she was under constant supervision to avoid her from seeing anyone.

Which may have lead to Emily’s mental health. Her neighbors disregard toward her inability to let go of her father after his death, despite the delicacy of her being, caused for her madness to fester. ‘She told them her father was not dead. For three days she did this, ‘We did not say she was crazy then. We believed she had to do that.’ (Faulkner.311). Their negligence of all the warning signs; even after her lover vanished, the deterioration of her home, and Miss Emily’s inability to accept reality serves as the most prevailing form of repression in this story. Emily then started seeing a man named Homer. But the community of Jefferson being extremely judgmental, believed that she was forgetting her ‘noblesse oblige’ and accused her of setting a bad example for the younger generation. These harsh words from the town people and unwillingness to accept their relationship, which may have influenced Homers decision to leave Jefferson, may be one reason that Emily killed her lover, Homer. Leading Emily to live in solitude for thirty years until her death.

In the story ‘Hills Like White Elephants’ the tragedy is the conversation that Jig and the American are having. They are sitting at a train station in Spain, as the American attempts to talk Jig into getting an abortion. ‘The American’ says, ‘That’s the only thing that bothers us. It’s the only thing that’s made us unhappy.” (Hemingway 115) which unequivocally shows that the center of conflict inside of their relationship is the presumed pregnancy. Jig is faced with the choice of her freedom or taking the responsibility of becoming a mother. Choosing her freedom would be the death of the unborn child but choosing motherhood would be the death of everything she loves in her life at that moment.

As the American is doing his best to make her see his side of things without an open mind. Although he does state that he won’t force her to have the operation but believes that it would be best for them. Thus, making this even harder on Jig. She wonders if they could really be happy if she does have the operation. They continue to have the conversation/ argue until Jig gets tired and makes the American promise to stop talking. These two stories are completely different but have many similarities.

The difference is that Emily reflects this personality issue through grieve, hostility and violence and Jig does so in a happily manner, she’s much more open about it and almost seems careless. Together they both have some male companion whether it would be a more convincing man who wants Jig to have an abortion or in Emily case the dead Homer who she keeps as a pet.

Analysis Of Hemingway’s Hills Like White Elephants

In Ernest Hemingway Hills Like White Elephants, the author reveals a state of depression and oppression setting. He emphasizes on how an American girl and Spanish speaking man are using alcohol to avoid having a real conversation about an operation, later understood to be an abortion, and her decision will eventually dictate the status of their relationship. Having the male translate shows the role or power dynamics in their relationship; showing there little in common interest and the language limitations being presented which is a key theme.

The relationship is categorized by that of silence, beer pounding, and very little small talk. Following a moment of silence while awaiting their services the girl mentions how the hills resembles that of a white elephant; this emphasizes the awkward elephant in which they have going on between the two of them. Hinting at the landscape being fertile and barren suggests that there is or was a pregnancy. Avoidance of the sun glare to me seems as if the couple is hiding in the shade to avoid the truth about the ongoing truths. Attempting to face some of the problem, he conversation turns quickly into a match of bickering at one another.

Dominance is present as the man takes control over the decisions being made in this scene. Hemingway writes the saying Do you want it with water? but, before she even came to an answer on her own the guy answered for them both telling the woman that they would have water to complement their drinks (Mays 635). She asks him for advice and suggestions for the next drink as they continue to show lack of communication.
The girl continues to try and make small talk and mentions how the drink reminds her of a licorice taste, as well as everything else. The guy snaps; showing signs of annoyance. The girl indicates that she was just trying to have a fine time (Hemingway, 1927) attempting to keep some sort of normalcy and leisure between the two. The female seems to be skeptical that happiness could ever exist because he refuses to open up about the problems in which they face.

The man makes the moment intimate by referring to the girl by Jig which is a nickname. He then talks about an operation which is clear through reading that it is a euphemism for an abortion and how itr’s not really a big deal even though they were illegal in their time. Later, he goes on to persuading her that she should go through with the operation but, attempts to make her feel better by saying she doesnt have to if she doesnt want to. He is well aware that the girl does not share the same feeling he does as she shows skepticism towards the conversation. The story implies that if she goes through with it then their lives can go back to what they were prior. Sinister and subtle domination is present here because he allows feelings into the conversation to be able to play on the girl emotion indicating everything will be okay.

Hemingwayr’s play on description from Jigr’s point of view reveals her feeling about the pregnancy (full of life unlike before). There are mentions of fertile hills, full trees, etc , as she see the possibility of what their life have the potential to be like. He ensures her that they can have those things even if she goes through with the operation. He sees it as a less important factor and that life will continue to be okay. In this particular moment, the scene shows more value and importance than the characters words themselves.

The theme has managed to remain the same involving: choice, relationship, and freedom throughout the story. However, the male attempts to sympathize with her. His attempt is to play on emotion saying how he only wants to be with her but, at the same time wanting her to abort their child so, they could remain free of responsibility. The author displays the man ability in attempting to dominate the womanr’s opinion but she then questioned the stability of their relationship.

Coming to a closing, the man carries the luggage over to wait for their train: the luggage symbolizing the weight and the burden the man feels is on his shoulders with such big decision to be made. He grabbed another drink as he analyzed his nsurroundings noticing that everything seem to be normal except him. Returning to the girl, they manage to try and keep up with the normality of their lives and once again manging to smother true feelings and emotion.

It is obvious that a decision was not made and because of the disagreement between the two, their relationship remains in shambles from holding back honesty and true emotion about a life changing moment.

My Impressions From Hills Like White Elephants

Hills Like White Elephants, by Ernest Hemingway, is a short story that takes place in a train station surrounded by hills, fields, and trees in a valley in Spain. In this story, therer’s a young couple, a girl named Jig and an American man. They are dealing with the debate of an abortion.

Although the relationship between the two is unsure of and they arent married, yet they have continued a relationship which resulted in Jig becoming pregnant. It seems that the couple are travelers who stop in different cities before moving onto the next. However, to the reader, their relationship could play out as being shallow. They have a conversation which gives hints of many clues about them and their relationship. Based on the story, we get a sense of what the characters are like, through what they say, and also through the things they don’t say.

First, in the story, we understand that the American man has money and he is an adult because he seems to know what he is doing and doesn’t want to have a child. Therefore, he is asking his girlfriend to risk her life by having an abortion. The death rate for the surgery was higher than its survival rate at the time, so that made him seem very selfish. Throughout the story it seems as if he doesn’t care about her, despite the fact that he says well, I care about you. (Hemingway, 255), yet, he doesnt even listen to her. When she speaks to him, he says unrelated things back. We can assume that he likes to go drinking and doesnt care because he wants to get her drunk, which could possibly lead to a miscarriage. Also, from his comment Ive known lots of people that have done it, (Hemingway, 255) we can assume that her’s been in this situation before in many relationships with other teenage girls, and her’s comfortable with what her’s asking for.

Secondly, the woman who is called Jig in the story, barely has an identity. Therer’s no absolute answer to know where she is from or if she has a family around. We can tell that she is a teenager depending on a careless man, who she think she is deeply in love with. Although, itr’s clear from her words, and if I do it youll be happy and things will be like they were and youll love me? (Hemingway, 255), that she is lonely and a desperate girl whor’s still searching for love and happiness. Although, she knows she will never have it. Thatr’s why itr’s obvious from her reply, I dont care about me, (Hemingway, 255), that she is depressed, and even ready to give up by agreeing to the abortion.

However, the word abortion isnt found in the story. It is understood by the use of Hemingway’s choice of literacy elements, which were setting and imagery/symbolism. The entire focus of this story is Jig being pregnant, and the topic of abortion being brought up throughout the different scenes and images Hemingway introduces. Hemingway’s purpose in creating the character of Jig was probably reflective on his feelings on abortion to an extent. However, it can also seem like a look at human nature, about how we go against ourselves and do something undesired just to please someone else. The man known as, “The American”, is the only logical antagonist in the story. Hemingway’s portrayal of him is not good at all versus his portrayal of Jig. He comes off as being insensitive to Jig’s feelings, despite his kind words. As the reader, different opinions that Hemingway portrayed the man as, leads us to believe that he is someone who is putting his own needs first. He didnt even get a proper first name in the story, while Jig does.

From the first paragraph, the setting immediately introduces the tense atmosphere that will reflect the rest of the story. The story takes place in Spain and although the time period is never stated, it can be assumed to be around 1927. The first use of imagery is in Hemingway’s introduction of the setting of the story, “The hills across the valley of the Ebro were long and white. On this side there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two lines of rails in the sun. The American and the girl with him sat at a table in the shade, outside the building. It was very hot and the express from Barcelona would come in forty minutes. It stopped at this junction for two minutes and went to Madrid.” Just like the two rail lines that passed by the station, there were only two choices and two directions in which the couple had to decide as they seemed to be in the middle of making a desperate decision. She seemed to care highly about the man, to the point where she as a character, is torn between two decisions. The landscapes and surroundings of the station play a fundamental role in the story through its broad symbolism. When the girl sees the long and white hills she says that they “look like white elephants”. A white elephant is a metaphor for an expensive possession that is a financial burden to maintain. It comes to the conclusion that the color white symbolizes the purity and innocence of her child that is not born yet.

She also thinks highly of the rest of the scenery, “The girl stood up and walked to the end of the station. Across, on the other side, were fields of grain and trees along the bank of the Ebro. Far away, beyond the river, were mountains. The shadow of a cloud moved across the field of grain and she saw the river through the trees” It seems that the fields of grains and trees represent fertility and fruitfulness. The Ebro River could also represent life, as it develops the fields. As the girl appreciates the scenery and it’s “connection” to her unborn child the “shadow of a cloud,” which represents the thought of the abortion, overcomes her happiness. The man is obviously in favor of the abortion, as everything he says is persuading her into it. “It’s really an awfully simple operation, Jig.” he said. “It’s not really an operation at all, (Hemingway, 255). “I’ll go with you and I’ll stay with you all the time. They just let the air in and then it’s all perfectly natural (Hemingway, 255). As Jig thinks about her point of view, she looks at the dry side of the valley, which is infertile and unproductive, which could symbolize her body after the abortion. The man and woman argue and soon stop when she says, “Would you please please please please please please please please stop talking? (Hemingway, 257). He said nothing, but looked at the bags against the wall at the train station. There were labels on them from all of the hotels the two had spent their long nights at.

The American apparently wants this abortion because he is not mentally ready for a child and he wants to still live his life as carefree as possible until he actually decides itr’s time to grow up. Itr’s safe to say that he doesnt want to give up the lifestyle her’s now living. His uplifting spirit is shown through the bags with all the hotel labels on them. He realizes that he would have to settle down and be ready to raise a baby along with having a healthy relationship, which would mean putting an end to seeing the fun-world and going out drinking. Their lifestyle would not be possible with a baby, or at least it would be difficult during this time, with their state of mind.. Therefore, the man thinks an abortion is the best solution. This is very much clear due to his general affirmations of an abortion or operation being an “easy” and “simple” process, and that things will be as they were after it is carried out. His comments of “I don’t want anyone but you” and “I don’t want anyone else” illustrate his desire to keep their relationship at it is by not introducing a child into their life. Jig has obvious doubts, but she goes along with it for the sake of continuing their lifestyle that they are accustomed too.

As the story ends with the couple expecting their train’s arrival, there is no decision addressed regarding the abortion. Hemingway’s combination of the two literacy elements, setting and imagery helps him provide the reader with plenty details in each sentence. Itr’s seems like Hemingway intentionally wanted to leave off in a matter that the readers could come to an conclusion of what will go on next.

“Hills Like White Elephants” by Ernest Hemingway was by far one of the best stories that I enjoyed reading. Looking beyond the text in this story required critical thinking that was quite interesting. The use of images throughout the story reflects on the couple’s situation in every aspect. The author employs images that required the reader to think beyond the text and realize what some young couples went through in the 1920’s. Although the couple’s relationship played out as being shallow throughout the story, I feel that the abortion did take place because of his selfish and immature mindset. SInce he wants to live his best life at the moment, Jig will most likely want to join him and do what pleases him.

Works Cited Page

  1. The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. Google Books, books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=JRlpDQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT50&dq=The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Hemingway Library Edition&ots=1QBp0dLzh2&sig=mA5l4JylQY6GYveGMpMiq84taQg#v=onepage&q=The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Hemingway Library Edition&f=false.
  2. Hills Like White Elephants – Literary Analysis | Machetemag | Customer Experience, Culture, Strategy. Machetemag, 4 Feb. 2015, www.machetemag.com/literary-analysis/hills-like-white-elephants-literary-analysis/.
  3. Hashmi, Nilofer. ?Hills Like White Elephants: The Jilting of Jig. The Hemingway Review, The Hemingway Foundation and Society, 9 Mar. 2004, muse.jhu.edu/article/52914.
  4. Hemmingway’s Hills Like White Elephants Literature Review. Anthony Moschella III, 18 Apr. 2013, anthonymoschella.wordpress.com/essays/hills/.

Gender And Communication In Hemingwayr’s Story

In Ernest Hemingwayr’s short story, Hills Like White Elephants, Jig and her American boyfriend arent exactly the picture of a happy couple. Though sitting at a train station in Spain, enjoying the beautiful scenery and some cool drinks, the pair struggles to connect. While at first,it seems the American is simply disinterested by his partnerr’s idle chattering, the reader soon comes to realize that they are really avoiding a topic which is difficult for both of them to discuss.

Having found that Jig is pregnant, she and the American are discussing the possibility of having an abortion, though because neither of them is willing to clearly state what he or she wants, the conversation is going nowhere and the tension that has been placed on their relationship persists. Because the man and girl, in stereotypical fashion, both function differently and expect different outcomes in the conversation, their gender-linked miscommunication only contributes to an uncomfortable situation and delays an agreement.

In her exploration of the short story, Pamela Smiley focuses solely on the way both men and women generally communicate. She acknowledges the inefficiency of the circular noncommunication of strong gender-linked language difference (Smiley). As is often the case with women in conversation, Jig uses imprecise language, more focused on pleasing her listener than on the actual content sher’s relaying. Conversely, the American chooses his responses strictly for their cognitive contribution, careful to betray no emotion and to be as straight-forward as possible (Smiley). Smiley makes an assertion that supports both of these observations, explaining that feminine language tends to be relationship-oriented while masculine is goal-oriented. This is very important to understand when studying the exchange between Jig and the American at the train station.

Jig, feeling the discomfort of her partner, is trying to take his mind off the situation by pointing out other things”the scenery, reminding him of experiences theyd shared like the trying of new drinks”but to him,she is childishly refusing to address the issue before them: her pregnancy. For example, when she points out that the hills look like white elephants, she is trying to draw him into a conversation, because to Jig, being engaged in conversation with him in a meaningful way will lessen her feelings of emotional separation. But the American instantly shuts down her attempts by simply replying, Ive never seen one, refusing to humor her with his conversation and igniting instead the somewhat jaded response: No, you wouldnt have (Anstendig and Hicks). Still, a reader must understand that, when judged by stereotypical male standards of conversation, as she is by the American, Jig seems to be, flighty, trivial, and differential (Smiley). While the American wants a decision made so that the couple can be fine afterward, just like [they] were before (Anstendig and Hicks), she keeps attempting to draw his attention elsewhere is avoidance of what is unpleasant.

But Jig is not the only one who refuses to be frank about the decision that lies before them. Even when he succeeds in turning the conversation to the subject of the abortion, he never calls sit by its true name. Itr’s really a simple operation Itr’s not really an operation at all Itr’s just to let the air in (Anstendig and Hicks), he says of what was, certainly at that time, a risky and invasive procedure. The euphemisms we choose to use tell us something about our values, and they tell us about what makes us uncomfortable (Silver), says Author Ralph Keyes in an interview about his book, Euphemania: Our Love Affair with Euphemisms. In the Americanr’s case, the fact that he refuses to come out and say what the operation really is may just indicate that he is prepared for an aversive reaction on Jigr’s part. But it may also indicate that he isnt as sure about the process as he wants her to believe.

[Those who use these] incredible amounts of jargon try to deflect us ” and maybe even themselves ” about what they’re doing (Silver), so perhaps the American feels some semblance of guilt about potentially bullying his partner into the decision he wants her to make. Perhaps he realizes that his insistence on their relationship instantly resuming where they left off before the pregnancy is, in fact, impossible. Keyes could agree that any good counselor might say this couple has, unfinished business, issues which are only being aggravated when brought to the surface by such undeniab

le circumstances. The American relies on the euphemism, letting the air in, to reduce tension, as a representation of a flight to comfort (Keyes). Still, at least they are talking about it, which is what he continually pushes for. Whoever controls the conversation has the power, and the American shifts power back to himself by ignoring Jigr’s attempts at banter. Through his need to control the conversation, perhaps the assumption could be made that he is also grasping for control of their relationship because he feels trapped by her pregnancy (Smiley).

Presumably unable to understand Spanish, Jig asks the American what the beaded curtain near them reads, giving him a chance to flaunt his knowledge, probably hoping that doing so will soothe his ego and allow them to forget the unpleasantness he seems determined to discuss. When things get strained, maintaining the relationship becomes her responsibility, requiring that she accommodate his communication style (Fulbright). And clearly,she does this by appealing to his sense of dominance in their relationship. Many of Jigr’s statements are followed by questions like, wasnt that bright?, and isnt it? (Anstendig and Hicks) These are tag-end questions, attempts to pull him into the conversation and entice him to engage. But her dependence on him to know the language may make him feel that sher’s too dependent on him,in general,may remind him of the pregnancy, and her questions come across as clingy and insecure. She constantly seeks an answer as to what he wants, to which he responds with what he thinks, and while his short, dismissive answers force her to make her own decisions, to her they come across as insensitive (Smiley).

But just as they are both guilty of talking around the topic at hand and for failing to understand the otherr’s conversational needs, Jig inadvertently hurts her partner just as he does her. Thatr’s all we do, isnt it”look at things and try new drinks? she asks, to which he replies that he guesses so (Anstendig and Hicks). But if men measure intimacy through actions rather than conversation, her reducing their time together to only trying new drinks and looking at things must feel like a dismissal to him, somehow unappreciative of the time theyve spent together. And he does try to make amends, reaching out to her in his own way by offering to stay with her during the procedure. Once again, if shared activity equals intimacy, then his offer to stay with Jig during the abortion is a gesture of love (Smiley). And while he does make her vague promises that come across as insincere”itr’s perfectly simple, I dont want anyone else, I love you now but I just cant think about it, I wont worry (Anstendig and Hicks) all this he says to console her, not meant to convey any real emotion because to a man that can only be demonstrated through action (Smiley), and he has already offered to attend the appointment with her.

Smiley reports on research from the 1970r’s which concluded that men and women often struggle to communicate because they speak different languages, women trying to connect emotionally and men only wanting to convey specific information. But in an article meant to debunk these claims, Dr. Yvonne K Fulbright cites research which finds that perhaps genders communicate differently only when in opposing conversational roles”differences don’t necessarily appear when males and females are doing the same things or playing same roles (Fulbright). It does seem obvious to the reader that Jig wants the baby”she is more drawn to the scenic, fertile hills, baffled as to why her partner would want to throw away life”and the American wants her to get the abortion so they might shirk responsibility and resume their relationship as it was before. If they were on the same side of the issue, there wouldnt be tension, nor any misunderstanding as they attempt to navigate a grim subject. Fulbright clearly both resents and mocks that men are sized up as inarticulate, aggressive Neanderthals, incapable of feeling emotions and being sensitive while, women are criticized for being overly cooperative and caring doormats. Still, stereotypes become such for a reason, and it doesnt seem as though Hemingway supports those realities as much as he does reveal their lack of success.

In his short story, Hemingway paints a scene of two lovers in a delicate situation, having found that she is pregnant and feeling oppositely drawn on how to handle it. Still, both parties are hesitant to discuss and both seem willing to defer to the other on the actual decision. They are torn between sides of themselves”a double-blind in which both parties vie for two solutions that cant both be achieved (Smiley).

The American does want Jigr’s happiness on some level, but he also wants her to get an abortion to ensure his continued freedom from responsibility. And she is so bent on pleasing him and maintaining their relationship as it was when she was pleased with it, that, at least when the story ends, she agrees to the abortion despite the fact that she clearly wants to keep the baby. Because both of them are torn, even within themselves as far as the decision is concerned, and both want to persuade the other without overtly forcing their solution on the situation, the conversation is a failed attempt at communication, further inhibited by their inability to engage at the emotional level on an issue that is so fueled by emotion. Even in the final lines of the story in which the American asks, do you feel better? it can be seen that he viewed her opinion as a problem and wasnt really listening all along.

Comparison Of Hemingway And Browning’s Novels

The theme of gender is extremely prevalent in both Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway, and My Last Duchess by Robert Browning. In both of these instances, the main characters in both stories revolve around powerful men in one way or another. For the Duke, his world revolves around power; and at this time, power of such royal status could only be obtained by a man.

In Hills Like White Elephants, a couple is debating the possibility of the woman receiving an abortion for an accidental pregnancy. However, throughout the short story, it is very apparent how the manr’s tone changes and affects his girlfriend.

In My Last Duchess, the Duke is extremely sensitive and jealous of the way his late wife paid attention to other people. As a powerful man in charge, he believed that he was the only person, especially the only man, that the Duchess should be able to pay attention to. Thus, when she liked whateer/She looked on, and her looks went everywhere, the Duke was extremely offended, for he was supposed to be the favor at her breast. He found it quite offensive that she interacted and spoke with other men when she was married to a man of such great power and status; that she would never have to speak to someone else. He felt that his gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name should have been taken with pride and gratitude. It disgusted him that she could ever give attention to someone that was not him. He believed that women, especially wives, deserved to be domestically dominated, the same way servants must follow orders; any sign of kindness or joy was a threat to his power as a man.Therefore, after she died, possibly at his doing, he found her very dispensable. Because of his gender, he felt that women were disposable and easily replaced, therefore he would be able to easily find his next duchess.

Similarly, in Hills Like White Elephants, the American Man is sure to make his opinions known about his girlfriendr’s possible abortion. It is quite shocking how he acts and speaks to his girlfriend about such an important and frightening topic, that would change their lives forever. Clearly, the reader is able to tell that the girlfriend is very upset and worried about the possibility of becoming a mother, and rightfully so. However, her boyfriend is very insensitive to her feelings when speaking of the abortion: [The operationr’s] really not anything. Itr’s just to let the air in. The way that he speaks of a life-altering operation is definitely an interesting choice in diction when referring to the abortion his pregnant girlfriend may have to have. I think the way that this man talks to his girlfriend is a clear sign of a man that definitely views himself as the dominant hand in the relationship. He is not nearly as high-strung as the Duke in the previously mentioned story, but I think that their genders definitely play a role. In a situation where the man has no idea what it is like to be pregnant and have to be the one having the abortion, the man has a very strong, ignorant, and somewhat arrogant opinion of what his girlfriend should do.

In both stories, the male characters feel that their opinions and needs are more important than the womenr’s; a classic tale of gender inequalities that have been seen through many years of history and literature.

Communication Theme In Hills Like White Elephants

Ernest Hemingway`s writer of Hills Like White Elephants allows readers to to learn about the communication between two people who both have two different opinions and decisions when it comes to a situation that can change their lives. The short story is about two people, a girl name Jig and a man who doesnt have a so reader just call him man.

An literary device that plays a role in this short story is imagery throughout the stories give the readers a clear understanding of whatr’s going on. In the short story it states, the hills across the valley of the ebro long and white on this side there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two lines of the rails in the sun it stopped at this junction for two minutes and went to madrid In other words Hemingway compared Jig and the man decision to two confuse people . Readers can visualize the Jig and the man sitting at the train station looking confused and frustrated about what they are going to do.

While reading the short story, you can notice that the phrase Like White Elephant occurs several times throughout the short story, which signify that it is important. One can also agree the color white symbolize innocent. Therefore, white elephants, can be uses has a reference to a woman who is expecting a baby. The symbol of the word hill can also be a clue that Jig is pregnant because hills are round and when a person is pregnant their stomach is round.

The story gets more interested when the man tries persuading Jig to have an abortion. He tells Jig that he will be there for her no matter what and he will stay with her throughout the whole process. Jig gets very annoyed and upset and become not interested in holding a conversation with the Man. In the short story it states Jig states , please please please please please please please please stop talking Jig uses repetition to tell the man to stop talking. Her tone sounded has if she was very annoyed and frustrated with the man. Hemingway uses tone to make the reader understand the way Jig is feeling with the situation that she is going through. Both the man and the girl doesnt want to listen to each other point of view or opinion about the situation.

The man lives a carefree lifestyle he wants Jig to Have an abortion, so he can be free and continue is life style. In the short story he told Jig itr’s the only thing thatr’s made us unhappy not only is he trying to make Jig feels bad he always trying to tell her that the baby will bring sadness to both of their lifer’s. the man is showing that he is selfish and irresponsible by showing lack of support when it comes to helping jig if she was supposed to keep the baby.

Over all the story is a very good story to read. Readers have Readers have careful read the story to understand what is taking place. The story is filled with a lot of literary devices. Hills like A White Elephant also has a story that both jig and the man must choose between life or death. Jig wants to keep the baby, but the man doesnt want too.

Crusial Themes In Hills Like White Elephants

Contents

  • 1 Analysis of Hemingway’s Hills Like White Elephants
  • 2 Work Cited:
  • 3 Annotated Biblograhy
  • 4 Writing Process Summation

Analysis of Hemingway’s Hills Like White Elephants

In Ernest Hemingway Hills Like White Elephants, the author reveals a state of depression and oppression setting. He emphasizes on how an American girl and Spanish speaking man are using alcohol to avoid having a real conversation about an operation, later understood to be an abortion, and her decision will eventually dictate the status of their relationship. Having the male translate shows the role or power dynamics in their relationship; showing there little in common interest and the language limitations being presented which is a key theme.

The relationship is categorized by that of silence, beer pounding, and very little small talk. Following a moment of silence while awaiting their services the girl mentions how the hills resembles that of a white elephant; this emphasizes the awkward elephant in which they have going on between the two of them. Hinting at the landscape being fertile and barren suggests that there is or was a pregnancy. Avoidance of the sun glare to me seems as if the couple is hiding in the shade to avoid the truth about the ongoing truths. Attempting to face some of the problem, he conversation turns quickly into a match of bickering at one another.

Dominance is present as the man takes control over the decisions being made in this scene. Hemingway writes the saying Do you want it with water? but, before she even came to an answer on her own the guy answered for them both telling the woman that they would have water to complement their drinks (Mays 635). She asks him for advice and suggestions for the next drink as they continue to show lack of communication.
The girl continues to try and make small talk and mentions how the drink reminds her of a licorice taste, as well as everything else. The guy snaps; showing signs of annoyance. The girl indicates that she was just trying to have a fine time (Hemingway, 1927) attempting to keep some sort of normalcy and leisure between the two. The female seems to be skeptical that happiness could ever exist because he refuses to open up about the problems in which they face.

The man makes the moment intimate by referring to the girl by Jig which is a nickname. He then talks about an operation which is clear through reading that it is a euphemism for an abortion and how itr’s not really a big deal even though they were illegal in their time. Later, he goes on to persuading her that she should go through with the operation but, attempts to make her feel better by saying she doesnt have to if she doesnt want to. He is well aware that the girl does not share the same feeling he does as she shows skepticism towards the conversation. The story implies that if she goes through with it then their lives can go back to what they were prior. Sinister and subtle domination is present here because he allows feelings into the conversation to be able to play on the girl emotion indicating everything will be okay.

Hemingwayr’s play on description from Jigr’s point of view reveals her feeling about the pregnancy (full of life unlike before). There are mentions of fertile hills, full trees, etc , as she see the possibility of what their life have the potential to be like. He ensures her that they can have those things even if she goes through with the operation. He sees it as a less important factor and that life will continue to be okay. In this particular moment, the scene shows more value and importance than the characters words themselves.

The theme has managed to remain the same involving: choice, relationship, and freedom throughout the story. However, the male attempts to sympathize with her. His attempt is to play on emotion saying how he only wants to be with her but, at the same time wanting her to abort their child so, they could remain free of responsibility. The author displays the man ability in attempting to dominate the womanr’s opinion but she then questioned the stability of their relationship.

Coming to a closing, the man carries the luggage over to wait for their train: the luggage symbolizing the weight and the burden the man feels is on his shoulders with such big decision to be made. He grabbed another drink as he analyzed his nsurroundings noticing that everything seem to be normal except him. Returning to the girl, they manage to try and keep up with the normality of their lives and once again manging to smother true feelings and emotion.

It is obvious that a decision was not made and because of the disagreement between the two, their relationship remains in shambles from holding back honesty and true emotion about a life changing moment.

Work Cited:

  1. Hemingway, Ernest. Hills Like White Elephants. The Norton Introduction to Literature, edited by Kelly J. Mays, Shorter 12th ed., Norton, 2016, pp. 635-638.
  2. Kaisler, Max. “Hills Like White Elephants Hills Like White Elephants.” LitCharts. LitCharts LLC, 9 May 2016. Web. 7 Nov 2018.

Annotated Biblograhy

  1. Hemingway, Ernest. Hills Like White Elephants. The Norton Introduction to Literature, edited by Kelly J. Mays, Shorter 12th ed., Norton, 2016, pp. 635-638.(Primary Source)
  2. Kaisler, Max. “Hills Like White Elephants Hills Like White Elephants.” LitCharts. LitCharts LLC, 9 May 2016. Web. 7 Nov 2018.

Writing Process Summation

I chose this particular story because I feel as though a lot of youth my age suffers from these life choices every day and enough is not being done to help them. I was curious on how the woman would handle a situation that could change her life drastically in either direction she took. I made it a point to show that the man here felt the need to dictate this woman choice and how he attempted to manipulate the situation to work in his favor.

I revised my paper by rereading and trying to find more appropriate words, attempting to fix grammar mistakes, and making my analysis easy to follow.
I would like my reader to see that women are always put in a situations where they have to be the one making the hard decisions and men should not try and dictate how their lives play out to try and better theirs.

Sadness In Hills Like White Elephants Novel

Love is something that is very important. Everybody at some point in their lives needs to find themselves a life partner. In my eyes, to have a happy marriage life, your partner should be very supportive towards your dreams.

There are all different types of people, good ones, and bad ones. To live a happy life it is very important that one should have a loving and caring life partner. People with a happy love life tend to live longer as compared to the ones with unstable relationships. My first interpretation of the story left me with more questions than answers. Without the secondary source Making Modern Parents by Meg Gillette I would not have understood what really was going on in the story. Reading the secondary source took me beyond my thinking capacity and my limited understanding of the story. For example, the nature of the relationship the American man and the young girl shared, the operation they were talking about, and the decisions they were trying to make.

The short story Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway contained a lot of sadness in it. After reading the text by myself my first thought on the two people was that the American man and young girl (Jig) were just two strangers talking while waiting on a train station for their trains to arrive. But reading my secondary source told me that they were not just two random people passing time, but they shared something in common. They have had a history together. As the story began at the train station, the station itself was a symbol of sadness. It symbolizes the sadness and the distance in the American manr’s and Jigr’s life. Just like the train tracks can never meet, those two people can never be together.

Furthermore, when later in the text where the abortion talk comes up. My thoughts on abortion are that the word abortion itself produce unhappiness and unpleasantness. I was confused about what the two were having the conversation about. The American kept telling Jig that he loved her when he clearly did not mean it at all. I doubted if this story was about a married couple thinking about divorcing each other. Gillette states “While the story leaves the outcome of the pregnancy to the reader’s judgment, it nonetheless sets the values of the various options the reader must negotiate” (Gillette 57). These quotes from the secondary source cleared my doubt about the issue that it was not the divorce but it was actually Jigr’s pregnancy which was the main concern of the story.

The scholars believe that the story hills like white elephants devalue single parenthood. Gillette states, No abortions or single mothers welcome here (Gillette 58). This quote shows that the society back then used to demotivate the single mothers. Jig states, And you think then well be all right and be happy and youll love me? (Hemingway 55). The quote shows that Jig is so desperate for the manr’s love she wants the American to love her at any cost that she is even willing to abort her child for him. It is clear enough to the audience that the American man does not care enough for Jig. In hills like white elephants the abortion and the fight go hand in hand when he mentions abortion, she argues back and when she suggest abortion, he argues back (Gillette 58). It is weird that Jig thinks after having an abortion will settle everything down because there is no way that everything can get back to how it was.

Furthermore, Meg Gillette brings up an interesting thought when he states the quotes from the story where Jig said: I dont care about me, Well I care about you (Hemingway 55). After me interpreting these lines from the story My thoughts were that even though Jig seemed fine to forgive the American man, Jig was still a weak person inside. Because she still wanted the manr’s love even after what he did to her, she agreed on aborting her child just so that she can stay with a man that does not even deserved her in first place, but Gillette states “Hills like white elephants fantasizes the women’s motherly potential” (Gillette 58). In this quote, the author makes an argument about Jig being a strong mother instead of a weak woman. In his eyes, Jig was strong because first, she was able to make the decision of abortion which can be a very difficult decision for a mother to make. It takes a lot of guts to come to such conclusion. Another reason why Jig was strong according to the article was that in 1990r’s the time this story took place, the society was very conservative and traditional. They were not very open-minded. Also, people back then did not have the same point of views as they do these days. The women did not have as many rights as they do now. People were not okay with abortions and were not okay with women keeping their children and taking care of it just by themselves. They had to have a father or the society would not accept them (mother and child). The man was considered the provider of the family and women did not work back then and they just could not have taken care of the children even if they wanted to.

Another interesting thing that Gillette stated in the secondary source was Jigs easy drinking and sexual freedom identity her with the modern New Woman (Gillette 59). According to the secondary source Jig was considered a modern woman because of her drinking habit and sexual freedom, the scholars think that Jig had modern thinking. She was able to have sex even though she was aware that she was not allowed to. Also, that she was not even married to the American. She still had this fling with him, which not many women did back then.

In conclusion, at first, I was very confused about most of the things that were going on in the story Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway. But the non- literally article Making Modern Parents by Meg Gillette helped me understand the story beyond my thinking capacity. It made me read and think more deeply. Now I understand the kind of relationship between the American man and the young girl had and why they were having the arguments and the decisions they were trying to make. It also helped me understand the text better and helped me realize what scholars believe and improved my overall writing. Work cited Hemingway Ernest, Hills like white elephant. Literature: A Portable Anthology, 3rd Edition. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2013. Gillette Meg, Making modern parents in Ernest Hemingwayr’s Hills like white elephants and Vina Delmarr’s Bad Girl

Relationship Dynamics In Hills Like White Elephant

The Relationship Dynamics in Hills Like White Elephant

Hills Like White Elephant is one of Ernest Hemingwayr’s stories that utilizes his Iceberg theory style of writing. This story is set in Spain at a train station with a man, the American and a woman, Jig discussing an operation. The couple is at a crossroad in their lives when they must decide whether Jig must have an abortion or not in order to determine the fate of their relationship.

Hills Like White Elephant is set up as a dialogue between the two, in which the American is trying to convince Jig to abort the child, but she is hesitant in doing so. Throughout the story, Hemingway uses metaphors to express the characters feelings and decisions as well as highlighting the differences in the way a man and a woman view an abortion. As readers dig beneath the surface to understand what the couple is trying to decide on, the Iceberg theory method allows them to analyze what the relationship dynamics are between the American and Jig.

Thus, resulting in two general conclusions which are Jig will either have the abortion in other to keep the relationship with the American or she will keep the child and find solace. Scholars such as Howard Hannum and Susanty Susanty argue from the point of view that based on the dynamics of the relationship between Jig and the American, Jigr’s decision is to keep the unborn child. However, Nilofer Hashmi argues in his article, ?Hills Like White Elephants: The Jilting of Jig, that based on the Americanr’s strong personality and conceit it would be difficult to infer that he gave into Jigr’s wish to keep the child. Considering textual evidence and the use of dialogue in the story, the overwhelming feeling that Jig experiences in the relationship is portrayed throughout her sarcastic comments in reply to the American. Therefore, the dynamic of the relationship suggests that Jig will terminate the relationship and keep the unborn child in order to find solace.

At the beginning of the story as the couple waits at the train station, the story directs the focus towards the dynamic of the relationship. The following quote highlights the difference in views they both have towards the abortion:

On this side there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two lines of rails in the sun. Close against the side of the station there was the warm shadow of the building and a curtain, made of strings of bamboo beads, hung across the open door into the bar, to keep out flies. (181)

In the above quote, the station is symbolic of the unborn child, the side between the rails that has no shade and no trees represents the Americanr’s view on abortion, while the side closest to the station with the warm shadow of the building represents Jigr’s view on the abortion. The setting Hemingway uses at the train station supports the point of view that the relationship between the American man and the girl is at a crossroad. The location of the station, which is symbolic to the unborn is planted in the center of a barren hill. This positioning of the station shows that the unborn is an obstacle in their relationship and that they must decide on what the outcome is going to be. However, the station isnt the final stop but more so a checkpoint between Barcelona and Madrid where the two must come up with a solution to their problem. The position of the side closest to the station is fertile and creates an imagery of the warmth of a motherr’s love as well as her duty to protect her child. Whereas, the side that represents the Americanr’s view is infertile and shows no means of protection (shade). This use of imagery and symbolism supports the claim that Jig is drawn closer to keeping the child and this is traced all the way to the end of the story.

The foundation of their relationship is based on sexual pleasures and alcohol which proves that the dynamics of the relationship is not guided by ?true love but by sexual feelings. In Hannumr’s article, ?Jig Jig to Dirty Ears: White Elephants to Let., he argues that the American does not value the relationship both him and Jig has; as he would not force her to have the abortion. The American says, Itr’s really an awfully simple operation, Jig. Itr’s not really an operation at all. He continues by saying thatr’s the only thing that bother us. Itr’s the only thing thatr’s made us unhappy. Hannum states, at any rate, “Jig” expresses all too well what the girl had meant to the American: when she revealed her pregnancy to him, she instantly became a “white elephant” (a once-prized possession that had lost its former value) in his eyes, but the term recurs and acquires symbolic complexity as the story develops (Hannum 46).

Similarly, Jig is also displeased with the Americanr’s narrow mindedness and expresses this in the following exchange as she looks at the hills in the distance. “They look like white elephants,” she said. The American responds “Ive never seen one” after which he drinks more beer. Jig then responds, “no, you wouldn’t have” (182). At this instance the American gets defensive, but Jig ignores him which shows her transition leading up to her decision to keep the unborn and disregard the Americanr’s views. The previous exchange is important in proving that from the very beginning of the story Jig is not moved by what he says or does and thus she will keep the child. Jig is not surprised that he has never seen a white elephant; something that is unwanted especially if it becomes expensive to care for. The Americanr’s response justifies that he never deals with things that he does not want.

Therefore, he closes his mind to anything he is not interested in. Jig recognizes this then switches the subject of the conversation when she looks at the bead curtain and ask him what the painting says (182). The pleasure aspect of the relationship is depicted when Jig mentions and questions the substance of the relationship, I wanted to try this new drink. Thatr’s all we do, isnt it look at things and try new drinks? The American responds I guess so (183). The Americanr’s response proves that he has no value for the relationship because he did not provide an assurance that he truly loves her and understands how much keeping the baby would mean to her. Also, the fact that he described the abortion process as a awfully simple operation suggests that he has not looked beyond the operation itself and exaggerates it to be an easy procedure. However, if the term is viewed by its literal meaning it means that an abortion is dreadful, but the procedure can be simple. In this case, he did not take into consideration the after effects the abortion would have on Jig if she follows through.

In Hills Like White Elephant the American did not base his views on the greater good for him and Jig but on his egotistic view. In Susantyr’s article, The Meaning of Relationship in Hemingwayr’s ?Hills Like White Elephant., it indicates that the story was written during a period of patriarchal dominance and that the men are said to be egocentric. Susanty also suggests that the men had no understanding of a meaningful relationship and that relationships should not be based on one personr’s insensitive view but to rather compromise for the greater good for both. Similarly, in Hills Like White Elephant the American did not whole heartedly take Jigr’s view on the abortion seriously. His way of manipulating her through a form of guilt tripping is depicted throughout the following dialogue:
If you dont want to you dont have to. I wouldnt have you do it if you didnt want to. But I know itr’s perfectly simple.
And you really want to?
I think itr’s the best thing to do. But I dont want you to do it if you dont really want to. And if I do it youll be happy and thing will be like they were and youll love me?
I love you now. You know I love you.
I know. But if I do it, then it will be nice again if I say things are like white elephants, and youll like it? (183)

The American was more worried about her keeping the child and not her concerns on the after effects she would experience if she does the abortion. The constant back and forth in the dialogue between the two is used as a tactic in guilt tripping Jig to make it seem as if she was overreacting.

It is important to reiterate that the American, in fact, was not ready to have a child. Due to the one-sided dominance, the relationship is broken between the two. Jig asked, Doesnt it mean anything to you? We could get along. The American says to her, of course it does, but I dont want anybody but you, I dont want anyone else and I know itr’s perfectly simple (185). Once again, the American trying to persuade Jig on how easy the operation is and that his expectations on the outcome of the relationship was not to have a child but just to have her. She tries to shut him up by asking “would you please please please please please please stop talking”? Also, she mentions I’ll scream” (185).

Both her disgusted attitude towards the American as previously suggested and her efforts to keep him from talking at this point in the story suggest that she is ready to move beyond the checkpoint and make her own decisions. Jigr’s choice to keep the child is clearly depicted by the following excerpt, the girl smiled brightly at the woman, to thank her. Also, Jig smiles when the American says to her, Id better take the bags over to the other side of the station (185). The fact that the American took the bags to the ?other side and Jig smiled simply proves that the side they are going to is the one that she is happy with.

Coming back, he walked through the barroom, where people waiting for the train were drinking. He drank an Anis at the bar and looked at the people. They were all waiting reasonably for the train. He went out through the bead curtain. She was sitting at the table and smiled at him. (185)

Throughout the story, this is the first time Jig smiles and seem happy. She was not content when he was trying his best to persuade her into getting an abortion. Therefore, it evident that her happiness at this point in the story is the result of being left alone for a few minutes so that she could decide what she wants to do without being interrupted.

Lastly, Jig used the dialogue throughout the story as an opportunity to insert irony in the form of sarcasm, in order to find out the Americanr’s true feelings towards her. Her findings on his egotistic views and inconsideration on the abortion helps her to make her decision. The story ends with the following, I feel fine, she said. Therer’s nothing wrong with me. I feel fine (186). Jigr’s quote justifies that she has made up her mind to keep the child. She also disregards the Americanr’s view of her as a ?white elephant if she follows through with keeping the child. Thus, Jig keeps the child as a form of solace for the broken relationship she experienced with the American.

Battles Of Couple In Hills like White Elephants

“Hills like White Elephants” by Ernest Hemingway is a short story which portrays the battles of a couple and presents an obstruction for them that could change their lives until the end of time. Their lack of interest cause a hindrance between them which sadly never prompts an answer for the circumstance. Ernest Hemingway presets this story at once where choices like abortions were illicit and frequently risky.

Hemingway promptly underlines the severe idea of the setting, and the couple escapes into the main shade accessible for impermanent alleviation through liquor. Close against the side of the station there was the warm shadow of the building and a curtain, made of strings of bamboo beads, hung across the open door into the bar, to keep out flies. The American and the girl with him sat at a table in the shade, outside the building (634). Fundamentally, their discussion starts with an exchange of what to drink, proposing how focal liquor has progressed toward becoming to their evasion of genuine correspondence. ?Dos cervezas, the man said into the curtain. Big ones? a woman asked from the doorway. Yes. Two big ones.(634).

The way that the man communicates in Spanish and must make an interpretation of the server’s words to the young lady additionally features the uneven power dynamic in the couple’s relationship and is likewise another way Hemingway accentuates the cutoff points of dialect, a noteworthy subject of the story.

The connection between the man and the young lady is portrayed by quietness, casual banter, and upheavals of bothering, alongside a great many drinks. ?They look like white elephants, she said. Ive never seen one, the man drank his beer. No, you wouldnt have. (635). This strain proposes that the two are frantically attempting to abstain from discussing the anonymous “white elephant” between them. The numerous depictions of the scene as both fruitless and prolific as of now allude to the possibility of pregnancy, and the accentuation on the brutality of the daylight recommends a glaring truth the couple is endeavoring to maintain a strategic distance from by remaining in the “shade”” and by not conveying. Hemingway is normally scanty with his dialect and doesn’t give away any genuine plot focuses in this story, so it’s vital to inspect his depictions of the setting, as these are from numerous points of view more uncovering than the real discourse between the characters.

Moving on further in the story, the bickers begin to rise, and the audience reveal the serious struggle of the lack of communication between the couple. ?Yes, said the girl. Everything tastes of licorice. Especially all the things youve waited so long for, like absinthe. Oh, cut it out. (636). The man and the woman can’t approach any issue, anyway little, without their indignation spilling out, yet they keep on endeavoring to keep up an appearance of commonality, recreation, and “opportunity.” However, the girl is wary of this execution of joy, indicating at the difficult issues in their relationship they decline to straightforwardly talk about. As the conversation continues through the small talk we begin to unravel the main predicament of the two individuals. The man mentions a rather simple operation. But is it that simple? ?Itr’s really an awfully simple operation, Jig, the man said. Itr’s not really an operation at all. (636).

The woman says nothing at all as she sits there quietly. After a sudden moment, the woman finally speaks up and begins to question life after this whole operation. ?Then what will we do afterward? Well be fine afterward. Just like we were before. (636). The man’s request that the abortion is the least difficult and most sensible activity is at direct chances with the womanr’s emotions about her pregnancy. While the man sees an abortion as an opportunity to come back to their previous accommodating, joy looking for relationship, the girl shows that she has indifferent feelings about the situation itself. In any case, the man is persistent in his enticing endeavors to pressure her into getting the task”and to make her vibe that it’s what she needs. His control of her is more unpretentious yet in addition more vile than straightforward harassing”he doesn’t simply need her to do what he needs, he needs her to need what he needs.

Closing the short story, Hemingway portrays to the audience that at this point there is no possible way to make ends meet and therefore, he reverts the couple back to their old ways in which they left everything in the dark. ?Would you do something for me now? Id do anything for you. Would you please please please please please please please stop talking? (638). Hemingway closes his brief yet ground-breaking story on this strained and equivocal note”the couple is getting ready to board a train; however they appear to have achieved nothing by this discussion, and their looming adventure will lead them no place new. They keep on maintaining a strategic distance from the unforgiving “light” of their genuine sentiments and hole up behind the “shade” of comforts and twofold talk, suffocating their feelings in liquor and thoughtless travel. It’s proposed that the couple’s relationship won’t last any longer, despite the fact that they keep on keeping up the affectation that all is well.”