Blood Meridian and the Depiction of Violence

Cormac McCarthy’s Blood Meridian is seen by critics as a uniquely violent and powerful work of modern literature, and McCarthy achieves such an arresting mood through the sheer depravity of the deeds described, in conjunction with the contrast conveyed by momentary acts of humility. McCarthy makes even more vivid and degenerate the actions of the group through Judge Holden by expressing the violent thoughts and justifications for their violence from the eyes of an horrific and twisted killer. Less fearsome scenes do sometimes emerge, but are meant to be understood in contrast with the barbarity of McCarthy’s episodes and characterizations.

The violence portrayed in Blood Meridian is of such barbarism and atrocity that it leaves the reader aghast by the deeds perpetrated. The reader is immersed within this world of terror and violence in the first pages of the book, as the kid finds himself thrown into several conflicts and affrays as he sets off from his homeland – his first being in a religious assembly as the Judge enters and accuses the preacher of being a criminal, thus erupting the place into gun shots, ‘already gunfire was general within the tent … women screaming … folk trampled underfoot in the mud,’ and again as the kid flees from the meeting to a saloon, with violence there ensuing between him and a drunken man, ‘the man lunged after him with the jagged bottleneck and tried to stick it in his eye … the [kid’s] hands were slick with blood,’ thus setting a mood of violence which governs the kid’s journey onwards.

As the kid journeys through the barren and savage country of Southern United States, he is enlisted to join the army of Captain White. He is consequently captured and recruited to a band of American ex-soldiers whom the local authorities charge with the order of killing and scalping Indians who roam the American desert, thus commencing the savage and barbaric journey which witnesses atrocities unseen before. The tale recounts the mindless violence of the group as they kill any who stand in their way. This violence is made so striking through the sheer brutality of it, manifested in ‘They found the lost scouts hanging head downward from the limbs of a fireblacked paloverde tree. They were skewered through the cords of their heels … where they’d been roasted until their … brains bubbled in the skulls and steam sang from their noseholes.’ The conjured image is made so striking and disturbing to the reader through McCarthy’s vivid and unadulterated description of the bodies to such horrific detail rarely found in the pages of a novel. Furthermore, McCarthy’s portrayal is made all the more striking by the matter-of-fact manner of the description, manifested in the simple ‘They found the lost scouts’ and offers no sense of emotion or shock, paradoxically making the description, through its plainness, all the more shocking and disturbing. The purity and lack of emotive language of the description seems incomplete and unnatural to the reader, yet portrays the innate disposition within all the men in the group for killing and violence as the reader sees that this event does not faze or disturb them, thus truly exposing the barbarity of these men. The vividness and metaphor deployed by McCarthy so too makes the depravity of the violence perpetrated in Blood Meridian even more striking to the reader, manifested in the White Jackson’s slaughter of the black, ‘with a single stroke swapt off his head. Two thick ropes of dark blood … rose like snakes,’ which through the vivid and strong metaphor of the blood accentuates the image of barbarism to the reader, making even more vivid the violence portrayed.

In this way, McCarthy depicts a sense of the men’s immunity to violence and depravity, yet through the Judge, he portrays a leitmotif of the moral and physical victory of killing in conflict, thus making the violence perpetrated even more chilling, as a sense of justification for the depicted depravity is suggested. The Judge is portrayed to be far more perceptive and creatively capable than the remainder of the group, and he is respected and seen by them as a teacher. Judge Holden is compared by many critics to Satan in Milton’s Paradise Lost on account of the unmitigated depravity of his thoughts and actions. These themes are manifested in his justification of violence – ‘war is the ultimate game because war is at last a forcing of the unity of existence. War is God,’ in which the Judge explains his beliefs that war is indeed innate in man, and war divides the strong and the weak. He goes on to say that ‘if war is not holy, man is nothing but antic clay,’ thus proposing that killing is a holy act, and that war and death, rather than God, looks and rules over everything. McCarthy utilizes the Judge as a symbol of evil who poisons the blank minds of the group by telling them that killing is a holy and righteous act, thus encouraging them to commit ever more depraved acts as the novel wears on. The final words spoken of the Judge as he dances naked on the stage are ‘he says that he will never die,’ which offers a twisted, psychological idea that through his violence perpetrated in the novel, he becomes immortal and holy under the God which is War. These Satanic thoughts of the Judge portray to the reader the needless and endless violence which ensues throughout the novel to be religious fulfilment and victory in life, making more depraved to the reader the atrocities which ensue.

Despite these constant acts of perversion throughout the novel, McCarthy offers occasional moments of morality and normality which he uses as scenic juxtapositions to these horrific acts. Such a moment is exemplified in the Judge aiding the idiot in the river when he could have left him to drown, ‘he gathered the naked and sobbing fool into his arms and carried it up into the camp and restored it among its fellows.’ McCarthy uses the idiot to illustrate the capability of the group to be morally capable of supporting another human, and considering it being more of a hindrance than an aid to the group, this moment is utilised as a moral compass, giving the reader relief from the violence in the form of a normal act of good will and kindness. The kid and Judge Holden are the only ones in the group depicted to have a great enough moral capacity to see what is right and what is wrong, though the latter chooses to disregard this for a life of violence. The kid on the other hand, despite his obvious bloodthirsty tendencies, offers to the reader a sense of humility, as exemplified when he defies Glanton’s orders to kill a wounded straggler in the group, because he cannot bring himself to kill a companion, “why do you just get on with it?’ The kid looked at him, ‘If I had a gun I’d shoot you,’ Shelby said. The kid didn’t answer,’ and through the scenic juxtaposition and contrast of this deed of morality and the consequential onslaught, the reader is able to gain a perspective of normality and humility, making the acts the gang carry out seem all the more violent and depraved.

McCarthy achieves such a striking effect on the reader through the vivid descriptions of the deeds which the group commit, furthered by occasional glimpses of humility which provide an arresting contrast to the despicable violence depicted. Through the Judge, McCarthy creates a figure of such corruption and moral degeneracy that he represents the ever-growing violence committed by the group as he poisons their minds with the idea that ‘War is God’. Harold Bloom’s description of the Judge as ‘violence incarnate’ epitomises the idea that McCarthy uses the Judge to express the satanic evil of the group as the violence gradually becomes the centrepiece of the novel, conveying the group’s changing intentions as their violence becomes the obsession and pinnacle of their lives throughout the novel, thus making even more striking and horrific the deeds portrayed, as they make physical the horrific and abhorrent thoughts and outlooks of the Judge.

Existentialism in Blood Meridian

Cormac McCarthy’s Blood Meridian is such a symbolically and philosophically dense novel that anything short of volumes dedicated solely towards its analysis would not do McCarthy’s work justice. However, it may still prove beneficial to hone in on a certain fragment of the text and see what may be gleaned from it through literary analysis. Though this novel covers a vast amount of different topics and philosophies, one that stands out particularly is existentialism. Nowhere is human finitude more glaringly obvious than in Blood Meridian. So, moving forward, there must be yet more specificity, as it is conceivable an entire book still could be dedicated solely to existential philosophy in Blood Meridian. For this essay’s purpose, which is dwarfed compared to how deep and rich certain ideas may be mined out of the novel, the reader may look to specifically the end passage of the story as well as the relationship between the Judge and the kid as symbols of existential philosophy.

It may be beneficial first to get a sense of existentialism in which can later be applied to the novel. An umbrella statement is shown in William Barrett’s thorough examination of existentialism in his book Irrational Man. He writes:

Science stripped nature of its human forms and presented man with a universe that was neutral, alien, in its vastness and force, to his human purposes. Religion, before this phase set in, had been a structure that encompassed man’s life, providing him with a system of images and symbols by which he could express his own aspirations towards psychic wholeness. With the loss of this containing framework man became not only a dispossessed but a fragmentary being…Moreover, man’s feeling of homelessness, of alienation…has come to [have him] feel himself an outsider…to God, to nature, and to the gigantic social apparatus…[even] from his own self. (Barrett 35, 36)

Existentialism, as shown by Barrett, is essentially the idea that man, through science (which is a point that will be brought up later) has come to realize that human life, in all its senses, is finite; in that, man is “homeless” as Barrett accurately puts it. It is to realize that there will be an end and nothing else after that end.

This mode of thought is highly relevant to Blood Meridian. This is a novel that not only deals with death at astonishing volumes, but it deals with it in ways that are absolutely gruesome. It is a novel, in fact, partly known for its grotesqueness and pure violence alone. The Glanton Gang, its core members as well as the ones that weave in and out throughout the story, are intimate with death: “friends” (or at least acquaintances) are killed at incredible volumes and by various tribes as well as amongst one another, members of the Glanton Gang were issuers of death themselves (whether it be by scalping, by gun, by throat-slitting, etc.), and all had come face-to-face with death in the most intimate sense. Dana Philips writes: “Blood Meridian, in contrast to most novels and most popular Westerns, accepts homelessness as its inevitable condition. It does not express an aspiration for domesticity and repose–for a home on the range” (452). If anyone was to become familiar with existential ideas it was them; perhaps this novel even acts as a sort of commentary on existential philosophy: look how atrocious people can behave without a God of some sort. Babies are hung on bushes, brains are boiled, children are scalped, puppies are shot; the list could extend for many pages. The world portrayed in Blood Meridian is anarchic, pure chaos. It is a Godless place. Or certainly there is at least strong argument for it. One of the introductory passages has a priest getting shot on account of things that were likely not true, churches are desecrated and abandoned, anyone that seems to make notions towards a God is ridiculed; Tobin, one of the instrumental members of the Glanton Gang, is an ex-priest. There is an immense amount of religious artifacts and symbols, however they are nearly always portrayed in a bad or damning light. The kid himself seems to act as a symbol to McCarthy. He seems to be one of the only members of the Glanton Gang that can even be considered to be semi-redeemable morally. Pair that with the fact that towards the end of the book, with the kid now the man, the reader sees him having an almost instinctual desire to make amends with God: “He had a bible that he’d found at the mining camps and he carried this book with him no word of which he could read.” (McCarthy 325). In this, through an existential lense, the reader may interpret McCarthy’s having the man reach towards God as a comment on what a world could look like without religion. The kid throughout the novel seems to be the only one harboring any form of sympathy, as callous as it may appear at times. In his desire to become acquainted with religion, the reader may make the connection that an association with God is the only way to have some form of morality at all. Without it, the reader sees what horrific tragedies occur.

In the moments just leading up to the Judge and the man’s final conversation, the reader may look to a scene that emphasizes certain points through the random death of a dancing bear at the bar in which the Judge and the man were currently at:

One of the men had drawn a longbarreled cavalry pistol from his belt. He turned and leveled the pistol toward the stage…The shot was thunderous and in the afterclap all sound in that room ceased. The bear had been shot through the midsection. He let out a low moan and he began to dance faster, dancing in silence save for the slap of his great footpads on the planks. Blood was running down his groin…The man with the pistol fired again and the pistol bucked and roared and the black smoke rolled and the bear groaned and began to reel drunkenly. (McCarthy 339)

Though the Judge and the man have not even begun to talk to one another yet, the reader still sees signs of existentialism. The seeming randomness of the shooter’s act alone acts somewhat metaphorically in that death is oftentimes rash, random, and unprecedented. Elmo Kennedy has an appropriate maxim: “Death is so easy and life is so random.” These points highlight existentialism in that they not only emphasize human finitude, but rather they go further than that and acknowledge this finitude. Moving forward in the passage, the reader sees that after the bear is shot, he dances faster. This perhaps is McCarthy’s commenting on the human spirit. As the bear is shot and more or less realizes its impending death, it not only resumes its activity as before, but it does so with even more gusto. On that same token, just as man emerges into enlightenment about there being no afterlife (and thus an eventual total and genuine death in its most real sense), man resumes its activity as before as well. Man does not just cease to exist or cease to pursue passion; rather it does so in new and different ways, open now to new possibility. And to continue on this tangent, man may even seek to do what he wants with more urgency just as the bear dances more enthusiastically upon getting shot; man’s knowing that death is random and imminent prompts him to pursue what he will now with a sense of a deadline.

One might look to the Judge and the kid as a pair; through an existential lense, the Judge represents science and reason whereas the kid represents a remnant of faith towards anything that could be considered a religion. The Judge is this mega-intelligent, mega-philosophical entity. He is this seven foot man who can persuade even the most difficult individuals into doing things one could never imagine them doing, a master of rhetoric. He also speaks several languages (and likely knows more; the reader is only introduced to the ones that the Judge himself is confronted with. His knowledge likely extends far past this.) and seems to have an extensive grasp on all things scientific. He is always lecturing, sketching models in his book, and imposing his philosophies onto the group. In fact, his knowledge in all things scientific saves the Glanton Gang several times over; however, there is one event that stands out as particularly unlikely and particularly demonic. The Judge has mixed together a variety of miscellaneous materials and out of the essential nothingness around them finds a way to create gunpowder. The final touches to his concoction are shown somewhat horrifically as such:

We hauled forth our members and at it we went and the judge on his knees kneadin the mass with his naked arms and the piss was splashin about and he was cryin out to us to piss, man, piss for your very souls for cant you see the redskins yonder, and laughin the while and workin up this great mass in a foul black dough, a devil’s batter by the stink of it and him not a bloody dark pastryman himself I dont suppose and he pulls out his knife and he commences to trowel it across the southfacin rocks, spreadin it out thin with the knifeblade and watchin the sun with one eye and him smeared with blacking and reekin of piss and sulphur and grinnin and wieldin the knife with a dexterity that was wondrous like he did it every day of his life. (McCarthy 138)

It is ritualistic and occult-like, but ultimately it is science and it is what saves them. Assuming the Judge as a symbol of newfound knowledge and reason, the reader sees a helpful figure but he also sees that same figure carry a capacity for so much potential to be evil.

On this comparison, the kid then would be that ever-present yearning for the spiritual or religious. If anyone is to not believe in the mercy of a God, it is the kid: abused in some form as a child and then going on to endure a life of what is likely the closest thing to a Hell, the kid still at the end of the novel longs for God in some form or another, as he is carrying a bible he cannot even read. It is the instinctual extension of ourselves to the submission of some greater power. And the kid, being one of the very, very few figures in the story with a desire for religion, is also portrayed as one of the most moral and likely one the reader feels the most affinity towards. There is also the expriest Tobin who throughout the novel seems to hold on to some form of faith and belief in God. He too is portrayed in a “flattering” light, or at least a more sympathetic one. Looking at the novel with existentialism in mind, McCarthy seems to be saying that a Godless place (which the setting of Blood Meridian very much is) has the potential to become so evil. It is a sort of protest towards the complete abandonment of God.

There may be a message to be discerned from the final encounter between the Judge and what is now the man. The reader sees, after their conversation on war which deserves a book of analysis in itself, the man go to the bathroom. Upon opening the door, the man sees the Judge waiting omnipotently for him: “The judge was seated upon the closet. He was naked and he rose up smiling and gathered him in his arms against his immense and terrible flesh and shot the wooden barlatch home behind him.” (McCarthy 347). What the reader sees here is the ultimate downfall of the man, and thus, in looking at the story as an existential one, the ultimate downfall of an affinity for religion. The Judge, always naked, has a desire to overpower what he thinks is defying him. In that sense, reason and knowledge seeks to overpower, directly or indirectly, the belief in religion. The two inherently cannot exist harmoniously. The Judge is suspected by some to sodomize the kid (as the phallus is oftentimes considered a symbol of power and even domination) and looking at this metaphorically, the reader may interpret it as the eventual complete erasure of religion and/or the strive for religion. It does so with malice too, as later we see one man advising another to not even look at what became of the man. It is reason completely dominating the idea of religion with the former being the only one left standing.

The lens of existential philosophy works wonderfully to lend new focus to Blood Meridian. McCarthy was raised a Catholic, but knowing he is just as much a physicist as he is a novelist, his personal religious views may be considered mysterious at best. Contemporary Authors Online writes in McCarthy’s biography: “He is a novelist of religious feeling who appears to subscribe to no creed but who cannot stop wondering in the most passionate and honest way what gives life meaning.” Regardless of his own personal religious views, there is undoubtedly much existential philosophy to be found throughout Blood Meridian, and it is a novel that is much deserving of more thorough investigation and analysis.

Works Cited

Barrett, William. Irrational man: a Study in Existential Philosophy. New York: Anchor , 1990. Print.

“Cormac McCarthy.” Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2014. Literature Resource Center, login.ezp.mesacc.edu/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=LitRC&sw=w&u=mcc_mesa&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CH1000113401&it=r&asid=3a6d0780fc238aad9ee56b0a50a6223d. Accessed 17 Apr. 2017.

McCarthy, Cormac. Blood Meridian. New York: Vintage International, 2010. Print.

Phillips, Dana. “History and the Ugly Facts of Cormac McCarthy’s Blood Meridian” American Literature 68.2 (1996): 433-60. Print.

Blood Meridian and the Western Ideal of Nature

In American culture, the West is represented as a sprawling wilderness to be dominated by mankind. The idea of the frontier began with the Puritans in the 1600s as a dwelling of evil, a godless land that needed to be claimed by a higher power, but later grew to become a place of rebirth and freedom. This image eventually drove the country’s westward expansion, with the primary motivation being religious. Supporters of Western movement argued that it was mankind’s destiny to conquer the West – viewed as a promised land – and its unknown territories. Doug Williams’ “Pilgrims and the Promised Land: A Genealogy of the Western” argues that the core of the Western genre was born from this belief. The typical Western, whose themes can be traced back to Puritan tenets and expansionist ideals, features protagonists who defeat villains that represent the evil in nature. This hero freely roams the frontier and is a guardian for those terrorized by its villains. In typical Western media, the defeat of the villain is synonymous with the landscape becoming tamed and civilized. The protagonist, with their skills and virtues seemingly handed to them from God, is fated to conquer nature and whatever else refuses to bend to their righteous will. The protagonist’s inevitable victory is representative of the country’s beliefs on expansion, the idea that as a superior society America will only naturally colonize the west.

The Western novel Blood Meridian by Cormac McCarthy challenges this theme by presenting nature as indomitable. Rather than simply using the land as setting, McCarthy describes it in intense detail to dwarf the characters and their conflicts. The landscape seemingly has a will of its own, making even the most powerful characters appear miniscule in comparison. The book also questions the core religious undertones of most Westerns. There are no Puritan ideals driving the main characters onward; those who pursue a religious path, such as the novel’s priests, are deemed unfit to survive on the frontier. The religious connotations of this “promised land” have been stripped and the characters attempt to conquer it as its new god. However, the characters’ attempts at domination are ultimately thwarted by the forces of nature. Although they are expected to “win” like classical Western heroes, their failure demonstrates the point that no one is simply fated to claim the earth. Through the powerful representation of the landscape and the negative depiction of religion, Blood Meridian acts as a revisionist novel by defying two of the Western’s core values.

While in classic Westerns landscape is a mere prop over which the characters rule, Blood Meridian’s is an overwhelming presence. As people push westward in the novel, nature becomes more violent. In one scene the main group sees a dustspout that sent “pilgrims borne aloft like dervishes in those mindless coils to be dropped broken and bleeding […] like some drunken djinn” (McCarthy 117). Nature is compared to a djinn, a powerful mythical being, which makes the landscape appear as a god that retaliates against the men who attempt to conquer it. McCarthy gives the landscape the position of higher power in order to demonstrate mankind’s helplessness in its wake. To further emphasize the sense of desolation in the face of nature, McCarthy writes that “the pilgrim lying in his broken bones may cry out […] but rage at what?” (McCarthy 117). The dying man is powerless against the forces of nature, in fact, he cannot even “cry out” against it. He is left voiceless, unable to complete even the most basic form of protest against the overwhelming presence. The pilgrim may “rage”, but it is all but pointless when the landscape has dominated so completely over him. McCarthy’s nature is not the Western “promised land” described in Williams’ essay but is “a place where the devil rules” (Williams 101). Although the essay argues that the West is a place of opportunity, Blood Meridian defies this by depicting it as a dangerous land that dashes all hopes of domination.

Even the novel’s powerful characters, such as the godlike Judge Holden, do not completely succeed in conquering the landscape. Besides killing the “villains” of the novel, the natives who represent the wilderness, the Judge attempts domination by acquiring knowledge of the entire natural world. He is the closest character in the novel to mastery over both man and nature, but ultimately does not succeed in taking over the latter. Due to the Judge’s unique position as a sort of demi-god, a being above man but inferior to nature, McCarthy uses him as a tool to counter the core beliefs that drive the Western. In his domination over humankind, the Judge demonstrates that religion has no place on the frontier and that only man has the ability to become masters of the earth. However, in his failure to reign over nature, he simultaneously shows that no matter how powerful people become they will always remain at the mercy of the natural world.

McCarthy uses the Judge to ridicule religious characters and their beliefs, challenging the idea that nature is meant to be dominated for righteous reasons. The idea that God blessed mankind to conquer the West is a common theme in the Western. Ideal Western heroes are “personifications of civilization on the frontier” (Williams 107), people on a noble quest to tame the frontier by introducing Puritan beliefs and societal rules. However, The Judge believes that mankind alone must become god over the earth and that this religious aspect is unnecessary. As a god among men, the Judge does not think there is a higher religious power because he himself has nearly attained it. As a result, he uses his power and influence over others to ridicule religious characters who defy his beliefs. For example, in the beginning of the novel, the Judge accuses a pastor of various crimes, causing a group of citizens to kill the preacher. Afterwards, the Judge admits that his accusations were lies, revealing that he dispatches anyone who believes that a power higher than man exists. The Judge’s actions represent the novel’s assertion that religious ideals have no place on the frontier, that the mission from God to push westward does not exist.

While McCarthy uses the Judge to defy the religious ideals driving expansion into the West, he also uses the character to imply that man can only do so to a certain extent. Towards the end, the Judge is found wandering through the desert. He carries “a parasol made from rotted scraps of hide”, wearing “little more than confetti” like “some degenerate entrepreneur fleeing from a medicine show” (McCarthy 310). The Judge, known throughout the novel as a god among men, is reduced to nothing but a “degenerate entrepreneur” in the desert. His description is that of a barbarian, from his parasol made from rotting meat to his tattered clothing. He is like a con man “fleeing from a medicine show” after tricking its audience, similar to the way the Judge has cast a spell of deception over the other characters. He has made the other members of the group believe that he is both immortal and unstoppable, yet in the face of nature he is revealed to be nothing more than a man barely surviving under harsh conditions. This characterization can be likened to that of a false dandy, a character who “tries to look and act like the true dandy” and “abuses his presumed possession of mastery” (Williams 105). Unlike the “true dandy” who acts as a “medium through which divine forces express themselves” (Williams 106), the false dandy attempts to appear more masterful than he actually is. The Judge tries to become ruler of the natural world and deceives others to believe he is, yet it is the very “divine force” that he tries to conquer that reveals his false dandyism. Williams’ essay describes the Western man, the true dandy, as in balance with nature, but the Judge has instead been subjected to its torment. Despite being intellectually and physically superior to his colleagues, in the face of the wilderness the Judge is no better than they are.

While it is true that at the end of the novel the Judge remains as the sole survivor of the group, demonstrating superiority over the other characters, this is only because he was able to retreat back to civilization. In the desert he is ravaged by the forces of nature, but when he reappears in a town where the Kid is arrested he is “dressed in a suit of gray linen” with “new polished boots” (McCarthy 317). While previously he wore scraps of fabric and flesh, he now appears respectable. In the presence of civilization the Judge is masterful once again, convincing the local law enforcement to arrest the Kid using his words alone. In society he reassumes his godlike authority over people, but when left to fend for himself without others to capitalize upon he is no more than a “degenerate”. This further demonstrates how McCarthy uses the Judge to both ridicule the religious ideals driving Western expansion and to show that even the best of men cannot conquer the frontier.

In the Western, religious ideals and the forces of nature are closely connected. Heroes who tame the wilderness are the ultimate images of righteousness. They are the moral guideposts for everyone else, pushing Westward with Christian beliefs. Blood Meridian acts as a revisionist Western by ridiculing those who involve religion with Westward expansion. The characters banish typical Christian ideals, but are ultimately still dwarfed by the very landscape they attempt to rule. Their actions demonstrate to the reader that the Western man’s attempts at dominating the land are pointless in the face of the harsh wilderness. This implies that the real frontier was nothing like the idyllic west presented by most media. The revisionist Western takes this idea and uses it to provide a new take on American history. While the country’s tradition of violence and domination is best demonstrated in the period of Western expansion, it is more often than not hidden behind myths of noble cowboys and romanticized landscapes. Revisionist Westerns aim to dispel these traditional myths to shine a light on America’s less glamorous history. Although some may argue that revisionist novels such as Blood Meridian are so overly graphic or exaggerated that they detract from the main message, it is important to consider that the use of such imagery is an effective method of forcing readers to face a new point of view on an old topic. In the case of the Western, a genre whose myths are deeply ingrained into American society, jarring descriptions of both man and nature help push readers away from the ideas they often grew up with. The purpose is not to vilify the nation, but rather to demonstrate that American history is not as simple and idyllic as most people are taught.